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. A






Rector of Lincoln College








f A Vort


THESE stories from Herodotus have been reprinted
from the larger Fourth Greek Reader to meet a request
for a small volume more suitable for general use in
Schools. The text has been revised, and a few ad-
ditional notes inserted, with an Introduction.

W. W. M.

OXFORD, Feb. 1880.




Introduction vii

Story of Solon and Croesus .... i

,, Fall of Croesus 6

Cyrus 10

Cambyses in Egypt 26

Poly crates 35

,, Zopyrus ....... 40

Darius in Scythia 43

,, the Peisistratidae . , . . .49

the Battle of Marathon . . . . 55

Thermopylae . 61

Notes 71


HERODOTUS was born in 484 B.C., six years after the
battle of Marathon, and four years before the battles of
Thermopylae, Artemisium, and Salamis. In his childhood
began the period of Athenian ascendancy, and Pericles
commenced his career as a statesman while Herodotus
was still a boy. A native of the Dorian colony of
Halicarnassus, and inheriting, we may believe, from his
uncle Panyasis a taste for Epic poetry and an enthusi-
astic love for the heroic legends of the past, he transferred
his home to Samos, and there perfected himself in the use
of the Ionic dialect, the most appropriate , vehicle for
the History, which, at a very early time of his life, he had
determined to compose.

In the half century which preceded his birth, Prose
Composition had begun its first essays in Greece; and
the chroniclers (\oyoy pdfat), such as Cadmus, Dionysius,
and Hecataeus of Miletus, Hellanicus of Lesbos, and
Scylax of Caryanda, had written, in a simple, inartistic
form, various annals of contemporary events, genealogies,
and descriptions of places they had visited.

The genius of Herodotus found a way of investing
such annals and such descriptions with all the charm of
poetry, and all the living interest of romance.

It is for this reason that he has been styled the ' Father
of History.'


But ' History,' in the sense in which Herodotus uses the
word, signifies ' researches ' (faro/not) ; for he intends it to
be the collected results of his extensive travels.

Before he reached middle life, Herodotus had explored
Egypt as far as Elephantine", Libya, Phenicia, Babylon,
and Persia. He had penetrated northward as far as the
mouths of the Dniester and Dnieper; he had coasted
along the southern shores of the Euxine, and the sea-
board and islands of the Aegean ; and finally had visited
the colonies of Magna Graecia, having made a home for
himself in Thurii.

But instead of contenting himself with merely reporting
the results of his travels, he weaves them into his history,
as part of a distinct plan. He proposes to narrate the
varying fortunes of the struggle between Asia and Europe
the ultimate triumph of Greece over the barbarian

To this central thought everything is made subservient;
or, everything is so arranged as to show a connection
with it. It is because Croesus is known to have com-
mitted acts of hostility against the Greeks that his history
and that of the kingdom of Lydia is so fully recorded.
The history of Cambyses introduces the description of
Egypt ; the expedition of Darius against the Scythians
gives a propriety to a description of Northern Europe ;
and the spread of the kingdom of Persia to Gyrene makes
an opening for the account of that country and of Libya.
Meanwhile the revolt of the lonians has brought the
quarrel between Persia and Greece to a head, and, after a
notice of the rise of Athens, and a digression upon the
government of Sparta, the many parallel streams of this
history unite in one broad channel, that marks the course
of the so-called Persian War. Herodotus carries his


account of this war up to the taking of Sestos by the
Greeks, and there his work abruptly closes.

But while this even flow of narrative may justly be
called Epic in its character, there is another point of view
in which the work may be more strictly styled Dramatic.

It is no mere description of a struggle between two or
more nations : it is a picture of human action subject to
the controlling influence of a moral law. It is intended
to be the constant exhibition of the truth that ' pride goeth
before a fall.' The fates of Croesus, of Cyrus, of Poly-
crates, of Xerxes, are only so many representations of the
insolence engendered by prosperity bringing down upon
itself the jealous wrath of heaven as a Greek would say,
the picture of vfipis followed by arr). The stories given in
this book will afford sufficient illustration of this.


It has been already noticed that Herodotus, though by
birth a Dorian, adopted the Ionic dialect, as more suitable
than Doric to the easy and flowing style of narration.
In this he did but follow the lead of the older logogra-

Pherecydes, Hecataeus, Hippocrates, and Democrilus,
are probably the representatives of the purest Ionic prose ;
but we do not possess a sufficient amount of their writings
to decide the question with anything like certainty. The
Iambics and Elegiacs of Archilochus, Simonides of
Amorgos, and Hipponax, are reckoned as the purest
specimens of Ionic in poetry (aKparos 'ids). The dialect
of Herodotus is described as TJ-OIK/XT/, the ' variegated tex-
ture ' of it being seen in the interweaving of many Epic


words and phrases, with some Attic, and a few Doric
forms. Yet, after making allowance for this admixture,
the Greek of Herodotus will serve as the best representa-
tive of Ionic. It is not without reason that he is called
by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, ' the best model of Ionic/
(rrjs 'IdSos apia-ros KCU/WZ/), as Thucydides was of Attic prose.
Analogous to the Greek of Homer, the dialect of Hero-
dotus is a literary product that grew up with the growth
of prose writing, and is doubtless different from any of
the spoken varieties of Ionic.

In softness and harmoniousness Ionic stands pre-emi-
nent, forming a marked contrast to the roughness and
concentrated strength of the Doric ; and thus it shows
itself as furthest removed from the original character of
the Greek language. The strongest evidence of this
tendency to softness is the almost uniform substitution of
/7 for a, which must have been an early change in the
language ; but we have not the means of deciding whether
the lonians brought this usage with them from their home
in Greece or whether they picked it up from their Asiatic
neighbours. In the Ionic dialect, as we find it in the
writings of poets and prose authors, there is a general
dislike of spirants, the Digamma has fallen out of use, and
the rough breathing is frequently toned down to the
smooth. The older Ionic, in spite of its tendency to
diaeresis, still retained many diphthongs which the younger
Ionic not unfrequently replaces by the long vowel only.
The concurrence of vowels is a constant feature in the
dialect, while contraction is but sparely used, though there
are instances of a distinct Ionic contraction as in oySoDKoira,
6j3u<rc, etc. The freedom of usage respecting the aug-
ment may come from the great influence of Epic poetry
upon Ionic prose.



i. The Consonants.

(a) Dropping of the aspirate, as aTriweW&u, eVopav,
vTricrrdvai, KaraTrep, Kara for /ca$* a, eV a>, OVK VTTtp, avns,


(3) Interchange of aspirates, as IvOavra, [email protected], ftdtipaKf.s

for fVTavOa, xircoi>,j3arpa;(oy.

(c) Substitution of K for TT, as Kolos, KOO-OS-, ovVco, 6/coVepos :
of ^ for (TO-, as Si^o?, rpit-os, for Sicro-os-, rpia-tros.

2. The Vowels.

(tf) Substitution of /; for a, as Tip^o-o-co, rpij^vsj ^L^KOVOS,
vtrjvirjs,], rotJ]Se.

(^) Substitution of e for a, as reVo-fpey, par]v 9 fcepeos, and
the converse as //e'yotfos-, ra/zi/co, rpaTroj.

(f) Substitution O/ a for 77, as Xao/uat, a/z(/)to-/3area).

(</) Substitution of 77 for a, as o-^prjyis, 7ro\\cnr\r)crios.

3. The Diphthongs.

(<2) Substitution of at for a, as aid, aieros.
(fi) ,, a) for au, as &o/ia, rpw/za.

(<T) ,, 1 for 6, aS ^el^OS, tvKV, <TTlv6s.

(d) ,, e for 6i, as p*a>v t cada, iTiTrjd(os,

{BaOea, eSe^a, C&6&S.

(e) }> ov for o, as juo0i>os>, i/o{}(roff, ovpos,

ovvofj-a, yovvaros.

(f) ,, co for ov, as coy, roiyapiov.


4. Contraction, Diaeresis, Crasis, and Elision.

(#) Contraction of OTJ to o>, as oyScoKoi/ra, /3a)$j^(rav, fWaxrar.
co tO ff, as TrXeCWs".

($) Diaeresis of ei to 774, as /Sac-iX^/?;, /ivq^toi/, 01*7710?.

[NOTE Proparoxyton nouns in ta as fityaXoirpeireia @aai\ia
(queen}, a\rj0ia retain .]

(c) Elision of prepositions, etc., as eV e/ioC, air dvdpunav,

afM 77/ze/j/7, e^ot/i' civ.

(d) Crasis, On the Attic System, as raXXa, ravra, raX

on the Ionic system, as <^7P, T

(e) Crasis Of eo auroi) tO ecouroC, e/ze'o atiroC tO e'ft

creo avrou tO (recovrou, 6 auro? to wuroy.
(/") Special contracted forms, O/JTJ? for foprf), Ipov for

cepov, OLKQS for eoi/coy.

5. The Declensions.

(#) Feminine nouns terminating in 5 change the a to
rj except in accusative plural, as fi^'pr], x^P 1 !^ io-Toply.
Nouns terminating in a keep the a in nominative and

accusative cvvoia, fvvoirjs, cvvoirj, cvvoiav,

(d) Nouns masculine in as as z/eawas-, 'A/t^ra?, take the
termination 77?, as i/e^V- The genitive is formed by fo>,
as 5eo-7roT6oa, vtrjvUu), and the accusative in rjv as well as ca.

(c) The genitive plural ends in ewi/, as yX<oo-<reW. The
genitive plural of feminine adjectives and participles also
ends in eo>i/, but only when in Attic the accent would be

perispomenon, as for 7ra<ro)i>, 7rao-ea>i> : Xe^0eio-aii>, Xe;$eio-a>i>.

(d) The dative plural ends in 770-1, as r^o-t, Seo-Trdrjyo-t,



(e) The dative plural is in oto-t, as Ao'yottn.

(/) The so-called 'Attic' 2nd declension is used by
Herodotus only in proper names, as Meve'Aeoo?, 'A^mpecos-.
For Afo>?, i/co?, Ka'Ao)?, Aayws- he gives the Ionic forms ATJO'S,
i/r/off, KciAo?, Aayd?, and for TrAecoy, lAeojy, aio'xpea>s the forms
TrAeof, etc.


(g) Neuters in o?, substantives and adjectives in rjs, vs,
or v leave all cases uncontracted. Neuters in as (except
yrjpas) decline with e instead of a, as Keptos. Kepii.

(h) Words in cvs decline as follows

fiacri\vs Aeos- Act A/a Afu . . . Ae'es \<*>v AeOcri Aea?.

In is mostly as follows

TToAt? IDS 1 IV 1 . . . LS [t?] ItoV IGl ICIS [ts].

Cp. 2apts ace. plur. Attic6 SdpSeu. The nom. is variously

2pSt? and 2ap8ie?.

The word ^0? (ravs) declines thus

vrji/Sj ^eos, vrji, vea, vtcs, vewv, vyvat, veas.

6. Pronouns.

(<z) Personal. Besides c/uco, o-co, eo, we have eV ^> " e ^>

eu. For aura) Ol* aur/J We have ot, for CLVTOV, avTTjV, nvro,

frequently /zii/ ; for avrols or auraT?, o-^t, and for cavrois or
cauraT?, a(f>i(n. The form o-^>e serves as the accusative of all
genders and numbers, and there is a special neuter plural

form (7(/>ea.

(3) The nominatives foels, ty^Is-, cr^a? are always con-
tracted, but in the oblique cases we have fjpfav, {^eW,

o-(eo>i> : rjfJLeas, v/ueaj, <r(j)eas.


(<:) The relative pronoun is declined, os, 9, TO ot, at, TO,
all oblique cases have the initial r, but this rule does not
apply to the declension of oans. For the Attic 6Vov, 6Vo>,

oroto-t, aTLva, HerodotUS USeS orev, oreft), 6reoio-t, aarcra.

(d) In the declension of T/S-, for r^W, nw, TtVo>i>, nVc,

HerodotUS Uses reo [rcC], Te'o>, recoi/, reo7t.


7. Augment.

(0) The use of the syllabic and temporal augment
in Herodotus, though not constant as in Attic, is more
governed by rule than in the Homeric poems. It is
regularly absent from certain words of poetical or of
distinct Ionic form, nor is it used with verbs beginning
with at, av, ei, cv, 01, nor with the iterative tenses in O-KOV,


8. Terminations.

(a) The third person plural in arat, aro for vrai, vro
is found, (i) in Perfects and Pluperfects of the o> con-
jugation, as TTi>$>aTai, oViWro, jSfjSXearat (with shortening

of rj tO e), wpjLiearo. (2) In Optative, as /Sot'Xoiaro, cnriKoiaTO.

(3) In Pres. and Imperf. Pass, of verbs in fit, as TrapeTidcaro.


(3) Uncontracted form of Pluperfect Active, as IvOea
eas ee. 3rd Pers. Plur. -fa-av.

(c) Uncontracted form of 2nd Pers. Sing. Indie.

Passive and Middle, as Ol^eac, eVeat, aVtKeo, eye'yeo, cdeao,
VTreBrjKao, Trei^eo [Imperat.].

[NOTE. The second person of all these forms is contracted in the


(d) In Aor. I. II. Passive Conjunctive, and Aor. II.
Conjunct, of verbs in fu the contracted vowel & is opened

into eo>, as mpe$eo), e^ayaorecojuez/.

9. Contracted Verbs.

(a) In verbs in eo>, Herodotus leaves open many of the
forms contracted by Attic rule, e.g. icaXfo/*ei/oy, icaXei?,
K(i\eov, <pi\o<To<pa)v. In a few verbs in eo>, the vowels eo
and cov contract into ev, to avoid the concurrence of three
or more vowels, as TTO-I e o n*vos t becomes Troievpcvos,
The impersonal Set is contracted, but the form of the
Imperfect is e'6'ee.

(3) The same rules apply to the contracted future of

verbs, as for /xei^'ouo-i, KaraTrXouneen', ga/HCttrdcu. But a

similar contraction into eu (see above) takes place with

SOme ' Attic ' futures, as KOjLueu/ze$a, avTay^v^v^vos.

(c) In verbs in aa>, the Attic contraction into w is
generally left open, but instead of the diaeresis appearing
as aw, ao, aov, it mostly follows the analogy of verbs in ecu,

and appears as eo>, eo, eov, as O/KG), 6peo^v t wpeov, 6pecofJLv f

etc. But the Attic contraction a or a remains undisturbed,
as opa?, 6pacr6ai. Xpaa> and ^pao/xat however do not con-
tract into 77 but n.

(^) Verbs in oo> generally follow the Attic rules of con-
traction, but in verbs in which a vowel precedes the letters
liable to contraction, oo and oov are mostly contracted to

ev, as eSiKai-fvv, a^ievvrai.

10. Verbs in JJLU

(a) The 2nd and 3rd Pers. Sing, and 3rd Pers. Plur. of
riQrjfjn, lo-r^jui, and d/dco/ze follow the forms of the con-

ju'^ation as ridels, TiQii, nBtivi j iarrqs, tora, tVraa-t * dtdols,
StSoi, ^tSouo-t. The imperf. of rlBr^ii is eVi^ea, criQeeSj crtQec.

Particip. Perf. of tcrr^t, cWfcoy.


() Dialectical forms of clpi (sum] are For eV/ucV, cluw;
for elev, c'lrjvav for &v and ouo-a, ecof and eovva, etc. ; for j}f ,

ZCTKOV, or sometimes ea, eay, earf.

(<:) Forms from ol8a are oiSa? tfyzez> ot'Sao-t. Conj. e?8e'a>.

Opt. l$ir]v. Imperf. ^'Sea f;Sf6 rj8eare f/Secrai/.

(<^) Forms of f^t (tbo) Imperf. fjia ^ fjio-av.
(e) diKi>v}jii and fevyvv/jn follow partly the conjugation in
pi and partly that in .


[The small figures and letters refer to the table of
Dialectical forms, page xi foil.]


(B. i. chaps. 29-31 ; 84-87.

The history of Herodotus is an account of the great feud
between Asia and Europe. There were many stories told on
either side about the various acts of violence that led to the
quarrel, such as the rape of lo, of Europa, and of Helen :
a woman, as usual, figuring in them, as the causa teterrlma
belli. Herodotus evidently considers the blame lay with the
Asiatics ; and he proceeds to tell the story of Croesus, king
of Lydia, the first historical aggressor (rov irp^rov virap^avra
aS/Kcoz/ cpyuv cs rovs *E\\r)vas). Croesus, son of Alyattes,
made himself master of most of the countries west of the
river Halys. Like Solomon, in wealth if not in wisdom,
he lived in magnificent state, and his court was visited by
great men from all parts, to partake of his splendid hospitality
and gaze on his priceless treasures. Among the most famous
of his guests was Solon, the Athenian.

I. i.

aXXoi re ol iravres Vc rrjs e EAAa8o? o-o< terra t, ot roi;-
rov TOV \povov zrvyyjzvov oVres lob , a>s eKaoro? avr&v
9a ' KCU Sr) KCU 2oXcoz;, avrjp 'AQrjvcfios, 05


5 ' A.OrjvaioKn VOJJLOVS KeXewracrt Troirjcras,
erea 5g 6e/ca, Kara flecoptrys 1 6a 7rpo<acrtz>
6r) //?7 rtra r<2z; z/o/xa)z> avayKao-dfj \vo-ai rwz; 6c e#ero.
aurot yap OVK otot re ?7(raz> avro Trotr/crat 'Aflrjz^atot*
opKmLart, 6e yap /xeyaXotcrt KaTix.ovTo s 8eKa crea X/ 37 ?"
10 creo-Oai vopoicri TOVS 6c az; (7</)t 6a 2oAcoz> Orjrai... AVT&V
brj )v 3f TOVT&V Kal rfjs 0ta>pir)s Kbr]fj,ri(ras 6 2oAcoz;
etre/cez/, Is AtyvTrroz; aTrtKcro Trapa v A/xacrtz;, Kat 6r) Kal
es 2ap6ts 6h Trapa Kpotcroz>. aTTtKo/xez/oy Se, e^etvt^Ero
ez; rotcrt /SacrtXrytotcrt 4b I^TTO roO Kpoicrov.

(B. i. 29, 30.)

After Solon had been taken round the royal treasure-
houses, Croesus asked him who was the happiest man he had
ever known, and Solon, to the surprise of his host, answered,
" Tellos, the Athenian."

I. 2.

Mera 6e, f]^pr] 5a rptrrj 77 reraprr;, KeAe^(raz>ros Kpot-
croi;, roz; 2oAa)z;a OepaTrovres Trepifjyov Kara rovs Orjcrav-
povs, Kat tTrebetKWo-av navTa eoVra 10b juteyaAa re Kat
o\fiia. 0rjr](raiJLvov 6e /xtz^ ra Traz^ra Kat (TKe\/ra/xez>oz/
5 (os ot 6a Kara Kcupbv j\v^ etpero 6 Kpotcros ra6e*
^z^ate, Trap' ?yju,e'as 6b yap Trept o-eo 6a Xoyos
-TToAXos, Kat cro<^)ti]r ( f (vKV rfjs (rrjs Kat

XvOas. vvv S)V t/xepos eTretpecrflat /xot eTTTJXfle, et rtz^a
10 "iby TraVrcozJ eT8e9 oXjQtwraror;" e O /xez/, eXTTtfcoz; etz^at
av9p(x>TT(tiv oX/3twraros > , rai5ra eTretpcora.
o^Sez; vTtoOcoTTtva-as, aXXa r<5 eoVrt 101 *
Xeyef " 9 12 ^Sao-tXeu, TeXXoz> 'AOrjvalov'" 'l
eras 3b 8e Kpoto-oy ro Xe)(^^> etpero e7rt<rrpe</>ecos'
Te'XXoz^ etz^at dX/3to)raroz^;" C O 8e


enre* "Te'XXo) TOVTO /xez;, rrjs Tro'Xtos- 5h e#

](raz/ KaXot re Kaya0ot, Kat crc^t e?6"e
eKyez/ofzez^a, Kat TraVra 7rapa/xetz;az>ra' TOVTO be,

TOV PIOV V JJKOVTl, O)S TCL Trap' ^JUUZ/, reXei>ri) rOl> /3lOV

\afJL7rpoTaTr] eTreye^ero. yevonevrjs yap *A6r]vaioi(Ti 20
fxax 7 ?^ Trpos 1 roi)? aoruyetroras' ez; 'EXevcrtz^
(ra9 4a , Kat TpoTrrjv TTOLTjo-as T&v -JToXe/xtcoz^,
KaXXtara. Kat jutty 'AOrjvaioi br]fJioo-iri re eOatyav avTOV

TjJTTtp 6c eTrecre, Kat ertft^crai' jueyaXcos 1 ."

(B. i. 30.)

Croesus, hoping he should at least come second on the list,
asks Solon whom he considered next happiest. Solon gives
that place to Cleobis and Bito of Argos, and tells their story.

I. 3.

'll? e ra Kara roz> TeXXou Trpoerpei^aro 6 2oXcoz/' roi>
Kpouroi;, etTray TroXXa re Kat oX^Sta, eTretpaira rtra

ya>z; 3f ot(reo-^at. 6 6e etTre" " KXe'ojStz; re Kat Btrcora.
TOVTOKTL yap, eoi;o-t yero? 'Apyetotcrt, /3to? re dpKecoz; 9 * 5
VTrrjv, Kat Trpo? roirra>, pw/xr] (rcojixaroy rot?}6e 2a * de^Xo-
</>opot re djLic^orepot 6/xotcos ^craz/, Kat 6r) Kat Xeyerat o6e
6 Xo'yos. ovcrri$ 6pr?j5 4f rr} f 'Hprj rotcrt 'Apyetoto-t, e6ee 9a
Trdz^rco? r?)z; /xr/repa CIVT&V (^tvyti KO^Krdrjvai es ro lpov* f '
ol b cr(pL /3oe9 eK roi; dypoi; ov irapeyivovTO ev
ot verjviai,

d^e'ero 77 jut7jrr/p. orra6tovs 6e -TreVre Kat
StaKOjutto-az^re?, CLTTLKOVTO ts TO ipov TCLVTO, 8e (r^)t TTOLTJ-
cracrt, Kat d^>^et(rt VTTO rijs Tra^ryyvptoy 511 , reXevrr) roi; 15
/3tou apiCTTr] eTreyez^ero. 6te6e^e /3d re ez/ TOVTOKTL 6 Oebs,
&s afjitivov elrj dz^^pajTrw TtOvavai /xaXXoz; r)
B 2


'Apyetot fjizv -yap TreptoraWes' ejmaKapifoz; r&v

rr]v pw/xrjz;* al be 'Apyetat, rrjv pjre'pa avr&v, ol

20 T&KV&V KVpr]CT. 1) 6 jUtT^r^p f npl\OLpJ]^ kovva TO) T

epyo) /cat rr/ (priori , crracra avriov TOV dyaAjutaros 1 ,
KAeo/3t re Kat Btrwz/t, rotcrt Icourijj 46 TKVOKTL, ot
Tifjirj(Tav juteyaXco?, bovvai rrjv Oebv ro 6c av6pu>7T(*>
apio-Tov eart. jutera Tavrrjv 6e r^y tvyj\v, a>s lOvtfiv re
25 /cat vu>yjiQTr}<rav, KaraKOiiJirjOevTes Iv CLVT& r<5 tpa> ot
Vivian, OVKZTI avto-rrjo-av, dAA.' ez^ re'Ae't* rovra) HO-^OVTO.
'Apyetot 6e (r^ecoz; 6b et/coz/a? iroLrjardfj.evoL, av0(rav $
ovs, ws avbp&v dptorco^

Croesus is vexed that he is thus passed over, but Solon tells
him that no one can be called happy till he has ended his days
happily, and that great prosperity is jealously watched by
heaven: the higher a man's estate, the more liable it is to
a sudden fall. Then Croesus dismisses Solon for a fool.

I. 4.

SoAooz; jutei; 8r) evbaifjiovirjs 6et>Tepr/ta 4b eWjute TOVTOLO-L.
Kpota-os 6e (T7repx0et?, etTre* " 9 & etz>e ^A^r^z/ate, ^ 6e
finrfn\ vbaL{jLovir] OVT& rot aTrepptTrrai es ro p,r]bv,
wore o^^e t6tcorea)z; 5c avbp&v aiov$ ^juteas 6b 7TOir}(ras ;"
5 C O 8e ctTre* " 9 >fl Kpoto-e, k'nio-ra^vov /xe ro
ov re Kat rapa)(ai8e9, eTretpcoras dz
?rept ; ez; yap rw fiaKpw xpov<*>
ecrrt tSeetz; ra ft?] rts e^eAet, TroAAa 8e Kat 7ra0eetz>* e/xot
8e (ri> Kat TT\ovTLv jj,v /xeya <^at^eat 8c , Kat J3a(n\v$
10 etz/at TToAAwy av6pu>77a)V eKetz/o 8e ro etpeo 8c /ixe, O#KO> IC
<re eya> Ae'ya), -Trptz; az> reAevrTJo-az/ra KaAws roy atwz^a
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(B-i. 32, 330



Solon's warning was soon to come true. Croesus first loses,
by an untoward accident, the son whose life he had guarded
as the apple of his eye: then, deceived by the ambiguous
answer of the Delphic oracle, he resolves to attack Cyrus, for
he was uneasy at the growing power of Persia. But he has
to fall back upon Sardis, his capital city, and after an obstinate
battle the aggressor finds himself besieged.

Sardis was deemed impregnable ; but a skilful climber found
his way up to the citadel by an undefended path. The troops
of Cyrus followed him, and the city was stormed.

II. 1.

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