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Hermann Marcus Kottinger.

The youth's liberal guide for their moral culture and religious enlightenment online

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8, Love of Brothers and Sisters.

(a)— Tlie Courageous Brotlier.

A boy in the town of Weser, in Germany, playing one day with
his sister, four years of age, was alarmed by the cry of some men
who were in pursuit of a mad dog. The boy, suddenly looking
round, saw the dog running towards him, but, instead of making
his escape, he calmly took off his coat and, wrapping it round his
arm, boldly faced the dog. Holding out the arm covered with the
coat, the animal attacked it and vvorried it, until the men came up
and killed the dog. The men reproachfully asked the boy why he
did not run and avoid the dog, which he cguld sq easily have done.



48

''Yes," said the little hcru, "I could have run troui the dog, but if
I had, he would have attacked my sister. To protect her, I offered
him my coat that he might tear it."

(!>)— Tlie llrroiiie Kiiiiaa Carroll.

A similar case of heroism occurred in the city of Evansvillc, In-
diana, in which Emma Carroll, a little girl eleven years old, ran
through the flames of burning kerosene, and rescued, at the ex-
pense of her life, her motherless baby brother, of whom she had
the care. In the terrible agony of her dying hours she was consoled
with the thought that the baby had escaped unharmed. She had
saved him.

(c)— .stanzas, a«lclr(-».s('(l by Lord Byroii to His -Sister.

Though the clay of my destiny 's over,

And the star of my fate hath declined,*
Thy soft heart refused to discover

The faults which so many could tind;
Though thy soul with my grief was acquainted,

It shrank not lo share it with me,
And the love which my spirit hath paintetl

It never hath found but in thee.

Then when nature around me is smiling,

The last smile which answers to mine,
I do not believe it beguiling

Because it reminds me of thine ;
And when winds are at war with the ocean,

As the breasts I believed in with me,
If their billows excite an emotion,

It is that they bear me from thee.

Though human, thou lUdsi not deceive me,

Though woman, thou didst not forsake,
Though loved, thou foreborest to grieve me,

Though slander'd, thou never couldst shake.
Though trusted, thou didst not disclaim me,

Though parted, it was not to tly.
Though watchful, 'twas not to defame me.

Nor, mute, that the words might belie.

"By rdiiiCNt of his wife and her friends, he was divorced from her, and also separated from
his dmighicr Ada ; by these sad accidents the star of his fate had dcchned. He exiled himself,
anu lived in Italy and Greece.



49

Yet I blame not the world, nor despise it,

Nor the war of the many with one —
If my soul was not fitted to prize it,

'Twas folly not sooner to shun ;
And if dearly that error hath cost me,

And more than I once could forsee,
I have found that, whatever it lost me,

It could not deprive me of thee.

From the wreck of the past, which has perish'd,

Thus much I at least may recall.
It hath taught me that what I most cherish'd,

Deserved to be dearest of all :
In the desert a fountain is springing.

In the wide waste there still is a tree.
And a bird in the solitude singing.

Which speaks to my spirit of thee.

(cl)— Isabella, tlie Suitor for a Condeninefl Brotlier.

Serond Scene of the Second Act in Shakespeare'' s Play, '■^Measure for Measure.'''"^

Angelo, Deputy of the Duke of Austria.
Isabella, Sister of Claudio.

Isab. I am a woeful suitor to your honor,
Please but your honor hear me.

Ang. Well, what's your suit ?

hub. I have a brother is condemn'd to die.
I beseech you, let it be his fault
And not my brother.

Ang. Condemn the fault, and not the actor of it ?
Why, every fault 's condemn'd ere it is done.
Mine were the very cipher of a function
To fine the faults whose fine stands in record,
And let go by the actor.

Isab. O just, but severe law !
I had a brother then, — Heaven keep your honor !
Must he needs die ?

Ang. Maiden, no remedy.

Isab. Yes ; I do think that you might pardon him,
And neither Heaven, nor men, grieve at the mercy.

Ang. I will not do 't.

*Claudio had married a young lady without the consent of an unjust, antiquated law, which
was neglected, and out of use since many years; but the Deputy of the Duke wants it to be
executed in the case of Claudio, because he is " newly in seat, and that people may know lie
can command " According to this law Claudio should die.



Isab. But cau yow, if you 7i>ou/d /

Ang. Look ; what I 7uiil not, that I cannot do.

half. But might you do't, and do the world no wrorg,
If so your heart were touch'd with that remorse*
As mine is to him ?

Ang. He's sentenced ; 'tis too late.

Isab. Too late? Why, no ? I, that do speak a word,
May call it back again : well, believe this ;
No ceremony** that to great ones 'longs,
Not the king's crown, nor the deputied sword,
The marshal's truncheon, nor the judge's robe,
Become them with one half so good a grace
As mercy does.

If he had been as you, and you as he.
You would have slipp'd like him ; but he like you
Would not have been so stern.

Ang. Pray you, be gone.

Isab. I would to Heaven I had your potency.
And you were I 1 Should it then l)e thus ?
No, I would tell what 'twere to be a judge,
And what a prisoner.

Atig. Your brother is a forfeit of the law,
And you but waste your words.

Jsab. Alas ! Alas ! How would you be,

If He, which is the top of judgment should
But judge you as you are ? O think on that.
And mercy then will breathe within your lips
Like man new made !

Ang. Be you content, fair maid.

It is the law, not I, condemns your brother;
Were he my kinsman, brother, or my son.
It shoulil be thus with him : he must die to-morrow.

Isab. To-morrow? O that's sudden ! Spare him, spare him
He's not prepared for death. Even for our kitchens
We prepare the fowl of season ; shall we serve Heaven
With less respect than we do minister
To our gross selves? Good, Good my lord, bethink you :
Who is it that hath di'd for this offence ?
There's many have committed it.

Ang. The law hath not been dead, though it hath slept ;
Those many had not dar'd to do that evil,

'Compassion. ♦* Emblem of power.



5i

It" but the tiiat that did th' edict infringe,
Had answer'd for his deed.

Isab. Yet show some pity,

Ang. I show it most of all when I show justice.

Be satisfied :
Your brother dies to-morrow : be content !

Jsab. So you must be the first that gives this sentence,
And he that suffers. O ! it is excellent
To have a giant's strength ; but it is tyrannous
To use it like a giant. Could great men thunder
As Jove himself does, Jove would ne'er be quiet ;
For eveiy pelting, petty officer
Would use his heaven for thunder ;
Nothing but thunder. Merciful Heaven !
Thou rather with thy sharp and sulphurous bolt
Split'st the unwedgeable and gnarled oak,
Than the soft myrtle ; but man, proud man,
Dress' d in a little brief authority,
Most ignorant of what he's most arsur'd, —
His glassy essence, — like an angry ape,
Plays such fantastic tricks before high Heaven,
As makes the angels weep. Go to your bosom ;
Knock there, and ask your heart what it doth know
That's like my brother's fault : if it confess
A natural guiltiness, such as is his,
Let it not sound a thought upon your tongue
Against my brother's life.

Ang. \^Aside.'\ She speaks, and 't is

Such sense that my sense breeds with it. [ To her.']
Fare you well.

Jsab. Gentle my lord, turn back.

Ang. I will bethink me, — come again to-morrow.
Jsab. Hark, how I'll bribe you. Good my lord, turn back.
Ang. How ! Bribe me ?

Isab. Ay, with such gifts that Heaven shall share with you.
Not with fond shekels* of the tested gold,
Or stones, whose rates are either rich or poor,
As fancy values them ; but with true prayers
That shall be up at Heaven, and enter there
Ere sun-rise : prayers from preserved souls,

^Shekel, a gold coin, which was in use among the Jews.



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From fasting maid.-., vvli(,):,c minil.^ aic dedicate
To nothing temporal.

Attg. Well ; come to me to-morrow.

/sad. Heaven keep your honor safe.

Aug. [Aside.] Amen !

/sa/>. At what hour to-morrow
Shall I attend your lordship ?

Ang. At any time 'fore noon.

/sa/f. Save your honor ! [Ex//.

9. Friendship.

(a)— Damon and Pytliias.

Damon and Pythias (or Phintias) are the names of two cele-
brated Syracusans, which are always joined as the types of true and
noble friendshij). They were both Pythagoreans, and united to
each other in the strictest ties of friendship they had naturally
sworn to observe with inviolable fidelity, which was put to a severe
trial.

Pythias was condemned to death by Dionysius, the Tyrant of
Syracuse (about 405 a, C), but petitioned for permission to make
a journey into his own country to settle the marriage-contract of
his sister, promising to procure a friend to take his place, and suffer
his i)unishment, if he would not return after three days. The King
granted his request. Damon generously agreed to be his security,
and Pythias set out on his journey. The courtiers, and Dionysius
in particular, awaited w^th impatience the event of so delicate
and extraordinary an adventure.

Before the dawning of the third day, Pythias had united the sis-
ter with the husband, and made speed to return home, in order to
arrive in due lime. Meanwhile torrents of rain deluged the coun-
try, and carried off all bridges. This and other accidents pro-
longed his voyage ; he did not make his appearance in town at the
l)reconcerted time. The Tyrant derided the rash and imprudent
zeal by which Damon had bound himself in such a manner ; but
far from expressing any fear or concern, Damon replied with tran-
quility in his looks and confidence in his expressions, that he was
assured that his friend would return. At last Pythias arrived at
the town-gate, where the cross was already raised, and Damon



53

dragged up. "Stop! hangman !" cried Pythias, " here I am, for

whom he was bondsman !" The people were much surprised by

the sudden appearance of Pythias. The friends embraced each

other, crying from joy and grief. There was no eye empty of

tears. The wonderful news was immediately reported to the King ;
he was struck by sympathy and admiration ; softened by the in-
stance of such rare fidelity, he granted Pythias his life, and even
desired to be admitted into the union of their friendship.

(b)— Tlie Hare and Many Frieiuls.

Friendship, like love, is but a name,
Unless to one you stint the flame.
True friends are seldom ; who depend
On many, rarely find a friend.

A hare who, in a civil way,
Complied with everything, like Gay,*

Was known by all the beastial train
Who haunt the wood or graze the plain ;
Her care was never to offend.
And every creature was her friend.

As forth she went at early dawn,
To taste the dew-besprinkled lawn,
Behind she hears the hunter's cries,
And from the deep-mouth'd thunder flies;
She starts, she stops, she pants for breath,
She hears the near advance of death ;
She doubles to mislead the hound,
And measures back her mazy round,
Till, fainting in the public way,
Half dead with fear she gasping lay.

What transport in her bosom grew,
When first the horse appear'd in view I
" Let me (says she) your back ascend,
And owe my safety lo a friend.
You know my feet betray my flight ;
To friendship every burthen 's light."

The horse replied : " Poor honest puss,
It grieves my heart to see thee thus.
Be comforted, relief is near ;
For 5*^6, the goat is just in rear."

'''•'Gay (the poet of this fable) was of a timid temper, and fearful of cjiving offence to the
great " — Popa. They disappointed the expectations he put in their promises.



54

The goat remarked her pulse was high,
Her languid head, her heavy eye :
" My bark (says he) may do you harm,
The sheep's at hand, and wool is warm."

The sheep was feeble, and complain'd
His sides a load of wool sustain'd;
Said he was slow; confess'd his fears;
For hounds eat sheep as well as hares.

She now the trotting calf address'd.

To save from death a friend distress'd ;

" Shall I (says he), of tender age,

In this important care engage?

Older and abler pass'd you by ;

How strung are those, how weak am I I

Should I presume to bear you hence,

Those friends of mine may take oftence ;

Excuse me, then I you know my heart ;

But dearest friends, alas, must part.

How shall we all lament I Adieu,

For see, the hounds are just in view." — John Gay.

10. Bad Company— The Husbandman and the Stork.

Bad company is to be avoided I

The husbandman pitched a net in his field to take the cranes and
geese who came to feed upon the new sown grain. Accordingly,
he took several, both cranes and geese \ and among them a stork,
who had pleaded hard for his life, and, among other apologies which
he made, alleged that he was neither goose nor crane, but a poor,
harmless stork, who performed his duty to his parents to all intents
and purposes, feeding them, when they were old, and, as occasion
required, carrying them from place to place upon his back. *' All
tliis may be true," replies the husbandman, " but as I have taken
you in bad company, and in the same crime, you must expect to
suffer the same punishment." — yEsop

11. Grratitnde to Benefactors— Ingratitude.

^a) — I' ho III as ( i-«>iii\vfll.

Francis trescobald, a Florentine merchant, had gained a plenti-
ful fortune, ot which he was liberal-handed to all in necessity \
which being well known to others, a young stranger applied to him



55

for charity. Signor Frescobald, seeing something in his counte-
nance more than ordinary, overlooked his tattered clothes, and, com-
passionating his circumstances, asked him what he was, and of
which country. ''lam," answered the young man, "a native of
England ; my name is Thomas Cromwell. I left my country to
seek my fortune ; came with the French army, where I was page to
a footman, and carried his pike and burganet after him." Fresco-
bald commisserating his necessities, and having a particular respect
for the English nation, clothed him genteelly, took him into his
house till he had recovered strength by better diet, and, at his
taking leave, mounted him on a good horse, with sixteen ducats of
gold in his pockets. Cromwell expressed his thankfulness in a very
sensible manner, and returned to England, where he was preferred
into the service of Cardinal Wolsey.

After the Cardinal's death, he worked himself so effectually into
the favor of King Henry VIIL, that this one made him a Baron,
Viscount, Earl of Essex, and, at last, Lord Chancellor of England.

In the meantime, Signor Francis, by repeated losses by sea and
land, was reduced to poverty, and calling to mind, without ever
thinking of Cromwell, that some English merchants were indebted
to him in the sum of 15,000 ducats, he came to London to pro-
cure payment.

Traveling in pursuit of this affair, he fortunately met with the Lord
Chancellor, as he was riding to court ; who, thinking him to be the
same gentleman that had done him such great kindness in Italy,
asked him if he was not Signor Frescobald. " Yes, sir," said he,
*' and your most humble servant." "No," said the Chancellor,
" you are not my servant, but my special friend, that relieved me
in my wants, and laid the foundation of my greatness." He
immediately alighted, embraced him with tears of joy, and took
him in his company to his house. Frescobald having in a few
words given him a true state of his circumstances, he led him to
his closet, and opening a coffer, first took out sixteen ducats, de-
livering them to Frescobald, saying : " My friend, here is the
money you lent me at Florence, with ten pieces you laid out for
my apparel, and ten more you paid for my horse ; but considering
that you are a merchant, and might have made some advantage by



56

this money in the way of trade, take these four bags, in every one
of which are four hundred ducats, and enjoy them as free gifts of
your friend.

He next caused him to give him the names of all of his debtors,
and obliged them to pay their debts in fifteen days. During this
time Frescobald lodged in the Chancellor's house, and was repeat-
edly invited to continue in England, and was offered a loan of
60,000 ducats for four years, if he would trade there; but he
desired to return to Florence.

(b) — Tlie GarrtiMier and his Dog^.

A gardener's dog, frisking about the brink of a well in the gar-
den, happened to fall into it. The gardener very readily ran to
his assistance ; but as he was endeavoring to help him out, the cur
bit him on the hand. The man took his ungrateful treatment so
unkindly, that he left him to shift for himself, with this expostula-
tion : " Wicked wretch," quoth he, "are you so unreasonable as
to injure the hand that comes to save your life ! The hand of mc
your master, who has hitherto fed and taken care of you ! Die
as you deserve ; for so mischievous and illnatured a creature is not
fit to live."

All obligations you lay upon an ungrateful person are thrown
away. — yiEsop.

(c)— Tlie Hart and tlie Vine.

A hart, being pursued hard by the hunters, hid himself under
the broad leaves of a shady spreading vine. When the hunters
were gone by, and given him over for lost, he, thinking himself
very secure, began to crop and eat the leaves of the vine. By this
means the branches, being put into a rustling motion, drew the
eyes of the liunte'-s that way, who seeing the vine stir, and fancy-
ing some wild beast had taked covert there, shot their arrows at a
venture and killed the hart ; who, before he expired, uttered his
dying words to this purpose: "Ah ! I suffer justly for my ingrati-
tude, who could not forbear doing an injury to the vine that so
kindly concealed me in time of danger." — ^Esop.



57

(cl)— Tlie Countryman and tlic i^nake.

A villager, in a frosty, snowy winter, found a snake under a
hedge almost dead with cold. He could not help having compas-
sion for the poor creature, so he brought it home and laid it upon
the hearth near the fire ; but it had not lain there long before
(^being revived with the heat) it began to erect itself, fly at his wife
and children, filling the whole cottage with dreadful hissings. The
countryman hearing an outcry, and perceiving what the matter was,
caught up a mattock, and soon dispatched him, upbraiding him at
the same time in these words : ''Is this, vile wretch, the reward you
make to him that saved your life ? Die, as you deserve ; but a
single death is too good for you." — ALsop,

12. Tolerance— Fanaticism— Eeligiovis Constancy.

(a) — Willani Penn.

William Penn was well educated and rich. He spent his money
freely in aiding those who were punished for conscience's sake ;
and finally he resolved to found a colony in America, where such
persecuted people could take refuge. It happened that his father
had left, at his death, a claim for a large sum of money which he
had lent to King Charles IL, and W. Penn proposed to the King to
give him a province in America, instead of the money. This the
King was very glad to do. So William became the sole proprietor
of a great tract of country which he called Pennsylvania (£682).
He permitted every poor emigrant to settle on this land, and secured
freedom of thought and speech to all. He called it a "free colony
for ail mankind," and declared to the people : "You shall be gov-
erned by laws of your own making. I shall not usurp the right of
any, nor oppress his person. As the liberty of conscience is a right
which all men have received of Nature with their existence, it is
resolved that nobody will be compelled to assist any kind of public
worship. To every one full power is granted to perform freely the
public or private exercise of his religion, if he only confesses the

belief in God and fulfills his civil duties." He gave the city
which he laid out the name "Philadelphia," which means "broth
erly love." The people governed themselves, choosing their own
officers, and making their own laws. Every man who paid a tax
had a right to vote, without regaid to religious belief. No oath
was required of witnesses in court.

8



58

(li) — Tlioiuas rraiiiuer.

Thomas Cranmcr, Archbishvop ul" Canterbury, was the adviser
and assistant of King Henry VIII., when he reformed the Church
of England. He would neither recognize the supreme authority
of the Pope, nor the real presence of Christ in the Holy Supper ;
and, in a word, he professed, in his writings, the Protestant faith.
Therefore Queen Mary, who was herself Catholic, and married to
the ill-famed Philip II., King of Spain, degraded him from the
state of Lordship, deprived him of his Bishopric, and pul him in
prison. Here she ordered him to recant his heresies ; he did recant.
Nevertheless she sentenced him to be burned at the stake, and to
recant once more. But now he did no longer obey her dictate ; on
the contrary, in his last moment of life, he declared to hold by all
that he had written in his books. He was burned. The follow-
ing scenes are taken from Alfred Tennyson's "Queen Mary," in
the fourth act :

Scene Second. Cranmer in prison.
Thomas Cranmer, Thirlby, Bishop of Ely.

Cr. Weep not, good Thirlby.

Th. Oh, my lord, my lord I

My heart is no such block as Bonmer's* is :
Who would not weep ?

Cr. Why do you so my-lord me,

Who am disgraced ?

Th. On earth; but saved in heaven *

By your recanting.

Cr. Will they burn mc, Thirlby ?

Th. Alas, they will ; these burnings will not help
The purpose of the faith ; Init my poor voice
Against them is a whisper to the roar
Of a spring-tide.

Cr. Ami they will surely burn me?

Th. Ay ; and besides, will have you in the church
Repeat your recantation in the ears
(){ all men, to the saving of their souls,
Before your execution. May God help you
Thro' that hard hour !

Cr. And may God bless you, Thirlby I \E.\it 'Thirlby.

*tdnumd Bonincr, who formerly was Cranmcr'h friend, and had confessed the same doctrine
as this, showed him now, when Cranmcr was imprisoned, the cold shoulder.



59

Well, they shall hear my recantation there.

Disgraced, dishonored ! Not by them, indeed,

By mine own self — by my own hand !

Fire — inch by inch to die in agony ! LattJucr

Had a brief end — not Ridley. Hooper"^ burned

Three-quarters of an hour. Will my fagots

Be wet as his were? It is a day of rain.

I will not muse upon it.

My fancy takes the burner's part, and makes

The fire seem even crueller than it is.

No, I not doubt that God will give me strength,

Albeit I have denied him.

Enter SOTO and Villa Garcia.
V. G. We are ready

To take you to St Mary's, Master Cranmer.

Cr, And I : lead on ; ye loose me from my bonds. [^ExeitnL

Scene Third — SL Mary'^s Church.
F-xther CoLE in the pulpit. Lord Williams of Thame presiding. Lord Wil-
liam Howard, Lord Paget and others. Cranmer enters between Soto and
Villa Garcia, and the whole choir strike tip "Nunc Dirnittio.'"*'^ Cranmer
is set upon a scaffold before the people.

Cole. Behold him ! \^A pause; people in the foreground.

People. Oh, this unhappy sight.

Cr. I shall declare to you my very faith
Without all color.

Cole. Hear him, my good brethren!

Cr. I do believe in God, Father of all ;
In every article of the Catholicf faith
And eveiy syllable taught us by our Lord,
His Prophets, and Apostles, in the Testaments,
Both Old and New.

Cole. Be plainer, Master Cranmer !

Cr. And now I come to the great cause that weighs
Upon my conscience more than anything
Or said or done in all my life by me ;
For there be writings I have set abroad
Against the truth I knew within my heart.
Written for fear of death, to save my life.
If th-^t might be; the papers by my hand

^These Proiestants were burnt, before Cranmer, by Queen Mary.

**These words began a Psalm, and import : " Now, O God, you dismiss your servant by
letting him die,"

fCranmer nK int the tiniversat ijLiih of the primitive Christii»n Cliurch.



6o

\^Ho!iiiiii^- out his right hand.

Written and sign'd — I here renounce them all ;

And, since viy hand offended, having written

Against my heart, my hand shall first be burnt,

So 1 may come to the fire. [Dead silence.

IVilliams. [Raising his 7fOJce.'\

You know that you recanted all you said

Touching the sacrament in that same book

You wrote against my Lord of Winchester ;

Dissemble not ; play the plain Christian man !

Cr. Alas, my Lord,

I have been a man loved plainness all my life,

I did dissemble, but the hour has come

For utter truth and plainness ; wherefore 1 say,

I hold to all I wrote within that book.

Moreover,

As for the Pope, I count hif?i Antichrist,



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