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HERODOTUS,



IRANSLATtD



FROM THE GREEK,



WITH NOTES.



BY THE REV. WILLIAM BELOE.



IN FOUR VOLUMliS.
VOL. III. .

THE FOURTH EDITION.



LONDON:

PRINTED FOR F. C. AND J, RIVINGTON ; J. CUTHELL ; J. NUNN ;
LONOMAN, nURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN ; J. RICHARD-
SON ; BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY; LACKINGTON AND CO.;
J. MAWMAN ; G. AND W. B. WHITTAKER; W. COLLINGWOOD ;
W. WOOD; OGLE, DUNCAN, AND CO.; E. EDWARDS ; ROD-
WELL AND MARTIN ; SIMPKIN AND MARSHALL ; R. SAUNDERS;
W. SHELDON ; W. MASON ; AND J. PARKER, AND J, VINCENT,
OXFORD.

1821.



Primed bv S. & R. BEN TLEY,
Doiset-stieet, Srtlisbury-Squure, London.



T^^ UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SAt^TA BARBARA COLLEGE LiBRARJf.



fit-— ~j Si**^»,



le^l 6745S

HERODOTUS,



BOOK IV,
M E L P O M E X E

r O N T I N r F, T1 ,

m

CHAF. XCIX.



Th.



lAT part of Thrace^"'' which stretches to the
sea, has Scythia immediately contiguous to it ;
where Thrace euds, Scythia begins, through
Avhicli the Ister passes, commencing at the south-
east, and emptying itself into the Euxine. It
shall he my business to describe that part of Scy-
thia which is continued from the mouth of the
Ister to the sea-coast. Ancient Scythia extends



lofi T/iat part of Thrace.'] — Tliis chapter wiH, doubtless,
appear perplexed on a first and casual view: but whoever
will be at the trouble to examine M. D'Anville'a excellent
maps, illustrative of ancient geography, will in a moment
find every dilTiculty respecting the situation of the places
here described oli'ertuailv romovrd. — 7'.

Vol.111. B



2 MELPOMENE.

from the Ister, westward, as far as the city
Carcinitis. The mountainous country above
tliis place, in the same direction, as far as what is
called the Trachean Chersonese, is possessed by
the people of Taurus ; this place is situated near
the sea to the east. Scythia, like Attica, is in
two parts bounded by the sea, westward and to
the east. The people of Taurus are circumstanced
with respect to Scythia, as any other nation would
be with respect to Attica, who, instead of Athe-
nians, should inhabit the Sunian promontory,
stretching from the district of Thonicus, as far as
Anaphlystus. Such, comparing small things
with great, is the district of Tauris : but as there
may be some who have not visited these parts of
Attica, I shall endeavour to explain myself more
intelligibly. Suppose, that beginning at the port
of Brundusium ^"', another nation, and not the
lapyges ^^'', should occupy that country, as far as



^°7 Bnindusium.^ — This place, which is now called Brindisi,
was very memorable in the annals of ancient Rome : here
Augustus first took the name of Caesar, here the poet Pacu-
vius was born, and here Virgil died : — It belongs to the
king of Naples; and it is the opinion of modern travellers,
that the kingdom of Naples possesses no place so advantage-
ously situated for trade. — T.

108 lapi/gcs.'] — The region of lapygia has been at different
times called Messapia, Calabria, and Salentum : it is now
called Terra d'Otranto : it derived its name of lapyges from
the wind called lapyx :

Sed



MELPOMENE. 3

Tareiitum, separating it from the rest of the coii-
tiueut : I mention these two, but there are many
other places similarly situated, to which Tauris
might be compared.

C. The country above Tauris, as well as that
towards the sea to the east ""', is inhabited by
Scythians, who possess also the lands which lie to
the west of the Cimmerian Bospliorus, and the



Sed vides quanto trepidet tumultu
Pronus Orion. Eg<j quid sit ater
Adrian novi sinus, et quid albus
Peccet lapyx.

Where I suppose the Albus, contrasted to Ater, means that this
wind surprized the unwary mariner, during a very severe sky.
Others are of opinion, that the lapyges were so named
from lapyx, the son of Daedalus ; and that the wind was named
lapyx, from blowing- in the direction of that extremity of
Italy ; which is indeed more conformable to the analogy of
the Latin names for several other winds.

*'*9 To the east.] — This description of Scythia is attended
with great difficulties ; it is not, in the first place, easy to
seize the true meaning of Herodotus ; in the second, I can-
not believe that the description here given accords correctly
with the true position of the places. I am, nevertheless,
astonished that it should be generally faithful, when it is con-
sidered how scanty the knowledge of this country was : the
historian must have laboured with remarkable diligence to
have told us what he has. By the phrase of " the sea to
the east," Bellanger understands the Palus ISIivotis; but I
am convinced that when he describes the sea which is to the
south, and to the west, he means only to speak of diflerent
points of the Kuxine. — T.dnlnr.

R 2



4 M E I- P () M E N E.

Palus INIfcotis, as far as the Taiiais, which
empties itself into this hike ; so that as yoii
advance from the Ister inhmd, Scythia is termi-
nated first by tlic Agathyrsi, then by the Neuri,
thirdly by the ^Vndrophagi, and last of all, by the
Melanchlaeni *.

CI. Scythia thus appears to be of a quadran-
gular form, having two of its sides terminated
by the sea, to which its other two towards the
land are perfectly equal : from the Ister to the
Borysthenes is a ten days journey, which is also
the distance from the Borysthenes to the Palus
Masotis. Ascending from the sea inland, as far
as the country of the IMelanchlasni, beyond Scy-
thia, is a journey of twenty days : according to
my computation, a day's journey is equal to two
hundred stadia "": thus the extent of Scythia, along



* Scythia may be supposed to liave extended northward to
the river Dresna, and its eastern branch the Sem, on the east
of the Borysthenes, and to Polish Russia on the west of that
river : wherefore Wolynia, the proper Ukraine, tlie countries of
Belgerod, &c. must have farmed the northern fj on tier of Scy-
thia, on whicli side it was bounded by the tribe of Androphagi
on the side of Poland, and by the Melanchlieni on the side of
Russia, as on the N. W. by the Neuri, and on the west by the
Agathyrsi. — Rcnncll, p. 6l.

110 Two hiindicd stadia.] — Authors do not agree with each
other, nor indeed with themselves, about the length of the
day's journey ; Herodotus here gives two hundred stadia in



M E L P O M E N E. 5

its sides, is four thousand stadia ; and through
th-c midst of it inland, is four thousand more.

CII. The Scythians, conferring with one an-
other, conceived that of themselves they were un-
able to repel the forces of Darius ; they therefore
made application to their neiglibours. The princes



a day's journey ; but in the fiflli book he gives no more than
one hundred and fifty. — It is probable tl)at the two liundred
stadia are the ordinai-y journey of a traveller, and the oho
hundred and fifty stadia the march of an army. The army
of Xejiophon ordinarily marched live i)arasangs, which he
states to be equal to one hundred and lifty stadia.

Strabo and I'liiiy make the li^ngth of the Arabian Gulph a
thousand stadia, which the first of these authors says will
take up a voyage of three or four days : what Livy calls a
day's journey, Polybius describes as two hundred st;idia.
Tlie Roman lawyers assigned to each day twenty miles, that
is to say, one hundred and sixty stadia. — See Cdsaitho/i tm
Strabo, page 6'l of the Amsterdam edition, page 23 of that
of Paris.

The evangelist Luke tells us, that Joseph and Mary went
a day's journey before they sought the child .Tesus; now
ISIaundrel, page 6f, informs us that, according to tradition,
this happened at Beer, which was no more than ten miles
from .lerusalem ; according, therefore, to this estimation, a
day's journey was no moic than eighty stadia. When we
recollect that the day has dillercnt acceptations, imi has
been divided into the natural day, the artificial day, tiic civil
day, the astronomical day, <S:c. we shall the less wonder
at any apparent want of exactness in the computations of
space passed over in a portion of time by no means deter-
minate. —7'.



6 MELPOMENE.

also to wliom they applied, held a consultation
concerning the po^veiful army of the invader ; at
this meeting were assembled the princes of the
Agathyrsi, Tauri, Neuri, Androphagi, JNIelan-
chlaeni, Geloni, I'udini, and Sauromata?,

cm. Of tlicsc nations, the Tauri arc dis-
tinguished by tlicse peculiar customs "^ : All
strangers sliipwrecked on their coast, and par-
ticularly every Greek who falls into their hands,
they sacrifice to a virgin, in the following manner :
after the ceremonies of prayer, they strike the
victim on the head with a club. Some affirm,
that, having nxcd the head upon a cross, they
precipitate the body from the rock, on the craggy
part of which the temple stands: others again,
allowing that the head is thus exposed, deny that
the body is so treated, but say that it is buried,
The sacred personage to whom this sacnfice is
offered, the Taurians them.selves assert to be
Iphigenia, the daughter of Agamemnon. The
manner in which tliey treat their captives is this ;



111 Peculiar customs.] — These customs, as far as they relate
to the religious ceremonies described in the subsequent pa-
ragraphs of this chapter, must have been rendered by the
Iphigenia of Euripides, and other writers, too familiar to re-
quire any minute discussion. The story of Iphigenia also,
in all its particulars, with the singular resemblance which it
bears to the account of the daughter of Jephtha in the sacred
Scriptures, must be equally well known, — T.



M E L r O M E N E. 7

— Everyman cuts off the head of his prisoner, and
carries it to his house ; this he fixes on a stake,
■which is placed generally at the top of the chim-
ney : thus situated, they affect to consider it as
the protector of their families. Their -whole sub-
sistence is procured by acts of plunder and
hostility.

CIV. The Agathyrsi"' are a people of very
effeminate manners, but abounding in gold ; they
have their women in common, so that, being all
connected by the ties of consanguinity, they know
nothing of envy or of hatred : in other respects
they resemble the Thracians.

CV. The Neuri observe the Scythian customs.
In the age preceding this invasion of Darius, they
were compelled to change their habitations, from
the multitude of serpents which infested them :
besides what their own soil produced, these came



1^2 Agathi/rsi.] — The country inhabited by this people is
now called \'ologhda, in jNluscovy : the Agathyrsi were by
Juvenal called cruel;

SauromatKcjue truces aut immaiius Agathyrsi.

Virgil calls them the painted Agathyrsi :

Cretesque Dryopesque fremunt pictique Agathyrsi.

They are said to have received the name of Agathyrsi from
Agathyrtns, a son of Hercules. — T.



8 M E L P O M E N E.

in far greater iiunibers from the deserts above
them ; till they were at length compelled to take
refuge with the Budini ; these people have the
character of being magicians *. It is asserted by
the Scythians, as well as by those Greeks who
dwell in Scythia, that once in every year they are
all of them changed into wolves "^ ; and that after
remaining so for the space of a few days, tliey re-
sume their former shape ; but this I do not be-
lieve, although they swear that it is true.

CVI. The Androphagi are, perhaps, of all
mankind, the rudest : they have no forms of law
or justice, their employment is feeding of cattle ;
and though tlieir dress is Scythian, they have a
dialect appropriate to themselves.

CVII. The Melanchlajni"* have all black



* They were probably, says llennell, an ingenious people,
and exceeded their neighbours in arts as well as in hospitality.
p. 93.

113 Into aWres.] — Pomponius INIela mentions the same
fact, as I have observed in Vol. II. p. o()^. It has been sup-
posed by some, that this idea might arise from the circum-
stance of these people clothing themselves in the skins of
wolves during the colder months of winter ; but this is rejected
by Larcher, without giving any better hypptheeis to solve the
fable.— 7'.

^'* Mela7ic/iheiii.] —

Melanchlaenis atra yestis : & ex ea nomen. —

Pump. Mela.



MELPOMENE. 9

garnicjits ; from whence tliey derive their name :
these are the only people known to feed on hnnian
flesh "^ ; their manners are those of Scythia.

CVIII. The Budini "" are a great and nume-
rous people ; their bodies are painted of a bhie
and red colour ; they have in their country a
town called Gelonus, built entirely of wood. Iti>
walls are of a surprising height : they arc on each
side three hundred stadia in length ; the liouses
and the temples are all of wood. They have
temples built in the Grecian manner to Grecian
deities, with the statues, altars, and shrines
of wood. Every three years'^' they have a festi-
val in honour of Bacchus. The Geloni are of



^^^ Human flesh ?^ — M. Larclier very naturally thinks this a
p^issage transposed from the preceding chapter, as indeed the
word And rophagi literally means eaters of human flesh.

^^^ Budini.] — The district possessed by this people is now
called Podolia : Pliny supposes them to have been so called
from using waggons drawn by oxen. — T.

The country of the Budini has been taken for that of
Woroner and its neighbourhood, as well from description as
position ; it being, like the other, full of forests. — Ramcll,
p. .93.

^'7 Even/ three years.] — This feast, celebrated in honour of
Bacchus, was named the Trictcrica, to which there arc fie-
quent allusions in the ancient authors — See Statius :

Non lure Trieterica vobis

Nox patrio de more venit.
From which wc may presume that this was kept up through-
out the night.



10 M E L r O INI E N E.

Grecian origin ; Init being expelled from the
commercial towns, they established themselves
amongst the Budini. Their language is a mixture
of Greek and Scythian.



CIX. The Budini are distinguished equally in
their language and manner of life from the Ge-
loni : they are the original natives of the country,
feeders of cattle, and the only people of the
country who eat vermin. The Geloni"", on the
contrary, pay attention to agriculture, live on
corn, cultivate gardens, and resemble the Budini
neither in appearance nor complexion. The
Greeks however are apt, though erroneously, to
confound them both under the name of Geloni.
Their country is covered with trees of every spe-
cies : where these are the thickest, there is a
large and spacious lake with a marsh surrounded
with reeds. In this lake are found otters, beavers,
and other wild animals, who have square snouts :
of these, the skins are used to border the gar-
ment ^'^; and their testicles are esteemed useful in
hysteric diseases.



118 Gcloiii.] — These people are called Picti by Virgil :

Pictosque Gelonos. Gcorg. i'l. 115.

And by Lucan, fortes :

Massagetes quo fugit equo fortesque Gelonos. — L. iii. 283.

119 Border the garment^] — It is [.erhaps not unworthy re-
mark, that throii!:liout the sacred Scriptures we find no men-



MELTOMENE. 11

ex. Of the Sauromatae '"'^ we have this ac-
count. In a contest which the Greeks had with



tion made of furs ; and this is the more extraordinary, as in
Syria and jEgypt, according to the accounts of modern tra-
vellers, garments lined and bordered with costly furs are the
dresses of honour and of ceremony. Purple and line linen are
what we often read of in Scripture ; but never of fur. — T.

120 Sauromatie.'] — This people were also called Sarmata; or
Sarmatians. It may perhaps tend to excite some novel and
interesting ideas in the mind of the English reader, when he
is informed, that among a people rude and uncivilized as
these Sarmatians are here described, the tender and etlemi-
nate Ovid was compelled to consume a long and melancholy
exile. It was on the banks of the Danube tbat be wrote
those nine books of epistles, which are certainly not the least
valuable of his works. The following lines are eminently
harmonious and pathetic:

At puto cum rcquies medicinaque publica curaj

Somnus adest, solitis nox venit orba malis,
Somnia me terrent veros imitantia casus,

Et vigilant sensus in mea damna mei;
Aut ego Sarmaticas videor vitare sagittas,

Aut dare captivas ad fera vincla manus ;
Aut ubi decipior melioris imagine somni,

Aspicio patriae tccta relicta mea%
Et modo vobiscum quos sum veneratus amici,

Et modo cum caril conjuge multa loquor. T.

Herodotus relates the origin of this people in this and
the subsequent chapters. The account of Diodorus Siculus
difiers materially : the Scythians, says this author, having
subdued part of Asia, drove several colonies out of the
country, and amongst them one of the INIcdes ; this, ad-*
vancing towards the Tanais, formed the nation of the Sau-
r()mata\ — LanJicr,



12 M E L r () M E N E.

the Amazons, Nvhoin the Scythians call Oiorpata ' ',
or, as it may be interpreted, men-slayers (for
Oeor signifies a man, and pata to kill), they ob-
tained a victory over them at Thermodon. On
their return, as many iVmazons ^"' as they were



1-1 0/c»/-/?«/a.]— This etymology is founded upon a notion
tliat the Amazons were a community of women who killed
every man with whom they had any commerce, and yet sub-
sisted as a people for ages. This title was given ihem from
their worship; f(n- Oiorpata, or, as some manuscripts have it,
Aorpata, is the same as Patah-Or, the priest of Orus, or, in
a more lax sense, the votaries of that god. They were
Av^pvKTOj'ot, for they sacrificed all strangers whom fortune
brought upon their coast: so that the whole Euxine sea,
upon which they lived, was rendered infamous from their
c r u e 1 ty . — B ri/u iit.

1-2 Ainazum?;^ — The more striking peculiarities relating to
this fancied community of women, are doubtless familiar to
the most common reader. The subject, considered in a
scientific point of view, is admirably discussed b}' Bryant.
His chapter on the Amazons is too long to transcribe, and
it w^ould be injurious to mutilate it. " Among barbarous
nations," says Mr. Gibbon, " women have often combated by
the side of their husbands; but it is almost impossible that
a society of Amazons should ever have existed in the old or
new world." — T.

Since the story of the Amazons in the way it is commonly
told is so justly exploded in these times, one is surprised
how it came to be so universally believed, as that most of
the writers of antiquity should speak of it as a fact. Nay,
even Herodotus has gone so far (Calliope, c. 27) as to make
the Athenians say that the Amazons had advanced from the
river Thermodon, to attack Attica. 'I'hat a connnunity of



M E I. r O M E N E. 13

able to take captive, tlicy distributed in tbre^
vessels : these, when they were out at sea, rose
against their conquerors, and put them all to
deatli. But as they were totally ignorant of na-
vigation, and knew nothing at all of the manage-
ment either of helms, sails, or oars, they were
obliged to resign themselves to the wind and the
tide, v>hich carried them to Cremnes *, near the
Palus INIa^otis, a place inhabited by the free Scy-
thians, The Amazons here disembarked, and
advanced towards the part which was inhabited,
and meeting with a stud of horses in their route,
they immediately seized them, and, mounted on
these, proceeded to plunder the Scvthians.

CXI. The Scythians vvere unable to explain
what had happened, being neither acquainted
witli the language, the dress, nor the country of



women existed for a short time, is not improbable, since
accidents may have deprived them of their husbands: but
were there not in that, as in every community, males growing
up towards maturity ?

Justin I. ii. c. 4, describes the origin of the Amazons to
be this. A colony of exiletl Scythians established them-
selves on the coast of the Euxine sea, in Cappadocia, near
the river Thermodon, and being exceedingly troublesome to
their neighbours, the men were all massacred. This ac-
counts very rationally for the existence of a community of
women : but who can believe that it continued ? — licnncU^
p. 92.

* This is probably the same place as Chemni, mentioned
in c. '.'0.



U M E L P O M E N E.

the invaders. Under the impression that they
were a body of men nearly of the same age, they
offered them l:iattle. The result was, that, havine;
taken some as prisoners, they at last discovered
them to be women. After a consultation amonjr
themselves, they determined not to put any of
them to death, but to select a detachment of their
youngest men, equal in number, as tliey might
conjecture, to the Am.azons. They were directed
to encamp opposite to them, and by their adver-
saries' motions to regulate their own : if they were
attacked, they were to retreat without making re-
sistance; when the pursuit should be discontinued,
they were to return, and again encamp as near the
Amazons as possible. The Scythians took these
measures, with the view of having children by these
invaders.

CXI I. The young men did as they were or-
dered. The Amazons, seeing that no injury was
offered them, desisted from hostilities. The two
camps imperceptibly approached each other.
The young Scythians, as well as the Amazons,
had nothing but their arms and their horses ;
and both obtained their subsistence from the
chace.

CXIIL It was the custom of the Amazons,
about noon, to retire from the rest, either alone
or two in company, to ease nature. The Scy-



M E L P O M E N E. 15

thians discovered tins, and did likewise. One of
the young men met with an Amazon, who had
wandered alone from her companions, and who^
instead of rejecting his caresses, siifTered him to
enjoy her person. They were not able to con-
verse with each other, but she intimated by signs,
that if on the following day he would come to the
same place, and bring with him a companion,
she would bring another female to meet him.
The young man returned, and told what had hap-
pened ; he was punctual to his engagement, and
the next day went with a friend to the place,
where he found the two Amazons waiting to re-
ceive them.

CXIV. This adventure was communicated
to the Scythians, who soon conciliated the rest
of the women. The two camps were presently
united, and each considered her as his wife to
whom he had first attached himself As they
were not able to learn the dialect of the Amazons,
they taught them theirs ; which having accom-
plished, the husbands thus addressed their wives :
— " We have relations and property, let us
" therefore change this mode of life ; let us go
" hence, and communicate with the rest of our
** covmtrymen, where you and you only shall be
" our wives." To this, the Amazons thus re-
plied : " W^e cannot associate w itli your females,
*' whose manners arc so different from our own ;



16 IVI E L P O M E X E,

" we arc expert in the uf?e of tlie javelin and the
" how, and accnstomed to ride on horsehack,
" hnt we are ignorant of all feminine employ-
" ments : vonr women are very differently ac-
" complished; instrncted in female arts, they
" pass their time in their waggons '' ', and de-
" spise the chace, with all similar exercises ; we
" cannot therefore live with them. If you really
" desire to retain us as your wives, and to he-
" have yourselves honestly towards us, return to
" your parents, dispose of your property, and
" afterwards come hack to us, and we will live
" together, at a distance from your other con-
" nections."

CXV. The young men approved of their ad-
vice; they accordingly took their share of the
property which helonged to them, and returned
to the Amazons, hy whom they were thus ad-
dressed : " Our residence here occasions us much
" terror and uneasiness : we have not only de-
" prived you of your parents, hut have greatly
" vvasted your country. As you think us worthy
" of heing your wives, let us leave this place, and
" dwell beyond the Tanais."



^-■' In their waggons^ — These waggons served them instead
of houses. Every one knows that in Greece the women
went out but seldom ; but I much tear that Herodotus at-
tributes to the Scythian women the manners of those of
G reece. — Larc/ui\



M E L P O M E N E. 17

CXVI. With this also the young Scythians
compUed, and having passed the Tanais, they



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