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Hermann Marcus Kottinger.

The youth's liberal guide for their moral culture and religious enlightenment online

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and nations — in — Religion ! It is not that Religion is merely useless : it is mis-
chievous. It is mischievous by its idle terrors ; it is mischievous by its false
morality ; it is mischievous by its hypocrisy; by its fanaticism ; by its dogmatism ;
by its threats; by its hopes; by its promises." — Epicurus, in "A Few Days in
Athens," by Frances Wright, pp. 199, 203. " Like the Paganism of Rome,
Christianity is destined to become an obsolete faith — a worn-out superstition." —
B. i. Underwood.

(82.) Bernstein, " Reich der Naturwissenschaften."

(83.) "Theology teaches that the soul is an immaterial principle, which
dwells in the body and remain?., when the latter perishes. But natural philosophy
does not acknowledge such a principle; if the soul's organ, the body, perishes,
itself, too, is at its end; this science has no knowledge of an individual contin-
uance of the soul's life." — Ch. Vogt, " Bilder aus dem Thierleben," pp. 442,
443. " The most painful truth is death ; how, then, should we acknowledge it ?
Therefore, we deny that death is the end of man ; and still, this end is a truth
quite as common, evident, testified by the senses, as man's birth, proved by the
same witnesses, the senses, as his commencement." — Feuerbach.

(84.) " Under whatever disguise it takes refuge, whether fungus or oak,
wonn or man, the living protoplasm (physical basis or matter of life) ultimately
dies, and is resolved into its mineral and lifeless constituents (carbon, hydrogen
oxygen and nitrogen)." — Huxley.

(85.) Experience states that one individual of human race dies in every



174

second; therefore, on an average, annually 31,536,000 souls would be separated
from their bodies ; this sum amounts in 100 years to 3,153,600,000 souls. But
their number becomes quite unimaginable, if we suppose that mankind already
exists ten thousands of years, and that it, probably, will continue to exist yet
millions of years. Where would be room enough for such an uncountable
number of souls ?

(86.) Fr. Muench, Th. Parker, etc.

(87.) " Immortality is only a concern of visionaries and idlers. The active
man, who is busy with the objects of human life, has no time to think of death,
and, therefore no need of immortality ; if he sometimes thinks of death, he only
beholds in it the monitor to invest wisely the received capital of life, and not to
squander the precious time with naughty things." — " The Greeks entertained
moderate wishes ; they did not want to Jive forever; only, they did not like to
die by a premature, or violent, or painful death. They did not sigh, like the
Christians, to be subjected to the necessity of nature, to the wants of sleep, food
and drink ; they adapted their desires to the limits of human nature. The
Christians want to be happier than the gods of the Olymp ; they desire a heaven
where all wishes are accomplished." — Feuerbach, " Erg^enzungen zum Wesen
des Christenthums," p. 483.

(88.) Feuerbach.

(89.) Many men have no propensity to science and art, and think it to be
folly to care for objects so distant as stars, mosses, infusoria, etc. Neither does
that propensity exert itself farther than the egotism of men. Nobody desires to
know more than it does good to him." " The rationalistic Christian removes
the goal of accomplishment infinitely : therefore man always has to remain an
impeifect being ; but a goal which never can be reached, is an illusion." — Feuer-
bach, " Vorlesungen ueber das Wesen der Religion."

(90.) Such ones were : The philosophic school of the Epicureens, Homer,
Plinius the senior, Horace, Seneca, Voltaire, Mirabeau (the greatest orator of the
first French revolution), King Frederick H., and others. Of our contem-
poraries belong to them : Burmeister, Ch. Vogt, Dr. Strauss, L. Buechner, L.
Feuerbach, most of the members of the free German congregations, etc. In
general, since Kant, only few German philosophers discuss the theme of the im-
mortality of the soul. " Reinhold in his letters on Kant's philosophy, remarks
that even, since Descartes established the rational idea of the soul's spirituality,
the doctrine of immortality is doubted by the best philosophers, or at least silent-
ly passed by." — Feuerbach, " Gott, Freiheit, Unsterblichkeit," p. 223. Kant,
immediately before his death, was asked what he hoped of the future ; he an-
swered : " Of this state I know nothing."

(91.) "Luther says: 'If man dies as a tree or a cow falls down, let us
revel.' Luther's utterance furnishes a strong evidence how rude Christianity is,
which only in a future life finds the difference between a man and a cow, be-
tween eating and revelling. But the conclusion which Christianity deduces from



175



mortality, is not only rude, it is also silly. Even for the reason that we shall be
dead to-morrow, we will not kill us already to-day by excess in eating and drink-
ing; we will not destroy mutually our lives by robbeiy and murder (as Luther
also says); we will not gall our lives by follies and mischief."— Feuerbach,
" Gedanken ueber Tod und Unsterblichkeit," 3 vol, p. 394.

(92.) " How superficial and foolish is the modern rationalistic Christianity,
if it makes, yet now-a-days, the stars the fulcra of its phantastic other world,
after they were degraded in the class of ponderable, corporeal, empirical ob-
jects." — Feuerbach.

(93.) Epicurus in " A Few Days in Athens," by Frances Wright, p. 126.



/ /



CONTENTS.

«.

Page.

"^ART SECOND— Religious Enlightenment 3

SECTION FIRST 5— §7

OUTLINK OF THE IIlSTORY OF THE PRINCIPAL ReI.KUONS 5

\ I. Introduction — Definition — Division of the History of Religions... 5 — 6

CHAPTER FIRST 6—23

The RELiG.oNs hefore the Christian Era and the Islam 6 — 23

\ 2. The Ancient Religions in General — Priests — Sacrifices — Prayers

— Oracles 6 — 7

\ 3. Religion of the Arians — Zend-Avesta 7 — S

\ 4. Religion of the Hindoos — Brahmanism — Buddhism 8 — 13

^ 5. Religions of the Chinese — Confutse 13

>,_ 6, Religion of the Egyptians 14

\ 7. Greek and Koman Religions 15 — 16

\ 8. Religion of the Ancient Germans 16 — 17

^ 9. Judaic Religion 17 — 20

^. 10. Mohammedan Religion — Arabian Culture 20—23

CHAPTER SECOND 23—87

Christian Religion 23

First Period (i — 1024) 23—30

^, II. Origin of the Christian Religion — Causes of Its Fast Propagation 2'}^ — 24
^. 12. Origin of the Gospels — Life and Character of Jesus — His Doctrine

— Paulinism 24 — 27

§ 13. State of the Church — Ecclesiastic Councils — Clergy — Monks 27 — 30

Second Period ( 1024 — 1300) 30 — 44

\ 14. Germany — lieniy IV. and Gregory VII 30 — 32

1^ 15. Frederick I. — Arnold of Brescia — Frededjckll. — The Albigenses..32 — 34
>(, 16, Crusades (1096 — 1300) — The First Crusade — Capture of Jerusa-
lem 34—36

\ 17. Continued — The Three following Crusades — Emir of Saladin 36 — 37

\ 18. Concluded — The Rest of the Crusades — Fi^ederick II —Louis IX.

— Effects of the Crusades 37 — 39

§ 19. The State of the Church — Anathema — Interdict 39 — 40

\ 20. Continued — The Inquisition Tribunal 40 — 42

^ 21. Concluded — The Clergy — The Popes — Gregory VII. — Innocent

III 42—44

Third Period (1300— 15 18) 44 — 47

\ 22. War of the Hussites — Philip IV 44 — 45

^ 23. State of the Church — Wycliffe — J. Huss — The Popes 45 — 47

Fourth Period ( 1518 — 1648) 47 — 64

^ 24. Causes of tiie Reformation of the Christian Church — M. Luther... 47 — 49
^ 25. Diet of Worms — Confession of Augsburg — War of Smalkalden —

Religious Peace of Augsburg 49 — 51

^ 26. The Thirty Years' War — Restitution Edict 51 — 52

\ 27. Concluded — Gustavus Adolphus — Battles of Leipsic and Luetzen

— Westphalian Peace 52 — 55

^ 28. Switzerland — Zwingli — Calvin 5$ — 57

^ 29. Spain — Revolution of the Netherlands 57 — 58

^ 30. France — War against the Huguenots — The Saint Bartholomew —

Henry IV. — Edict of Nantes — England — Episcopal Church

—Henry VIII 58—60

\ 31. Outline of the Ecclesiastical Reforms — Their Effects — Distinctive

Doctrines of the Single Churches 60- -62

\ 32. Stale of the Church—Expulsion of the Unitarians — The Popes

— Order of tlie Jesuits 62 — 64



^^y-^-'>'&-^



177



Fifth Period ( 1 648 — 1789) 64 7 1

\ 33. Germany — Frederick II. — Emperor Joseph II.— France— Tersecu

tion of the Huguenots — England 64 67

\ 34. State of the Church — William Penn — Sects — Puritans 67 69

\ 35. ^Beginning of Rail onaljsm — Voltaire — J.J. Rousseau Lessing -

"■" Woolston^^Di-TT^aullus — Abolition of the Order of the Jesuits.... 69 — 71

Sixth Pericd (1789 — 1877) ". 71 — 87

\ 36. Effects of the French Revolution Exerted on Religion and

Church — Epoch of the Restoration 71 72

\ 37. The Revolutions in July, 1830— Origin of the Historic Criticism
and of the Modern View of the Universe — Dr. Fred. Strauss

— Reaction 72 — 73

\ 38. The Revolutions in 1S48 — The German Catholics — Origin of the
Religion of Human itv — Free Religious CongregationsTn GenhaSv'

eactionary At tempts 7 ^ — 7 6

\ 39. America — Sectarianism — Religious Liberty — Thorn. J^aine 76 78

I 40. (Continued — The Liberal Press — Liberal Oraturs^Ti-anscendcn tal-

ism in New England 78 Si

^ 41. Continued — Liberal Associations — The Anti-Slavery Society — Free

Religious Associations — The National Liberal League 81 83

\ 42. Concluded — German P'ree Congregations — Their Organization and

League S3— 87

SECTION SECOND 87—118

BiiiLiCAL Narratives and Their ( riticism 87

CHAPTER FIRST 87— 100

Narratives from the Old Testament 87 — 100

I. The Author of the Mosaic Documents 87 — 88

The Histoiy of the Creation SS — 89

The Garden in Eden 89 91

The Great Deluge 91 — 92

Abraham 92 — 93

The Egyptian Plagues and the Emigration of the Israelites 93 — 94

Legislation on Mount Sinai — The Two Tablettes 94 — 95

The Tabernacle q^ — 96

Conquest of Canaan— Joshua — Samson 96 — 98

The Prophets Elias and Elisha 08 — roo

CHAPTER SECOND 100— 100

Narratives from the New Testament 100 — 118

I. The Birth of Jesus 100 — 102

Tiie Baptism of Jesus 102

The Temptation of Jesus 102 — 103

The Miracles of Jesus in General 103 — 105

His Miraculous Cures — Demoniacs 105 — 106

Resuscitations of the Dead 106 — 107

Miraculous Feedings — Water Changed into Wine— The Storm

Appeased ; 107 — 108

Solemn Entry of Jesus into Jerusalem — His Last Supper 108 — 109

Arrest, Trial and Condemnation of Jesus 109 — ill

His Crucifixion i \\ — 114

His Resurrection and Ascension 114 — u6

The Miracle of Pentecost — The Three Principal Festivals ol the

Christians 1 16 — 1 17

SECTION THIRD 118— 175

Views of the U-mverse frcm 'jhe Standpoini' of Modern

Science 118

■^ I. Force anfl Matter. Force — Imperishable 118

\ 2. Matter — Imperishable and Infinite 118 — 120

\ 3. The Universe — Uniformiiy 'and Necessity of the Natural Laws. 1 20 — 121



178



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Online LibraryHermann Marcus KottingerThe youth's liberal guide for their moral culture and religious enlightenment → online text (page 28 of 28)