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which I directed to take the next way to the port of
Toparimaca, by which we entered first.

All the night it was stormy and dark, and full of thunder
and great showers, so as we were driven to keep close by
the banks in our small boats, being all heartily afraid both of



DISCOVERY OF GUIANA 385

the billow and terrible current of the river. By the next
morning we recovered the mouth of the river of Cumaca,
where we left Captain Eynos and Edward Porter to attend
the coming of Captain Keymis overland ; but when we en-
tered the same, they had heard no news of his arrival, which
bred in us a great doubt what might become of him. I
rowed up a league or two farther into the river, shooting
off pieces all the way, that he might know of our being
there ; and the next morning we heard them answer us also
with a piece. We took them aboard us, and took our leave
of Putijma, their guide, who of all others most lamented our
departure, and offered to send his son with us into England,
if we could have stayed till he had sent back to his town.
But our hearts were cold to behold the great rage and
increase of Orenoque, and therefore [we] departed, and
turned toward the west, till we had recovered the parting of
the three branches aforesaid, that we might put down the
stream after the galley.

The next day we landed on the island of Assapano, which
divideth the river from that branch by which we sent down
to Emeria, and there feasted ourselves with that beast which
is called armadillo, presented unto us before at Winicapora.
And the day following, we recovered the galley at anchor
at the port of Toparimaca, and the same evening departed
with very foul weather, and terrible thunder and showers,
for the winter was come on very far. The best was, we went
no less than ioo miles a day down the river; but by the way
we entered it was impossible to return, for that the river
of Amana, being in the bottom of the bay of Guanipa, can-
not be sailed back by any means, both the breeze and current
of the sea were so forcible. And therefore we followed a
branch of Orenoque called Capnri, which entered into the
sea eastward of our ships, to the end we might bear with
them before the wind ; and it was not without need, for we
had by that way as much to cross of the main sea, after we
came to the river's mouth, as between Gravelin and Dover,
in such boats as your honour hath heard.

To speak of what passed homeward were tedious, either
to describe or name any of the rivers, islands, or villages
of the Tivitivas, which dwell on trees; we will leave all those

HC XXXIII (13)



386 SIR WALTER RALEIGH

to the general map. And to be short, when we were arrived
at the sea-side, then grew our greatest doubt, and the
bitterest of all our journey forepassed; for I protest before
God, that we were in a most desperate estate. For the same
night which we anchored in the mouth of the river of
Capuri, where it falleth into the sea, there arose a mighty
storm, and the river's mouth was at least a league broad,
so as we ran before night close under the land with our small
boats, and brought the galley as near as we could. But she
had as much ado to live as could be, and there wanted little
of her sinking, and all those in her; for mine own part, I
confess I was very doubtful which way to take, either to go
over in the pestered 50 galley, there being but six foot water
over the sands for two leagues together, and that also in the
channel, and she drew five ; or to adventure in so great a bil-
low, and in so doubtful weather, to cross the seas in my barge.
The longer we tarried the worse it was, and therefore I took
Captain Gifford, Captain Caulfield, and my cousin Greenvile
into my barge ; and after it cleared up about midnight we put
ourselves to God's keeping, and thrust out into the sea, leav-
ing the galley at anchor, who durst not adventure but by
daylight. And so, being all very sober and melancholy,
one faintly cheering another to shew courage, it pleased
God that the next day about nine o'clock, we descried the
island of Trinidad; and steering for the nearest part of it,
we kept the shore till we came to Curiapan, where we found
our ships at anchor, than which there was never to us a more
joyful sight.

Now that it hath pleased God to send us safe to our ships,
it is time to leave Guiana to the sun, whom they worship,
and steer away towards the north. I will, therefore, in a few
words finish the discovery thereof. Of the several nations
which we found upon this discovery I will once again make
repetition, and how they are affected. At our first entrance
into Amana, which is one of the outlets of Orenoque, we
left on the right hand of us in the bottom of the bay, lying
directly against Trinidad, a nation of inhuman Cannibals,
which inhabit the rivers of Guanipa and Berbeese. In the
same bay there is also a third river, which is called Areo,

60 Crowded.



DISCOVERY OF GUIANA 387

which riseth on Paria side towards Cumand, and that river
is inhabited with the Wikiri, whose chief town upon the
said river is Sayma. In this bay there are no more rivers
but these three before rehearsed and the four branches of
Amana, all which in the winter thrust so great abundance of
water into the sea, as the same is taken up fresh two or three
leagues from the land. In the passages towards Guiana,
that is, in all those lands which the eight branches of
Orenoque fashion into islands, there are but one sort of
people, called Tivitivas, but of two castes, as they term them,
the one called Ciawani, the other Waraweeti, and those war
one with another.

On the hithermost part of Orenoque, as at Toparimaca
and Winicapora, those are of a nation called Nepoios, and
are the followers of Carapana, lord of Emeria. Between
Winicapora and the port of Morequito, which standeth in
Aromaia, and all those in the valley of Amariocapana are
called Orenoqueponi, and did obey Morequito and are now fol-
lowers of Topiawari. Upon the river of Caroli are the Ca-
nuri, which are governed by a woman who is inheritrix of
that province ; who came far off to see our nation, and asked
me divers questions of her Majesty, being much delighted
with the discourse of her Majesty's greatness, and wonder-
ing at such reports as we truly made of her Highness' many
virtues. And upon the head of Caroli and on the lake of
Cassipa are the three strong nations of the Cassipagotos.
Right south into the land are the Capurepani and Empare-
pani, and beyond those, adjoining to Macureguarai, the first
city of Inga, are the Iwarawakeri. All these are professed
enemies to the Spaniards, and to the rich Epuremei also. To
the west of Caroli are divers nations of Cannibals and of
those Ewaipanoma without heads. Directly west are the
Amapaias and Anebas, which are also marvellous rich in
gold. The rest towards Peru we will omit. On the north of
Orenoque, between it and the West Indies, are the Wikiri,
Saymi, and the rest before spoken of, all mortal enemies to
the Spaniards. On the south side of the main mouth of Ore-
noque are the Arwacas; and beyond them, the Cannibals;
and to the south of them, the Amazons.

To make mention of the several beasts, birds, fishes, fruits,



388 SIR WALTER RALEIGH

flowers, gums, sweet woods, and of their several religions
and customs, would for the first require as many volumes as
those of Gesnerns, and for the next another bundle of De-
cades. The religion of the Epuremei is the same which the
Ingas, emperors of Peru, used, which may be read in Cieza
and other Spanish stories; how they believe the immortality
of the soul, worship the sun, and bury with them alive their
best beloved wives and treasure, as they likewise do in Pegu
in the East Indies, and other places. The Orenoqueponi bury
not their wives with them, but their jewels, hoping to enjoy
them again. The Arwacas dry the bones of their lords, and
their wives and friends drink them in powder. In the graves
of the Peruvians the Spaniards found their greatest abun-
dance of treasure. The like, also, is to be found among
these people in every province. They have all many wives,
and the lords five-fold to the common sort. Their wives
never eat with their husbands, nor among the men, but serve
their husbands at meals and afterwards feed by them-
selves. Those that are past their younger years make all
their bread and drink, and work their cotton-beds, and
do all else of service and labour; for the men do nothing
but hunt, fish, play, and drink, when they are out of the
wars.

I will enter no further into discourse of their manners,
laws, and customs. And because I have not myself seen
the cities of Inga I cannot avow on my credit what I have
heard, although it be very likely that the emperor Inga hath
built and erected as magnificent palaces in Guiana as his
ancestors did in Peru; which were for their riches and rare-
ness most marvellous, and exceeding all in Europe, and, I
think, of the world, China excepted, which also the Spaniards,
which I had, assured me to be true, as also the nations of
the borderers, who, being but savages to those of the inland,
do cause much treasure to be buried with them. For I was
informed of one of the caciques of the valley of Amarioca-
pana which had buried with him a little before our arrival
a chair of gold most curiously wrought, which was made
either in Macureguarai adjoining or in Manoa. But if we
should have grieved them in their religion at the first, before
they had been taught better, and have digged up their graves,



DISCOVERY OF GUIANA 389

we had lost them all. And therefore I held my first resolu-
tion, that her Majesty should either accept or refuse the
enterprise ere anything should be done that might in any
sort hinder the same. And if Peru had so many heaps of
gold, whereof those Ingas were princes, and that they de-
lighted so much therein, no doubt but this which now liveth
and reigneth in Manoa hath the same humour, 61 and, I am
assured, hath more abundance of gold within his territory
than all Peru and the West Indies.

For the rest, which myself have seen, I will promise these
things that follow, which I know to be true. Those that
are desirous to discover and to see many nations may be
satisfied within this river, which bringeth forth so many
arms and branches leading to several countries and prov-
inces, above 2,000 miles east and west and 800 miles south
and north, and of these the most either rich in gold or in
other merchandises. The common soldier shall here fight
for gold, and pay himself, instead of pence, with plates of
half-a-foot broad, whereas he breaketh his bones in other
wars for provant 52 and penury. Those commanders and
chieftains that shoot at honour and abundance shall find
there more rich and beautiful cities, more temples adorned
with golden images, more sepulchres filled with treasure,
than either Cortes found in Mexico or Pizarro in Peru. And
the shining glory of this conquest will eclipse all those so
far-extended beams of the Spanish nation. There is no
country which yieldeth more pleasure to the inhabitants,
either for those common delights of hunting, hawking, fish-
ing, fowling, and the rest, than Guiana doth ; it hath so many
plains, clear rivers, and abundance of pheasants, partridges,
quails, rails, cranes, herons, and all other fowl; deer of all
sorts, porks, hares, lions, tigers, leopards, and divers other
sorts of beasts, either for chase or food. It hath a kind of
beast called cama or anta as big as an English beef, and
in great plenty. To speak of the several sorts of every kind
I fear would be troublesome to the reader, and therefore I
will omit them, and conclude that both for health, good air,
pleasure, and riches, I am resolved it cannot be equalled by
any region either in the east or west. Moreover the country

n Hakluyt reads 'honour.' E2 Provender, food. M The tapir.



390 SIR WALTER RALEIGH

is so healthful, as of an hundred persons and more, which
lay without shift most sluttishly, and were every day almost
melted with heat in rowing and marching, and suddenly wet
again with great showers, and did eat of all sorts of corrupt
fruits, and made meals of fresh fish without seasoning, of
tortngas, of lagartos or crocodiles, and of all sorts good and
bad, without either order or measure, and besides lodged in
the open air every night, we lost not any one, nor had one
ill-disposed to my knowledge; nor found any calentura or
other of those pestilent diseases which dwell in all hot
regions, and so near the equinoctial line.

Where there is store of gold it is in effect needless to re-
member other commodities for trade. But it hath, towards
the south part of the river, great quantities of brazil-wood,
and divers berries that dye a most perfect crimson and car-
nation ; and for painting, all France, Italy, or the East Indies
yield none such. For the more the skin is washed, the fairer
the colour appeareth, and with which even those brown and
tawny women spot themselves and colour their cheeks. All
places yield abundance of cotton, of silk, of balsamum, and
of those kinds most excellent and never known in Europe,
of all sorts of gums, of Indian pepper; and what else the
countries may afford within the land we know not, neither
had we time to abide the trial and search. The soil besides
is so excellent and so full of rivers, as it will carry sugar,
ginger, and all those other commodities which the West
Indies have.

The navigation is short, for it may be sailed with an
ordinary wind in six weeks, and in the like time back again ;
and by the way neither lee-shore, enemies' coast, rocks, nor
sands. All which in the voyages to the West Indies and all
other places we are subject unto; as the channel of Bahama,
coming from the West Indies, cannot well be passed in the
winter, and when it is at the best, it is a perilous and a fear-
ful place ; the rest of the Indies for calms and diseases very
troublesome, and the sea about the Bermudas a hellish sea
for thunder, lightning, and storms.

This very year (1595) there were seventeen sail of
Spanish ships lost in the channel of Bahama, and the great
Philip, like to have sunk at the Bermudas, was put back to



DISCOVERY OF GUIANA 391

St. Juan de Puerto Rico; and so it falleth out in that navi-
gation every year for the most part. Which in this voyage
are not to be feared ; for the time of year to leave England
is best in July, and the summer in Guiana is in October,
November, December, January, February, and March, and
then the ships may depart thence in April, and so return
again into England in June. So as they shall never be sub-
ject to winter weather, either coming, going, or staying
there: which, for my part, I take to be one of the greatest
comforts and encouragements that can be thought on, having,
as I have done, tasted in this voyage by the West Indies so
many calms, so much heat, such outrageous gusts, such
weather, and contrary winds.

To conclude, Guiana is a country that hath yet her
maidenhead, never sacked, turned, nor wrought; the face of
the earth hath not been torn, nor the virtue and salt of the
soil spent by manurance. The graves have not been opened
for gold, the mines not broken with sledges, nor their images
pulled down out of their temples. It hath never been entered
by any army of strength, and never conquered or possessed
by any Christian prince. It is besides so defensible, that if
two forts be builded in one of the provinces which I have
seen, the flood setteth in so near the bank, where the channel
also lieth, that no ship can pass up but within a pike's length
of the artillery, first of the one, and afterwards of the other.
Which two forts will be a sufficient guard both to the empire
of Inga, and to an hundred other several kingdoms, lying
within the said river, even to the city of Quito in Peru.

There is therefore great difference between the easiness
of the conquest of Guiana, and the defence of it being con-
quered, and the West or East Indies. Guiana hath but one
entrance by the sea, if it hath that, for any vessels of burden.
So as whosoever shall first possess it, it shall be found un-
accessible for any enemy, except he come in wherries, barges,
or canoas, or else in flat-bottomed boats; and if he do offer
to enter it in that manner, the woods are so thick 200 miles
together upon the rivers of such entrance, as a mouse cannot
sit in a boat unhit from the bank. By land it is more im-
possible to approach ; for it hath the strongest situation of
any region under the sun, and it is so environed with im-



392 SIR WALTER RALEIGH

passable mountains on every side, as it is impossible to vict-
ual any company in the passage. Which hath been well
proved by the Spanish nation, who since the conquest of
Peru, have never left five years free from attempting this
empire, or discovering seme way into it ; and yet of three-
and-twenty several gentlemen, knights, and noblemen, there
was never any that knew which way to lead an army by
land, or to conduct ships by sea, anything near the said
country. Orellana, of whom the river of Amazons taketh
name, was the first, and Don Antonio de Berreo, whom we
displanted, the last: and I doubt much whether he himself
or any of his yet know the best way into the said empire.
It can therefore hardly be regained, if any strength be
formerly set down, but in one or two places, and but two or
three crumsters u or galleys built and furnished upon the
river within. The West Indies have many ports, watering
places, and landings; and nearer than 300 miles to Guiana,
no man can harbour a ship, except he know one only place,
which is not learned in haste, and which I will undertake
there is not any one of my companies that knoweth, whoso-
ever hearkened most after it.

Besides, by keeping one good fort, or building one town
of strength, the whole empire is guarded; and whatsoever
companies shall be afterwards planted within the land, al-
though in twenty several provinces, those shall be able all
to reunite themselves upon any occasion either by the way
of one river, or be able to march by land without either
wood, bog, or mountain. Whereas in the West Indies there
are few towns or provinces that can succour or relieve one
the other by land or sea. By land the countries are either
desert, mountainous, or strong enemies. By sea, if any man
invade to the eastward, those to the west cannot in many
months turn against the breeze and eastern wind. Besides,
the Spaniards are therein so dispersed as they are nowhere
strong, but in Nneva Espana only ; the sharp mountains, the
thorns, and poisoned prickles, the sandy and deep ways in
the valleys, the smothering heat and air, and want of water
in other places are their only and best defence ; which, be-
cause those nations that invade them are not victualled or

M Dutch, Kromstevcn or Kromster, a vessel with a bent prow.



DISCOVERY OF GUIANA 393

provided to stay, neither have any place to friend adjoining,
do serve them instead of good arms and great multitudes.

The West Indies were first offered her Majesty's grand-
father by Columbus, a stranger, in whom there might be
doubt of deceit; and besides it was then thought incredible
that there were such and so many lands and regions never
written of before. This Empire is made known to her
Majesty by her own vassal, and by him that oweth to her
more duty than an ordinary subject; so that it shall ill sort
with the many graces and benefits which I have received to
abuse her Highness, either with fables or imaginations. The
country is already discovered, many nations won to her
Majesty's love and obedience, and those Spaniards which
have latest and longest laboured about the conquest, beaten
out, discouraged, and disgraced, which among these nations
were thought invincible. Her Majesty may in this enter-
prise employ all those soldiers and gentlemen that are
younger brethren, and all captains and chieftains that want
employment, and the charge will be only the first setting
out in victualling and arming them; for after the first or
second year I doubt not but to see in London a Contracta-
tion-House 55 of more receipt for Guiana than there is now
in Seville for the West Indies.

And I am resolved that if there were but a small army
afoot in Guiana, marching towards Manoa, the chief city of
Inga, he would yield to her Majesty by composition so many
hundred thousand pounds yearly as should both defend all
enemies abroad, and defray all expenses at home ; and that he
would besides pay a garrison of three or four thousand sol-
diers very royally to defend him against other nations. For
he cannot but know how his predecessors, yea, how his own
great uncles, Guascar and Atabalipa, sons to Guiana-Capac,
emperor of Peru, were, while they contended for the empire,
beaten out by the Spaniards, and that both of late years and
ever since the said conquest, the Spaniards have sought the
passages and entry of his country; and of their cruelties
used to the borderers he cannot be ignorant. In which
respects no doubt but he will be brought to tribute with great

65 The whole trade of Spanish America passed through the Casa de Con-
tratacion at Seville.



394 DISCOVERY OF GUIANA

gladness ; if not, he hath neither shot nor iron weapon in all
his empire, and therefore may easily be conquered.

And I further remember that Berreo confessed to me and
others, which I protest before the Majesty of God to be true,
that there was found among the prophecies in Peru, at such
time as the empire was reduced to the Spanish obedience, in
their chiefest temples, amongst divers others which fore-
shadowed the loss of the said empire, that from Inglatierra
those Ingas should be again in time to come restored, and
delivered from the servitude of the said conquerors. And
I hope, as we with these few hands have displanted the first
garrison, and driven them out of the said country, so her
Majesty will give order for the rest, and either defend it,
and hold it as tributary, or conquer and keep it as empress
of the same. For whatsoever prince shall possess it, shall be
greatest; and if the king of Spain enjoy it, he will be-
come unresistible. Her Majesty hereby shall confirm and
strengthen the opinions of all nations as touching her great
and princely actions. And where the south border of Guiana
reacheth to the dominion and empire of the Amazons, those
women shall hereby hear the name of a virgin, which is not
only able to defend her own territories and her neighbours,
but also to invade and conquer so great empires and so far
removed.

To speak more at this time I fear would be but trouble-
some : I trust in God, this being true, will suffice, and that he
which is King of all Kings, and Lord of Lords, will put it
into her heart which is Lady of Ladies to possess it. If not,
I will judge those men worthy to be kings thereof, that by
her grace and leave will undertake it of themselves.



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