Hermann Hoernes.

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long hence it will seem a condition of barbarism that horses
should have been misused as they are in the omnibus and the
night cab of to-day, and that they should have been allowed to
deposit thousands of tons of offensive manure in the streets of
the metropolis every day, causing an unfailing supply of septic
dust to be breathed by millions of people.

"Meanwhile, a certain amount of public discomfort and danger
is unavoidable; it is one of the conditions of progress. To at-
tempt to hinder this progress because of this temporary discom-
fort and danger would be— to quote a proverb of the people to
whom we look with so much admiration just now, the Japanese
—to 'mend the horn and kill the ox.'

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April ^6. 1^6.



THE AUTOMOBILE.



705



AN AIR-COOLED REVOLVING.MOTOR

Eight years ago the Adams Company, of Dubuque, la., started
experimenting with a revolving, air-cooled type of motor and
built one with three cylinders, which revolved around a vertical
stationary crankshaft During the years following, several others
were built on the same principle, but increasing in size. This
motor has been previously described, and mention is here made

only as introductory to
the description of the
five-cylinder motor in
the 1906 production.

Among the advantages

claimed are the efficient

^ air cooling, the saving of

I* nearly one-half of the

motor weight without
sacrificing strength, clos-
ing the valves by cen-
trifugal force, and lubri-
cation of the cylinders their entire length. Another claim is
that in the five-cylinder type, shown in the illustrations, there
is entire absence of vibration under all speeds, as a power stroke
is always in force, and there is no dead center to be overcome
by momentum, it minimizing any tendency to jerky motion and
rendering slow motor speeds possible.



CSAHKSHAFT AHD COHRECTIHG RODS.



VIBW OF MOTOR IH ITS P08ITI0R IH CAR.

The power plant of the 1906 type is placed slightly forward
of the rear axle, which enables the use of short chains, and foe
the purpose of saving weight in not using shaft drive. The motor
is well above the axle, the sprocket being placed on the side
instead of the center to give the car a greater clearance. It will
l)c noticed from the form of the motor that the cylinders, pistons.

connecting rods, valves,
etc., revolve around the
crankshaft, a reversal of
the ordinary practice.
Each cylinder is com-
plete and cast in one
piece. Five of these are
machined so as to fit to-
gether perfectly and are
bolted together and to a
KOIOR A8 SBBir FROM BSLOW. cast steel bottom flange

and bronze top flange.
Each piston is fitted with five rings and is connected
to single steel wrist pin of large size by steel connect-
ing rods, having bronze bushing in the piston. The speed
of the motor is designed to be controlled by the variable compres-



sion which compresses and explodes only the amount of charge
needed for the work. The valves are operated by cams at the cen-
ter of the motor. When maximum power is needed the suction
valves close at the end of the suction stroke, allowing the
piston to compress the full charge on its return or the compres-



BOTTOM VIBW OF TRANSMISSION GBAR.

sion stroke. When less power is required, the suction valves
are held open for a part of this compression stroke, allowing part
of the charge to return whence it came and be taken up by the next
cylinder and the balance of the charge compressed and exploded
No muffler is employed. Auxiliary exhaust ports, uncovered by
pistons, let out the high terminal pressure against baffle plates
placed to deaden the sound of the escaping gases.

The motor is automatically oiled by a positive pump located
above it. The spark is also regulated automatically by a timer
as the speed of the motor accelerates, the automatic governor
advancing the spark in proportion to the advancing speed. One
spark coil is used. The carbureter is. located just to the right
above the motor, in the casting supporting the upper end of
the crankshaft. A gasoline well is conected to the gasoline tank,
which allows a constant level for the carbureter service. The
motor is cooled by the rapid currents of air caused by centrifugal
force as the motor revolves.

The transmission is of the sliding gear type, four speeds for-
ward and reverse, and has two separate clutches, giving two
independent transmissions. The upper part of the transmission
case, a bronze casting, forms the base of the motor. No working
parts whatever extend below the axle.

The car itself is designed on popular touring car lines, with
rear seat 50 inches wide. It is finely finished and upholstered,
and sells, with five-cylinder 40-45-horsepower motor, for $3,000.



ADAMS-FARWBLL MODEL 7-A TOURING CAR.

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7o6



THE AUTOMOBILE.



April 26, 1906.



MORE TWO-CYCLE DISCUSSION.

By C. P. MALCOLM.

It is seldom that I reply to any criticism of my technical or
general writings except to explain some point that appears to
be obscure to some who are seeking information.

Less than six years ago I described in a popular mechanical
periodical what I considered to be some important improvements
in detail of two-cycle construction, and finished by saying that
the speed of greatest efficiency of a 4 by 4 engine built on these
lines was from 800 to 1,200 r. p. m., that at 1,600 r. p. m. it did not
give one-fourth more power than at 1,200, and at 400 r. p. m. it fell
considerably short of half power that it gave at 800 r. p. m.

If I had thrown a stone with great force into a wasp's nest on
a hot sunmier day I would scarcely have made things more lively
from the four-cycle cranks. I suppose I received a half bushel
of letters from all over the country, howling about the absurdity
of a two-cycle motor running at any such speed.

The trouble with. Mr. Scott [Letter No. 326, printed
April 5 on page 609] appears to be that he is wedded to the three-
port oonstructions, and anyone who dares to point out any dis-
advantage in that particular feature can be depended upon to
write everything else misleading.

In reference to the velocity of the charge through the transfer
passage, I think that I made out the same case a little clearer
than he does, if he had read it without prejudice. It is self-
evident, and I took it for granted that all knew, that with the
engine running very slow, as in turning it over by hand, as
soon as the inlet to the cylinder c^ens, the air compressed in the
crankcase enters into the cylinder, after which there will be
some movement from the piston displacement until the piston
passed the center, after which the piston displacement will suck
back from the cylinder into the crank chamber, imtil the piston
closes the inlet to the cylinder.

What I was trying to show was that at reasonably high speed
no such action takes place, as the air compressed in the crank
chamber will not have quite all passed into the cylinder, but will
still be moving into the cylinder under, perhaps, only a few
ounces pressure, but with sufficient velocity so that inertia will
check the tendency to flow back from the cylinder to fill the
vacuum in the crankcase, caused by the piston beginning its
suction stroke before the inlet to the cylinder closes. Especially
is this true if this vacuum can be filled from the carbureter, as
it can and will be if a light aluminum check valve is used to
control the inlet to the crank chamber.

It may be, as Mr. Scott leads us to infer, that this back flow
does occur in the three-port engine. I have never tested a
three-port engine to find out for a certainty, but frcmi the com-
plete absence of such back flow even at very slow speed, when
using a light check valve, gave me the impression that even with
a three-port engine there would be no back flow when the engine
was running at reasonably fast speed.

There is an action set up by the exhaust, if taken care of, that
materially assists in checking this back flow, that I did not allude
to in my paper. This, however, will be given a little place in my
next article, which will treat of the more recent improvements
in two-cycle construction and the various lines along which gas
engine designers are working to obtain a purer charge for the two-
cycle engine. After weighing the disadvantages of each, I prefer
a well-made check to a three-port

In reference to the amount of compression in the crankcase,
Mr. Scott says that, after fitting a block on the crank, the pressure
gauge showed 7 pounds at 200 r. p. m., 8 pounds at 250 r. p. m.,
and 8 1-2 pounds at 350 r. p. m., and infers that at high speed he
would get much more.

Not long since I was engaged in a series of experiments to
determine the best and most practical method of constructing
piston rings for gas engines. The pistons were fitted all for one
cylinder, and to test the efficiency of each piston we set the
combustion chamber end of the cylinder on the floor, removed
the spark plug first, to see that the piston would drop freely into
the cylinder from its own weight, then removed the piston,



replaced the spark plug and inserted the piston with the cylinder
full of air, put weight enough upon the piston to make 5 pounds
pressure to the square inch and noted the time that it would take
for each piston to go down a definite distance. We found that
we could make a piston that would stand from 5:30 o'clock at
night until 7:30 a. M. (fourteen hours) without leaking out
more than half of the air in the cylinder; yet with the spark
plug out these pistons would drop to the bottom as freely as if
there was no friction between them and the cylinders.

N0W9 there must be something radically wrong with Mr. Scotf t
engine or his deductions.

At 200 r. p. m., the time of leakage is .15 of one second; at
350 r. p. m., it is al>out .086, a difference of about .064, or, in round
numbers, less than .07 of a second Yet this small space of time
permits a leakage of air, charged with gasoline, of 2 1-2 pounds
out of a total of 8 1-2 pounds, or 5-17, which is considerably
more than one-fourth of the entire charge compressed in the
crankcase. If Mr. Scott is not wrong in his figures or his de-
ductions, it is no wonder that the two-cycle is charged with
being very wasteful of gasoline.

But this is evidently a case where ocular demonstration— the
most convincing of all proofs— proves to be a delusion. I have
no doubt but Mr. Scott read the pressure gauge correctly, and
that if he had run his engine up to 2,000 r. p. m. he might have
gotten perhaps 15 or 20 pounds pressure by the gauge, as he leads
us to infer. If he could get such compression it would be a detri-
ment to his engine, because it takes power to compress, and in
the case of crank chamber compression we get none of it back
as we do in cylinder conq>ression, and in three-port engines the
power is lost twice— once in suction, next in compression.

It is very difficult to get an indicator delicate enough to measure
the pressure with any degree of accuracy in gas engines at very
high speeds, and when you get above 1,500 r. p. nL considerable
allowance has to be made for the momentum carrying the pointer
beyond the actual pressure. In an ordinary pressure gauge the
momentum would carry the hand pointing to the index consider-
ably beycMid the actual pressure, even at 200 r. p. nL The only
way that I know of determining the pressure by an ordinary
gauge would be by turning the engine slowly, say 60 r. p. m. If
the engine is well made, it will not leak enough in half of a second
(the time of one stroke at 60 r. p. m.) to materially alter the
result, nor will the momentum of the pointer at that motion
carry it much beyond the actual pressure; probably one would
about balance the other.

Mr. Scott is groping hopelessly in the dark in regard to igni-
tion. The time of contact in order to get the hottest spark
depends upon the construction of the spark coil; coils can be
made that will attain their maximum intensity, or complete
magnetic saturation, in less than one-two hundredth part of a
second, while they can be made that will take twenty times as
long to do so. If running with a dry cell battery, contact an>
longer than complete saturation is not only wasteful of battery
power, but actually produces a less intense spark.

It is generally considered good practice not to continue con-
tact longer than half of the time necessary to attain complete
saturation ; you will then get about three-fourths of the maximum
spark intensity at half the cost of full saturation. It magnetizes
at greatest speed at first contact and retards slowly at first, but
very slow during the last quarter of the time, so it is better to
cut the time in half and put on battery sufficient to get the spark
intensity required.

Modem jump spark coils working with a vibrator are made
so that the vibrator breaks contact at the right time to get the
greatest intensity of spark with the least expenditure of current
If you use dry cells for ignition, I usually recommend the use
of one or two more cells than would be necessary for a four-
cycle. Whether you use a primary or jump spark, a dynamo or
storage cells usually furnish sufficient current to ignite either
a two- or a four-cycle engine, and as they ftimish a constant
current a primary spark does not weaken by too long a contact
as it does with dry cells, but, of course, the current is wasted in
other respects just the same.



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April i6, 1906.



THE AUTOMOBILE.



707



LATEST RAILWAY MOTOR CAR

Omaha, Neb^ April 21. — The seventh motor car built by
the Union Pacific Railroad Company under the supervision of
W. R. McKeen, Jr., superintendent of motive power and ma-
chinery, has just come out of the shops at Omaha. It has a
number of improvements over the previous motor cars, the
most important being special facilities for climbing grades.
Besides this, the car has the entrance in the center instead
cf at the rear, and the windows are round, similar to the
port holes of ships, and are air, water and dust proof. Official
trials developed excellent hill climbing ability, and a speed of
40 miles an hour was made over steep grades with ease. It
was found that the vibration and noise of the engine had been
practically eliminated, and the ventilation system worked per-
fectly. The railroad officers believe the car is the nearest to
perfection of any turned out. It is made of steel throughout

and in essentials follows the construction described in a recent
issue of The Automobile.
Experiments with the motor cars have reached a stage war-

Tanting an announcement by President £. H. Harriman, of the
Union Pacific, that large shops will be constructed for their
manufacture. It is not improbable that these shops, which

^11 be maintained apart from the railway, will be established
in Omaha. The Commercial Club now is negotiating with
President Harriman for definite assurances of this character.

'Several sites are under contemplation and railway lines have
been surveyed to at least one.

The Union Pacific is using the motor cars with good re-
sults on branch lines and for suburban traffic. They have
"been confined to passenger usage as yet, but there is no doubt
l)nt that their employment will extend to the carrying of milk,
<reani, produce and other light products of the farms and
truck gardens. Cheapness in operation, ease of service and
«peed are factors counting heavily in favor of the motor cars.
The Canadian Pacific Railway also has under construction

^t its shops at Angus, Canada, a new motor car for the Mon-
treal- Vaudreuil suburban service. The car is rapidly ap-
proaching completion and will make its trial run within the
next two weeks. This is the first experiment of its kind
across the border, and there is considerable interest in rail-
way circles attached to the coming test.

Experiments with railway motor car construction are being ex-
tensively ind'ilged in by manj of the railway systems, especially
those of the western part of the country. Within the next few
years a rapid development in this form of equipment may be ex-
pected which may amount to a practical revolution of existing
conditions in railway operation. Each phase of development cer-
tainly shows marked advance over previous models, as in the car

" above described. The eastern railways are also alive to the possi-
bilities of the motor car, but have not as yet devoted as much

-time to its perfection as the westerners.



TO THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY.

Many automobilists desire to tour to and through Virginia,
but are deterred by the impression that the route from New
York City southward is one full of difficulties. J. Frank Eddy,
a former New Yorker, supplies the following information for
The Automobile readers:

"Of course, the automobilist can travel from New York to
Philadelphia without any trouble whatever. Though I have not
been over the route from Philadelphia to Hagerstown, Md., in an
automobile, I found fair roads on this section several years ago,
while making a bicycle trip from New York to Winchester.

Starting at Hagerstown there is a continuous straightaway
stretch of pike of the finest character extending through Win-
chester, forty-two miles from Haj^erstown, and concluding at
Staunton, a total distance of 138 miles of ideal touring. The
country is rolling, and there is not a hill that an Olds runabout
cannot take at high speed. On both sides of the road the Blue
Ridge mountains are visible, and fertile fields and fruit orchards
add to the picture, with numerous little villages scattered along
the way.

"In Virginia we have a law allowing the turnpike companies to
charge tolls on automobiles at the rate of jive cents per mile for a
round trip. This is a little steep, though the roads are well worth
it, for there isn't a bad spot to be found. Not a few of the
turnpike companies take advantage of this privilege to charge.

"I believe that if the Northern tourists knew of the roads and
the general conditions from Harrisburg south, via Carlisle, Cham-
bersburg, Greencastle, Hagerstown, Md., Martinsburg, W. Va,,
through Winchester, Va., and on down through the Shenandoah
Valley, more would plan to take this trip. The celebrated
Luray Caverns are situated off the main pike about midway
between Winchester and Staunton and make a pleasant and very
inexpensive side trip for a day. The distance from the main
pike is about twelve miles, though the road is a rough country
road but easily negotiated with any automobile, large or small.

"Winchester is well known far and near as a famous historic
spot, the scene of many noted battles in Revolutionary times
and later during the Civil strife. Nearly every field for several
miles around Winchester, and up the valley, is a landmark of
some battle mentioned in history."

It will be seen from the above that the field for Southern tour-
ing is not such a stupendous proposition as it has been customary
to believe. Hundreds of automobilists in the North have been
deterred from making Southern trips through an imperfect knowl-
edge of conditions. The sentiment for highway improvement,
especially in the coast States, is very much alive, and a continuous
improved road from Washington to Jacksonville, Fla.. is not too
much to expect in the reasonably near future. The movement is
already under way for a road from the last-named city to Savan-
nah, and once enthusiasm is aroused connecting links will soon be
projected and carried to completion.



NEW TYPE OF MOTOR CAR JUST C0MI>LBTED BY THE UinON PACIFIC RAILWAY AT OMAHA.



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7o8



THE AUTOMOBILE.



Apt



AUTOMOratES A MARINE RISK.

Olympia, Wash., April 21.— Upon request of J. H. Schivcly,
Deputy State Insurance Commissioner, A. J. Falknor, As-
sistant Attorney-General, has handed down an opinion in
which, for tnstirance purposes, the automobile is classed with
marine. The Attorney-General can find no other class in
which to place it.

The effect is very important to automobile insurance agents,
as the agent who writes such insurance, according to the
State law, pays a fee of $50 and executes a bond of $1,000,
while his company also pays the State a certain percentage
on all such marine insurance written. While marine insur-
ance was primarily intended to cover loss by sea, it has been
stretched to cover loss by rail or sail.

The inquiry of Deputy Insurance Commissioner Schively read
as follows :

"Beg to inquire as to whether or not automobile insurance, which
is written under contract with Lloyd's underwriters and which
will be considered floating marine insurance, would come under the
regular brokers' marine insurance act, under which we would give
bond to pay regular 2 per cent, tax, etc. Tou will understand that
there is no stock flre insurance company that writes this class of
insurance, but before going ahead and advertising this line of busi-
ness we wish to get within the bounds of the law.*'

Mr. Falknor's opinion follows:

"As I understand the law, Lloyd's Underwriters is a marine
insurance company which has not complied with the insurance
laws of this state, and that, under section 22 of the compilation
of insurance laws of 1906, the insurance commissioner is authorized
to issue licenses to marine insurance agents who write or solicit
insurance for such companies. The person appljring pasrs a fee
of 160 and executes a bond to the state in the sum of 11,000, and
your inquirer desires to know if marine insurance companies writ-
ing automobile insurance will be considered as coming under said
law. The automobile appears to be a nullius Alius in our insur-
ance laws. The idea of protecting these modem machines against
accident, breakdown, explosion, flre injury by the elements or run-
ning amuck appears as yet not to have engaged the attention of
the Legislature. No niche clearly appears in the insurance laws
for such risks. While this modem machine is a thing of beauty,
it is an inanimate object, and for that reason live stock, casualty
or life insurance would not cover the risk.

"This leaves only marine insurance, and. indeed, there are many
points of similarity in the risks assumed between an automobile
and a ship. Both are liable to collision, flre, breakdown, explosion,
injury from the elements and running amuck, and insurance that
meets the risks of a floating vessel apparently covers the risks of
an automobile, and until the Legislature assembles and determines
in its wisdom insurance broad enough to meet the many risks
that a company will incur in carrying this line of insurance, we
see no objection to any marine insurance company that wishes to
insure an automobile, and such company has not complied with the
laws of this state, that its agents be permitted to do such Insur-
ance provided they contribute to the state as provided in section
22. supra. 160 and execute the bond of $1,000. and, of course, in-
cluding such risks in the total premiums less losses paid upon
which the 2 per cent, tax is paid."

r- - ^ - . .. , - ^



Tiffi AirrOillOBlLE CALENI



AMERICAN.

Shows.

April 21-28 — Canada Automobile and Motor Exhibition,

treal.
May 14-19— New Orleans (La.) Automobile and Motor
May 24-26 — Open Air Show, Bmpire City Track, New

Asso^skktion.

Tours.



May
May

June

June

June
July

Sept.



6...— Two-Gallon Fuel Bflaciency Teat, Automo

America,
80. . .—Endurance Run, Salt Lake City to Ogden,

Fuller* Manager, Salt Lake City.
6... — Orphans' Day, Second Annual Celebration

York Motor Club.
16-18 — Three-Day Tour, Bay State Automobile

Boston to Rye Beach, N. H.
18-28 — Second Annual Economy Teat, New York
28. . .—Annual A. A. A. Tour for the OUdden TToi

from Buffalo or Cleveland.
-Endurance Run, Denver to Colorado Spri]

nial Celebration Discovery of Pike's Pei



Race Meets and Hill Climbs.

April 26-27— Atlantic City (N. J.) Automobile Meet.

May —Richmond, Ind., 10- mile Obstacle Road I

County Automobile Club.
May 10...— Wilkes-Barre (Pa.) Centennial JubUee Uil]
May 10-12 — Macon, Georgia, Race Meet, Macon Autoi
May SO...— Boston Annual Meet of the Bay State Aut

sociation, Readville Track.
May SO...— Baltimore (Md.) Race Meet, Maryland M*

tion Association.
Sept. 22...— American EHimination Trials for Vanderbi

(Long Island course probable).
Sept —Colorado Springs. Two-Day Meet. Cent

bration Discovery of Pike's Peak.
Oct. 6...— Vanderbilt Cup Race, American Automot



Online LibraryHermann HoernesAutomotive industries → online text (page 82 of 156)