Copyright
Hermann Marcus Kottinger.

The youth's liberal guide for their moral culture and religious enlightenment online

. (page 10 of 28)
Online LibraryHermann Marcus KottingerThe youth's liberal guide for their moral culture and religious enlightenment → online text (page 10 of 28)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


It should repurchase them at the original purchase price.

How should it support indigent colonists?

It should support them from the public funds under the con-
dition of their reimbursing the State.

Against what religious organizations has the State a right to
proceed ?

Against such as by their tendenc)^ and power endanger its liberty.

Is the State right in granting certain companies monopolies ?

No; all monopolies ought to be abolished; and the railroads,
telegraphs, etc., ought to be operated by the State. Such compa-
nies or private individuals who actually own such establishments
should cede them to the State, which should compensate for their
loss.

To whom ought the property of the deceased return ?

Generally to the State, because after his death it is without a
possessor. Still, if he leaves a wife or children, and dies without
a last will, the property should fall to them, because the wife gained
it jointly with the husband, and the children have received their
life through him. But if the succession is very considerable, these
heirs ought to pay on it a convenient tax The heirship of more
remote relatives seems to be entirely devoid of right, or at best
can only be admitted on condition that they pay a high tax on the
heritage.

In what manner could and should the workingman's condition
be improved ?

They can create mutual associations, which the State should pro
mote ; and the State ought to protect them against the unjust pre-
tensions of capitalists, by securing to them a fair compensation.
The capitalist should let them have a share of his profits, in pro-
portion to their labor, and in this way grant them the real gain of
their labor. The State ought to reduce the maximum of their
hours of labor in such a way that a respite for repose and self-
culture remains to them.

Whctt kind of public houses ought the Slate to establish for the
poor ?



128

Hospitals, poor-houses, asylums for orphans and insane, for the
blind, deaf and mutes, etc.

For what other reason ought the State to secure to the citizens
an opportunity to acquire their livelihood ?

Because many crimes originate in their want of a competence.

How does a nation sometimes help itself, if the grievances of
the Government become too burdensome?

By the way of revolution, that is, by its violent overthrow.

When are revolutions rightful ?

When a nation cannot remove the tyranny of Government but
by force.

Why are revolutions usually no blessing to the nation ?

Because they are usually the work of blind passion, and are
attempted before the people have acquired the preliminary instruc-
tion necessary to a higher degree of liberty.

What reforms are preferable to revolutions ?

Peaceable ones.

Of what ought the people first to be persuaded ?

Of the necessity and usefulness of a reform.

How does it arrive at this conviction?

1. By teaching the youth the principles of a better organiza-
tion of the State.

2. By public orators, by the free press, in meetings where the
the people receive information of the prevailing defects of the
State.

^Petitions to amend them are addressed to the Government.

In this way minds are carefully educated, and get prepared for
reforms. A public opinion is created and becomes irresistible.
The dissatisfaction with the prevalent defects of Government
becomes general. By these proceedings finally better institutions
will be effected, without bloodshed.

How can free Governments be conserved ?

Only by love of liberty, and by vigilance of the nations. Where
the former is wanting, the latter vanishes, too ; then encroach-
ments of the Government soon will follow, and liberty is lost.

§ 40. Duties of the Citizen— Taxation.

What are the members of a State called ?



129

Citizens, — fellow-citizens.

What duties are the citizens of a State bound to discharge ?

I. They ought to pay respect to the State ofhcers.

2 To obey the laws of the country.

3. To pay the taxes which are necessary for tlie support of tlie
Government.

4. To devote their life to industry.

5. To protect and defend their country against unjust domestic
and foreign foes.

6. To concur cheerfully in all efforts for public reforms.
Why should they be industrious?

Because tliey cannot promote the common welfare except by
industry.

Ought the property of the clergy and the religious communities
to be exempt from taxation ?

No ; for it enjoys the protection of the ^tate like other property.

Upon what part of possession ought the taxes to be levied?

Not upon the necessary supplies of life, but upon the abundance
of possession.

What ought to be the measure of taxation?

The degree of wealth of the citizens; taxes ought to be im-
posed on a progressive scale.

§ 41. The Oath— War.

I. What does it signify to take an oath?

It means to attest the truth of our statement l)y an appeal to
God as a witness.

Can an oath be a general obligation of man?

No ; for all men do not believe in the existence of a personal
God.

What ought to satisfy the State, if any one refuses to swear ? ,

His assurance that, if he speaks untruth, he will submit to all
the penalties of perjury decreed by public law.

Why should an oath not be frequently administered?

Because it thereby becomes trite, and ceases to be respected.

Into what does oath-taking easily degenerate if it be frequently
administered ?
14



130

Tt degenerates into perjury.

2. What is a hostile combat between nations called ?

War.

Wh}' do nations often decide their difTreren< es b) war?

Because there is no legal judge constituted tor nations.

Does Right always side with the stronger party?

No.

In war, is the Right always victorious ?

No ; often rude forces get the victory.

When are wars unjust?

If they are waged in order to conquer foreign countries, or k^
acquire glory.

How ought wars always to be carried on ?

Humanely and mercifully.

How should they be considered ?

They should be considered the severest calamity which can
afflict a country.

Do they give honor to mankind ?

No honor; on the contrary, much disgrace.

What is the duty of man as to war ?

He ought to endeavor to so act that wars may always grow less,
aud at last entirely disappear from the earth.

What ought to be put in the place of the decision b)- tlie sword ?

The decision by arbitration of impartial umpires, chosen h) the
litigant nations.

How should nations promote their mutual welfare ?

By kindness and respect; by fraternity; b}' protecting their
mutual rights; by international leagues, etc.

/

>^ 42. Conflict of Duties.

What hap}jens sometimes when we seek to fulfill two duties?
They contradict each other, and we must neglect one of them.
Which one must we then prefer?
The higher one.

What duties are generally higher and more sacred, — the duties of
justice, or of benevolence ? The duties towards our country, or



our family? Tiic duties towards the members ot" our family, or
towards strangers ?

In general, the duties of justice are preferable to those of benev-
olence; the duties towards our country to those towards our fam-
ily ; the duties towards our own family to those towards strangers.

Illustrations. — If I have got some money, must I give it away to
the poor, or discharge first my debts with it ? Is it right to steal
the money from our neighbor with the intention to help by it a
starving family in their distress? Some one has deposited some
money Avith me ; I found out that he wants it in order to support the
enemies of my country: am I obliged to return it? The father of
a family is a friend of science ; but his children ask him for bread ;
may he, in this case, pass his time with his books, or ought he to
work assiduously? A poor mother is sick ; her daughter frequents
the school ; should -she go there, or nurse her mother? Some one
has left with you his revolver, meanwhile he turns insane, or intends
to commit suicide ; will you return him the weapon when he
demands it? When, during the government of the thirty tyrants,
in Athens, Socrates was commanded by them to bring- some inno-
cent citizen in their presence, he refused to obey them ; did he do
right or wrong ? A similar case often happened in the United
States, when the fugitive slave law was valid, by which every
citizen was ordered to deliver fugitive slaves; the positive right
then conflicted with the natural. During war the citizens are
called to arms ; must they take care of their families, or, if drafted,
take arms, fight for their country, and run the risk of being killed
in battle?

§ 43. Behavior Towards Animals.

Why is it innnoral to ill-treat and torment animals?

Because they are also Nature's creatures, and sensible of pleasure
and pain, like man.

How ought we, especially, to treat animals which wc keep for
the sake of our profit or pleasure ?

We should feed them well, take care of them, and treat them
kindly, and, in general, only for reasonable purposes subject them
to servitude.

THE END.



CONTENTS,



Page.

Preface 7— lO

PART FIRST— Moral Culture 5

ShCTION FIRST 11 — 87

Morale in Examples 11

CHAPTER FIRST 11—64

Morals (in the Stricter Sense) ii

I. Duriiis Towards Ourselves 11 — 2>^

1. Bad Habits of the Blackamoor. — yEsop 11

2. Bad Results of Bad Actions — Nails in the Post 12

3. Modesty — Pride — Content 12

(a)— A Modest Wit 12

(b) — The Horse and the Ass. — ^sop 13

(c) — The Monkey Tourist. — J. G. Sa.ve 14

(d) — The Mountain and the Squirrel. — A'. IV. Eiiijficrson 13

4. Temperance 15

( a) — The Washinglonian's Stoiy 15

(b) — Alexander and Clitus. — KoUin 17

(c) — Saint Becky. — Douglas Jcrrold 18

5. Courage — Temerity — Leap for Life. — Morris 19

6. Application — Inertness 20

(a) — The Panorama Boy 20

(b) — The Ant and the Grasshopper, — ^sop 21

(c) — The Village Blacksmith. — Longfelloio 21

(d) — The I'lowman . — Holmes 22

7. Parsimony — Dissipation 23

The Young Man and the Swallow. — ^sop 23

S. Frugality — Covetousness — Avarice 24

(a) — Quintius Cincinnalkis. — Agnes Stricklaful 24

(b) — Solicitude Caused by Great Fortune 25

(c) — The Man and his Goose. — ^sop 25

(d)— The Oil-Merchant's Ass.— y. G. Saxe 25

(e) — The Little Glass Shoe. — J. G. Saxe 26

9. Gambling — The Gambler's Wife. — Dr. Coats 28

10. Education and Mental Culture 29

(a)— William Cobbett 29

(b) — Illustrations American Apprentices 30

(c) — The Nightingale and the Organ. — J. G. Saxc 30

1 1. Perseverance — Robert Bruce 31

12. Patience — Anger — The Frog and the Mouse. — /Esop 32

13. Vocation — The Wolf and the Stray Kid. — Perrin 32

11. Duties oi- Be.\k\ulence Towards Our Fellow Creatures }^^ — (54

1. Mutual Charity and Philanthropy 2>l

(a) — The Good Samaritan i^^i

(b) — The Sick Passenger 34

(c) — The Generous Neighbor 35

(d) — A Brave Boy 35

( e ) — J . I R ) \v a r d 35

(fj — The Chieftain's Daughter. — G. P. Morris 30

(g) — Thomson and (?«^r^j Jcrrold^. 39



133

Page.

2. Retribution 39

(a) — The Dove and the Ant. — ^'Esop 39

(b) — The Hawk and the Farmer. — ^it-sop 39

(c)-^*' We '' and " You." — J. G Saxe 40

3. Meekness and Forbearance 41

(a) — Chang King 41

(b) — The Turkey and the Ant. — JoJm Gay 41

4. Politeness — Sham Politeness 42

( a ) — Washington 42

(b) — Domestic Asides ; or Truth in Parentheses. — T. Hood 42

5. Sacrifice of Life by Charity. — Voltaniad 43

b. Filial Love 44

(a)— The Good Indian Son 44

. (b) — Volney Beckner 44

(c) — Self-Sacrifice of a Daughter 45

(d) — The Children's Hour. — Longfellow 45

(e)— Filial Piety 4^

7. Filial Obedience — The Wolf and the Kid. — ^■Esop 47

8. Love of Brothers and Sisters 47

(a) — The Courageous Brother 47

(b) — The Heroine, Emma Carroll.; 48

(c) — Stanzas Addressed by Lord Byron to His Sister 48

(d) — Isabella, the Suitor for a Condemned Brother. — Shakespeare 49

9. Friendship 52

(a) — Damon and Pythias 52

[h] — The Hare and Many Friends. — John Gay 53

10. Bad Company — The Husbandman and the Stork. — ALsop 54

11. Gratitude to Benefactors — Ingratitude 54

(a ) — Thomas Cromwel 1 54

(b) — Ga*rdener aud His Dog. — A\sop 50

(c) — The Hart and the Vine — Asop 56

(d) — The Countryman and the Snake. — /Esop 57

12. Tolerance — Fanaticism — Religious Constancy 57

(a) — William Perm 57

(b) — Thomas Cranmer. — Alfred Tennyson 58

- -(f') — Roger Williams — Geo. Bancroft 61

13. Love of Enemies — The Generous Quaker 63

CHAPTER SECOND 64—87

Rights and Duties of Justice 64

I. Private Rights and Duties 64 — 74

1. Consequences of Murder — Lady Macbeth. — Shakespeare b4

2. Liberty— The Yankee Girl.— 7. 6\ Whittier 65

3 . Honesty — Fraud — Theft — Indemnification 67

(a) — An Honest Boy 67

(b) — Mercury and the Woodman. — Aesop 68

(c)— The Starling 68

(d)— An Act of Indemnification 69

4. Veracity — Lying — The Oath 09

(a>- The Boy Who Would Not Tell a Lie 69

(bj — Gossip 70

(c) — Sacredness of Oath 70

5. Love 70

(a) — Love Conquers all Ob.stacles — Quintin Matsys 70

(b) — Lavinia and Palemon. — fames Thovison 71

6. Master and Servant — The Old Hound. — Aesop 74

II. Public Rights and Dutie.s 74 — 87

1. Patriotism 74

(a) — General J. Reed 74



Page.

(b)— The Last Will 75

(c) — Barbara Kritchic- -y. (/ IVhitticr 75

(d) — James Lick 70

Z. Heroism 78

(a) — Leonidas at Thermopylx. — Agnes Strickland. 78

(b) — Arnold Winkelried. — Jaz. Alontgojncry 78

(c) — Marco Bozzaris — F. G. Halleck 80

(d) — General Wolfe. — Oliver Goldsmith 82

(e)— The Battle of Bunker Hill 82

(fj— Seventy-Six.— 'K C.Bryant 83

-•""^a) — Abraham Lincoln. — IV. C. Bryant 84

(h) — ConHict of Duties — Regulus. — Rollins 84

3. Behavior Towards Animals 85

(a) — The Hornets' Nest. — N. Hawthorne 85

SECTION SECOND 87—131

Doctrine of Duties and Rights 87 — 94

Lntkoduction 87

\ I. E.xplanations — Man's Moral Faculties 87

^ 2. Human Destination 89

\ 3. Duties — Virtue and Vice — Their Consequences — Doctrine of Duties... 90

\ 4. First Principles of Ethics 91

\ 5. Division of Ethics 93

CHAPTER FlRSr 94—109

Ethics (in the Stricter Sense) 94

L Duties Towards Ourselve.-: — (Personal Duties) 94 — 102

^ 6. First Principles. 94

\ 7. General Duties Tovvrards Ourselves 94

Special Duties Towards Ourselves •. 96

>/ 8. I. — Duties With Regard to Our Life and Health 96

^ 9. 2. — With Regard to Property » 98

^ 10. 3. — Vx'^ith Regard to Mental Culture 99

\ II. 4. — With Regard to Moral Culture 100

^ 12. With Regard to Aesthetical Refinement loi

^13. Choice of a Vocation loi

i[. Duties Towards Our Fellow Creatures (Duiies of Benev-
olence) 102 — 109

''I 14. First Principles : 102

\ 15. General Duties 102

Special Duties 104

\ 16. I. — Duiies of Children Towards Their I'arenls 104

O7. 2. — Duiies Towards Brothers, Sisters, and Relations 105

^ 18. 3. — Duties Towards Companions 105

^, 19, 4. — Duties Towards Teachers 105

^ 20. ^ and 6. — Duties Towards Friends and Benefactors lub

\ 21. 7 — Towards Poor, Sick, Frail, and Old People 107

\ 22. 8. — Towards Religious Sects 107

^.23. 9. — Duties Towards Personal Enemies 108

CHAPTER SECOND 109—131

Doctrine OF Justice (of Duties and Rights, Restini; o.< Reason and

Nature)

^. 24 Explanation — Division of Doctrine 109

L Private Rights and Duties iii — 119

^ 25. First Principles ill

^ 20. Rights and Duties with Regard to Life and Health— Homicide —

Right of Self Defence in

^ 27. 2. — With Regard to Our Personal and Religious Liberty 112

^ 28. 3. — With Regard to Properly — Theft — Robbery — Fraud — Indemnifi-
cation 113



135

Pao-e.
'i 29. 4. — With Regard to Reputation and Veracity — Slander — T.ie —

Promise 113



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Online LibraryHermann Marcus KottingerThe youth's liberal guide for their moral culture and religious enlightenment → online text (page 10 of 28)