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blue stone are also divers great mountains which border this
river in many places.

The next morning, towards nine of the clock, we weighed
anchor; and the breeze increasing, we sailed always west up
the river, and, after a while, opening the land on the right
side, the country appeared to be champaign and the banks
shewed very perfect red. I therefore sent two of the little
barges with Captain Gifford, and with him Captain Thyn,
Captain CaulHeld, my cousin Greenvile, my nephew John
Gilbert, Captain Eynos, Master Edwafd Porter, and my
cousin Butshead Gorges, with some few soldiers, to march
over the banks of that red land and to discover what manner
of country it was on the other side; who at their return found
it all a plain level as far as they went or could discern from
the highest tree they could get upon. And my old pilot, a
man of great travel, brother to the cacique Toparimaca, told
me that those were called the plains of the Sayma, and that
the same level reached to Cumana and Caracas, in the West
Indies, which are a hundred and twenty leagues to the north,



364 SIR WALTER RALEIGH

and that there inhabited four principal nations. The first
were the Sayma, the next Assawai, the third and greatest
the Wikiri, by whom Pedro Hernandez de Scrpa, before
mentioned, was overthrown as he passed with 300 horse from
Cutnand towards Orenoque in his enterprise of Guiana. The
fourth are called Aroras, and are as black as negroes, but
have smooth hair; and these are very valiant, or rather
desperate, people, and have the most strong poison on their
arrows, and most dangerous, of all nations, of which I will
speak somewhat, being a digression not unnecessary.

There was nothing whereof I was more curious than to
find out the true remedies of these poisoned arrows. For
besides the mortality of the wound they make, the party shot
endureth the most insufferable torment in the world, and
abideth a most ugly and lamentable death, sometimes dying
stark mad, sometimes their bowels breaking out of their
bellies; which are presently discoloured as black as pitch,
and so unsavory as no man can endure to cure or to attend
them. And it is more strange to know that in all this time
there was never Spaniard, either by gift or torment, that
could attain to the true knowledge of the cure, although they
have martyred and put to invented torture I know not how
many of them. But everyone of these Indians know it not,
no, not one among thousands, but their soothsayers and
priests, who do conceal it, and only teach it but from the
father to the son.

Those medicines which are vulgar, and serve for the ordi-
nary poison, are made of the juice of a root called tupara;
the same also quencheth marvellously the heat of burning
fevers, and healeth inward wounds and broken veins that
bleed within the body. But I was more beholding to the
Guianians than any other; for Antonio de Berreo told me
that he could never attain to the knowledge thereof, and yet
they taught me the best way of healing as well thereof as
of all other poisons. Some of the Spaniards have been
cured in ordinary wounds of the common poisoned arrows
with the juice of garlic. But this is a general rule for all
men that shall hereafter travel the Indies where poisoned
arrows are used, that they must abstain from drink. For if
they take any liquor into their body, as they shall be mar-



DISCOVERY OF GUIANA 365

vellously provoked thereunto by drought, I say, if they drink
before the wound be dressed, or soon upon it, there is no
way with them but present death.

And so I will return again to our journey, which for this
third day we finished, and cast anchor again near the con-
tinent on the left hand between two mountains, the one
called Aroami and the other Aio. I made no stay here but
till midnight; for I feared hourly lest any rain should fall,
and then it had been impossible to have gone any further
up, notwithstanding that there is every day a very strong
breeze and easterly wind. I deferred the search of the
country on Guiana side till my return down the river.

The next day we sailed by a great island in the middle
of the river, called Manoripano; and, as we walked awhile
on the island, while the galley got ahead of us, there came
for us from the main a small canoa with seven or eight
Guianians, to invite us to anchor at their port, but I deferred
till my return. It was that cacique to whom those Nepoios
went, which came with us from the town of Toparimaca.
And so the fifth day we reached as high up as the province
of Aromaia, the country of Morequito, whom Berreo
executed, and anchored to the west of an island called
Murrecotima, ten miles long and five broad. And that
night the cacique Aramiary, to whose town we made our
long and hungry voyage out of the river of Amana, passed
by us.

The next day we arrived at the port of Morequito, and an-
chored there, sending away one of our pilots to seek the
king of Aromaia, uncle to Morequito, slain by Berreo as
aforesaid. The next day following, before noon, he came
to us on foot from his house, which was fourteen English
miles, himself being a hundred and ten years old, and re-
turned on foot the same day; and with him many of the
borderers, with many women and children, that came to
wonder at our nation and to bring us down victual, which
they did in great plenty, as venison, pork, hens, chickens,
fowl, fish, with divers sorts of excellent fruits and roots, and
great abundance of pinas, the princess of fruits that grow
under the sun, especially those of Guiana. They brought us,
also, store of bread and of their wine, and a sort of paraquitos



366 SIR WALTER RALEIGH

no bigger than wrens, and of all other sorts both small and
great. One of them gave me a beast called by the Spaniards
armadillo, which they call cassacam, which seemeth to be all
barred over with small plates somewhat like to a rhinoceros,
with a white horn growing in his hinder parts as big as a
great hunting-horn, which they use to wind instead of a
trumpet. Monardus 4 * writeth that a little of the powder of
that horn put into the ear cureth deafness.

After this old king had rested awhile in a little tent that
I caused to be set up, I began by my interpreter to discourse
with him of the death of Morequito his predecessor, and
afterward of the Spaniards ; and yere I went any farther
I made him know the cause of my coming thither, whose
servant I was, and that the Queen's pleasure was I should
undertake the voyage for their defence, and to deliver them
from the tyranny of the Spaniards, dilating at large, as I
had done before to those of Trinidad, her Majesty's great-
ness, her justice, her charity to all oppressed nations, with
as many of the rest of her beauties and virtues as either I
could express or they conceive. All which being with great
admiration attentively heard and marvellously admired, I
began to sound the old man as touching Guiana and the
state thereof, what sort of commonwealth it was, how
governed, of what strength and policy, how far it extended,
and what nations were friends or enemies adjoining, and
finally of the distance, and way to enter the same. He told
me that himself and his people, with all those down the
river towards the sea, as far as Emeria, the province of
Carapana, were of Guiana, but that they called themselves
Orenoqueponi, and that all the nations between the river and
those mountains in sight, called Wacarima, were of the same
cast and appellation; and that on the other side of those
mountains of Wacarima there was a large plain (which after
I discovered in my return) called the valley of Amario-
capana. In all that valley the people were also of the
ancient Guianians.

I asked what nations those were which inhabited on the
further side of those mountains, beyond the valley of
Amariocapana. He answered with a great sigh (as a man

44 Monardes, Kistoria Medicinal (1574; English Version, 1577).



DISCOVERY OF GUIANA 367

which had inward feeling of the loss of his country and
liberty, especially for that his eldest son was slain in a battle
on that side of the mountains, whom he most entirely loved)
that he remembered in his father's lifetime, when he was
very old and himself a young man, that there came down
into that large valley of Guiana a nation from so far off as
the sun slept (for such were his own words), with so great
a multitude as they could not be numbered nor resisted,
and that they wore large coats, and hats of crimson colour,
which colour he expressed by shewing a piece of red wood
wherewith my tent was supported, and that they were called
Orejones and Epuremei; that those had slain and rooted
out so many of the ancient people as there were leaves in
the wood upon all the trees, and had now made themselves
lords of all, even to that mountain foot called Curaa, saving
only of two nations, the one called Iwarawaqueri and the
other Cassipagotos; and that in the last battle fought be-
tween the Epuremei and the Iwarawaqueri his eldest son
was chosen to carry to the aid of the Iwarawaqueri a great
troop of the Orcnoqueponi, and was there slain with all his
people and friends, and that he had now remaining but
one son ; and farther told me that those Epuremei had built
a great town called Macureguarai at the said mountain foot,
at the beginning of the great plains of Guiana, which have
no end; and that their houses have many rooms, one over
the other, and that therein the great king of the Orejones
and Epuremei kept three thousand men to defend the borders
against them, and withal daily to invade and slay them; but
that of late years, since the Christians offered to invade his
territories and those frontiers, they were all at peace, and
traded one with another, saving only the Iwarawaqueri and
those other nations upon the head of the river of Caroli
called Cassipagotos, which we afterwards discovered, each
one holding the Spaniard for a common enemy.

After he had answered thus far, he desired leave to
depart, saying that he had far to go, that he was old and
weak, and was every day called for by death, which was
also his own phrase. I desired him to rest with us that
night, but I could not entreat him ; but he told me that at my
return from the country above he would again come to us,



368 SIR WALTER RALEIGH

and in the meantime provide for us the best he could, of
all that his country yielded. The same night he returned to
Orocotona, his own town; so as he went that day eight-
and-twenty miles, the weather being very hot, the country
being situate between four and five degrees of the equi-
noctial. This Topiawari is held for the proudest and wisest
of all the Orcnoqucponi, and so he behaved himself towards
me in all his answers, at my return, as I marvelled to find
a man of that gravity and judgment and of so good discourse,
that had no help of learning nor breed.

The next morning we also left the port, and sailed west-
ward up to the river, to view the famous river called
Caroli, as well because it was marvellous of itself, as also
for that I understood it led to the strongest nations of all
the frontiers, that were enemies to the Epuremei, which are
subjects to Inga, emperor of Guiana and Manoa. And that
night we anchored at another island called Caiama, of some
five or six miles in length ; and the next day arrived at the
mouth of Caroli. When we were short of it as low or
further down as the port of Morcquito, we heard the great
roar and fall of the river. But when we came to enter with
our barge and wherries, thinking to have gone up some
forty miles to the nations of the Cassipagotos, we were
not able with a barge of eight oars to row one stone's
cast in an hour; and yet the river is as broad as the
Thames at Woolwich, and we tried both sides, and the
middle, and every part of the river. So as we encamped
upon the banks adjoining, and sent off our Orcnoqucpone
which came with us from Morcquito to give knowledge to
the nations upon the river of our being there, and that we
desired to see the lords of C anuria, which dwelt within
the province upon that river, making them know that we
were enemies to the Spaniards; for it was on this river
side that Morcquito slew the friar, and those nine Spaniards
which came from Manoa, the city of Inga, and took from
them 14,000 pesos of gold. So as the next day there came
down a lord or cacique, called Wanurctona, with many
people with him, and brought all store of provisions to
entertain us, as the rest had done. And as I had before
made my coming known to Topiawari, so did I acquaint



DISCOVERY OF GUIANA 369

this cacique therewith, and how I was sent by her Majesty
for the purpose aforesaid, and gathered also what I could
of him touching the estate of Guiana. And I found that
those also of Caroli were not only enemies to the Spaniards,
but most of all to the Epuremei, which abound in gold.
And by this Wanuretona I had knowledge that on the
head of this river were three mighty nations, which were
seated on a great lake, from whence this river descended,
and were called Cassipagotos, Eparegotos, and Arawa-
gotos;* 5 and that all those either against the Spaniards or
the Epuremei would join with us, and that if we entered
the land over the mountains of Curaa we should satisfy
ourselves with gold and all other good things. He told us
farther of a nation called Iwarawaqueri, before spoken of,
that held daily war with the Epuremei that inhabited
Macurcguarai, the first civil town of Guiana, of the subjects
of Inga, the emperor.

Upon this river one Captain George, that I took with
Berreo, told me that there was a great silver mine, and that
it was near the banks of the said river. But by this time
as well Orenoque, Caroli, as all the rest of the rivers were
risen four or five feet in height, so as it was not possible
by the strength of any men, or with any boat whatsoever,
to row into the river against the stream. I therefore sent
Captain Thyn, Captain Grcenvile, my nephew, John Gilbert,
my cousin Butshead Gorges, Captain Clarke, and some
thirty shot more to coast the river by land, and to go to a
town some twenty miles over the valley called Amnatapoi;
and they found guides there to go farther towards the
mountain foot to another great town called Capurepana,
belonging to a cacique called Haharacoa, that was a nephew
to old Topiawari, king of Aromaia, our chief est friend, be-
cause this town and province of Capurepana adjoined to
Macurcguarai, which was a frontier town of the empire.
And the meanwhile myself with Captain Gifford, Captain
Caulfield, Edward Hancock, and some half-a-dozen shot
marched overland to view the strange overfalls of the river
of Caroli, which roared so far off; and also to see the

13 The Purigotos and Arinagotos are still settled on the upper tributaries
of the Caroni river. No such lake as that mentioned is known to exist.



S70 SIR WALTER RALEIGH

plains adjoining, and the rest of the province of Canuri.
I sent also Captain Whiddon, William Connock, and some
eight shot with them, to see if they could find any mineral
stone alongst the river's side. When we were come to the
tops of the first hills of the plains adjoining to the river,
we beheld that wonderful breach of waters which ran down
Caroli; and might from that mountain see the river how
it ran in three parts, above twenty miles off, and there ap-
peared some ten or twelve overfalls in sight, every one as
high over the other as a church tower, which fell with that
fury, that the rebound of water made it seem as if it had
been all covered over with a great shower of rain; and in
some places we took it at the first for a smoke that had
risen over some great town. For mine own part I was
well persuaded from thence to have returned, being a very
ill footman ; but the rest were all so desirous to go near the
said strange thunder of waters, as they drew me on by little
and little, till we came into the next valley, where we might
better discern the same. I never saw a more beautiful
country, nor more lively prospects; hills so raised here and
there over the valleys ; the river winding into divers
branches; the plains adjoining without bush or stubble, all
fair green grass; the ground of hard sand, easy to march
on, either for horse or foot; the deer crossing in every path;
the birds towards the evening singing on every tree with
a thousand several tunes; cranes and herons of white,
crimson, and carnation, perching in the river's side; the air
fresh with a gentle easterly wind; and every stone that we
stooped to take up promised either gold or silver by his com-
plexion. Your Lordship shall see of many sorts, and I hope
some of them cannot be bettered under the sun; and yet we
had no means but with our daggers and fingers to tear them
out here and there, the rocks being most hard of that
mineral spar aforesaid, which is like a flint, and is altogether
as hard or harder, and besides the veins lie a fathom or
two deep in the rocks. But we wanted all things requisite
save only our desires and good will to have performed more
if it had pleased God. To be short, when both our com-
panies returned, each of them brought also several sorts
of stones that appeared very fair, but were such as they



DISCOVERY OF GUIANA 371

found loose on the ground, and were for the most part but
coloured, and had not any gold fixed in them. Yet such
as had no judgment or experience kept all that glistered,
and would not be persuaded but it was rich because of
the lustre; and brought of those, and of marcasite withal,
from Trinidad, and have delivered of those stones to be
tried in many places, and have thereby bred an opinion
that all the rest is of the same. Yet some of these stones
I shewed afterward to a Spaniard of the Caracas, who told
me that it was El madre del oro, that is, the mother of gold,
and that the mine was farther in the ground.

But it shall be found a weak policy in me, either to betray
myself or my country with imaginations ; neither am I
so far in love with that lodging, watching, care, peril,
diseases, ill savours, bad fare, and many other mischiefs
that accompany these voyages, as to woo myself again
into any of them, were I not assured that the sun cov-
ereth not so much riches in any part of the earth. Cap-
tain Whiddon, and our chirurgeon, Nicholas Millechamp,
brought me a kind of stones like sapphires ; what they may
prove I know not. I shewed them to some of the Orenoque-
poni, and they promised to bring me to a mountain that
had of them very large pieces growing diamond-wise;
whether it be crystal of the mountain, Bristol diamond, or
sapphire, I do not yet know, but I hope the best; sure I am
that the place is as likely as those from whence all the rich
stones are brought,, and in the same height or very near.

On the left hand of this river Caroli are seated those
nations which I called Iwarawaqueri before remembered,
which are enemies to the Epuremei; and on the head of it,
adjoining to the great lake Cassipa, are situated those other
nations which also resist Inga, and the Epuremei, called
Cassipagotos, Eparegotos, and Arawagotos. I farther under-
stood that this lake of Cassipa is so large, as it is above
one day's journey for one of their canoas, to cross, which
may be some forty miles; and that thereinto fall divers
rivers, and that great store of grains of gold are found in
the summer time when the lake falleth by the banks, in
those branches.

There is also another goodly river beyond Caroli which



372 SIR WALTER RALEIGH

is called Arid, which also runneth thorough the lake Cassipa,
and falleth into Orenoque farther west, making all that land
between Caroli and Ami an island; which is likewise a
most beautiful country. Next unto Arm there are two
rivers Atoka and Caura, and on that branch which is called
Caura are a nation of people whose heads appear not above
their shoulders; which though it may be thought a mere
fable, yet for mine own part I am resolved it is true,
because every child in the provinces of Aromaia and
Canuri affirm the same. They are called Ewaipanoma; they
are reported to have their eyes in their shoulders, and their
mouths in the middle of their breasts, and that a long train
of hair groweth backward between their shoulders. The
son of Topiawari, which I brought with me into England,
told me that they were the most mighty men of all the land,
and use bows, arrows, and clubs thrice as big as any of Guiana,
or of the Orcnoqueponi; and that one of the Iwarawaqueri
took a prisoner of them the year before our arrival there,
and brought him into the borders of Aromaia, his father's
country. And farther, when I seemed to doubt of it, he
told me that it was no wonder among them; but that they
were as great a nation and as common as any other in all
the provinces, and had of late years slain many hundreds of
his father's people, and of other nations their neighbours.
But it was not my chance to hear of them till I was come
away ; and if I had but spoken one word of it while I was
there I might have brought one of them with me to put
the matter out of doubt. Such a nation was written of by
Mandeville, whose reports were holden for fables many
years; and yet since the East Indies were discovered, we
find his relations true of such things as heretofore were
held incredible. 4 * Whether it be true or no, the matter is
not great, neither can there be any profit in the imagina-
tion ; for mine own part I saw them not, but I am resolved
that so many people did not all combine or forethink to
make the report.

When I came to Cumana in the West Indies afterwards
by chance I spake with a Spaniard dwelling not far from

48 Mandeville, or the author who assumed this name, placed his headless
men in the East Indian Archipelago. The fable is borrowed from older
writers (Herodotus, iv. 191, &c).



DISCOVERY OF GUIANA 373

thence, a man of great travel. And after he knew that I
had been in Guiana, and so far directly west as Caroli, the
first question he asked me was, whether I had seen any of the
Ewaipanoma, which are those without heads. Who being es-
teemed a most honest man of his word, and in all things else,
told me that he had seen many of them; I may not name him,
because it may be for his disadvantage, but he is well known
to Monsieur Moucheron's son of London, and to Peter Mou-
cheron, merchant, of the Flemish ship that was there in
trade; who also heard, what he avowed to be true, of those
people.

The fourth river to the west of Caroli is Casnero: which
falleth into the Orenoque on this side of Amapaia. And that
river is greater than Danubius, or any of Europe: it riseth
on the south of Guiana from the mountains which divide
Guiana from Amazons, and I think it to be navigable many
hundred miles. But we had no time, means, nor season of
the year, to search those rivers, for the causes aforesaid,
the winter being come upon us; although the winter and
summer as touching cold and heat differ not, neither do the
trees ever sensibly lose their leaves, but have always fruit
either ripe or green, and most of them both blossoms, leaves,
ripe fruit, and green, at one time: but their winter only
consisteth of terrible rains, and overflowing of the rivers,
with many great storms and gusts, thunder and lightnings,
of which we had our fill ere we returned.

On the north side, the first river that falleth into the
Orenoque is Cari. Beyond it, on the same side is the river
of Limo. Between these two is a great nation of Cannibals,
and their chief town beareth the name of the river, and is
called Acamacari. At this town is a continual market of
women for three or four hatchets apiece ; they are bought by
the Arwacas, and by them sold into the West Indies. To
the west of Limo is the river Pao, beyond it Caturi, beyond
that Voari, and Capuri" which falleth out of the great river
of Meta, by which Berreo descended from Nuevo Reyno de
Granada. To the westward of Capuri is the province of
Amapaia, where Berreo wintered and had so many of his
people poisoned with the tawny water of the marshes of the

47 The Apure river.



374 SIR WALTER RALEIGH

Anebas. Above Amapaia, toward Nuevo Reyno, fall in Meto,
Pato and Cassanar. To the west of those, towards the prov-
inces of the Ashaguas and Catetios, are the rivers of Beta,
Dawney, and Ubarro; and toward the frontier of Peru are
the provinces of Thomebamba, and Caxamalca. Adjoining
to Quito in the north side of Peru are the rivers of Guiacar
and Goauar; and on the other side of the said mountains the
river of Papamene which descendeth into Marahon or Ama-



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