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WOODROW WILSON

AND

NEW JERSEY MADE OVER



By
HESTER £. HOSFORD



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COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT.



4



" One or two elections don"t count in a lifetime, and those of us who
believe in things have enlisted for the rest of our lives. Do the gentle-
men who for the sake of maintaining their own power resist these
changes suppose that we are going to sit in the game for any siiorter
time than they are? Whatever maybe the limitations of individual
human life, there are men so moved by conviction, so confident in the




i: ISO, Photographer, Princeton.



hope of reform, so certain of the legitimate and just demands of the
people, that they can fight these battles witli the debonair air of those
who see the future, and thus who know there is nothing that can stop
the heroic progress of the American peojile in the movement toward
the control of their own affairs."— Troor/cr)j<' Wilsoyi.



WOODROW WILSON

AND

NEW JERSEY MADE OVER



By
HESTER E. HOSFORD



Ube TkntcUerbocfter ipress

(G. p. PUTNAM'S SONS)
NEW YORK



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Copyright, 1912

BY

HESTER E. HOSFORD



vg.CI.A300707



^-



DeDicateJ)

TO THE MEMORY OF

MY STAND-PAT ANCESTORS

WHOSE SINCERITY I REVERE AND HONOR

BUT WHOSE POLITICAL TEACHINGS

I AM UNABLE TO ACCEPT



PREFACE

I AM aware that it is considered the proper thing for an
author to preface his or her work with an apology, but I
have never been able to understand why one should write
a book and then apologize for having written it, since
I know of no compulsory process whereby an author may
compel any one to read his work.

Instead of making an apology I prefer to make a
request. If any reader, especially an ex-political boss,
chances to glance his eye over these pages, and then de-
cides that I deserve to meet a violent death, will he
kindly remember that I prefer to be suspended from a
hickory limb? Candidly, I do not believe that I am
worthy of the honor of being burned at the stake. Such
special distinctions were intended, evidently, for Joan
of Arc and her disciples, for whom I have the greatest
reverence; but perish the thought, — that I should ever
aspire to their social caste!

I am fully conscious that I am lacking in the essentials
of a militant reformer. I have merely been interested,
for a few years, in the game of politics, as it has been,
and is now being, played. I have jotted down a few
thoughts, here and there, — now and then, chiefly for the
purpose of giving to myself a little mental discipline,
and, incidentally a little practice in telling historical
truth.

" To tell the truth simply, openly, without reservation,
is the unimpeachable first principle of all right dealing;



vi PREFACE

and historians have no license to be quit of it. Unques-
tionably they must tell us the truth, or else get them-
selves enrolled among a very undesirable class of persons,
not often frankly named in polite society. But the thing
is by no means so easy as it looks. The truth of history
is a very complex and very occult matter. It consists of
things which are invisible as well as of things which are
visible. . . .

" How shall a writer take the palate of his reader
unawares, and get the unpalatable facts down his throat
along with the palatable? "

Long before Woodrow Wilson was talked of as a
prospective Governor or a possible President, I came
across an essay written by him, which contained the
expressions here quoted. Remembrance of them filled me
with timidity when I thought of writing an account of
the recent regeneration of public affairs in New Jersey.

But it occurred to me that those who read books deal-
ing with political history imderstand, in some degree,
the difficulties which a writer on these subjects must
experience. This dispelled some of my fears lest I get
myself " enrolled among a very undesirable class of
persons."

Accordingly, I set to work to properly instruct myself,
in order that I might tell the story of " Woodrow Wilson
and New Jersey Made Over," with the hope that possibly
the achievements of those who have been instrumental in
securing progressive legislation in New Jersey may fur-
nish an inspiration to other reformers.

If my efforts shall lead any one to a broader knowledge
of the career and unselfish purposes of Woodrow Wilson,
I shall be doubly repaid for the labors which I have
I)erformed.

May I add that whatever may be said in these pages



PREFACE vii

concerning the machine system of government and pri-
vate management of public affairs, it is hoped that no
one will believe that the author's purpose is to deepen
the gulf of animosity between the " special interests "
and " the people"?

Every one in this progressive decade ought to see
clearly that whatever permanent improvement is to be
made in our political institutions must take root in an
honest effort of both the classes and the masses to ex-
change their points of view. When they can to a greater
degi'ee think in each other's terms, the ground will be
broken and a fundamental law of co-operation will
establish a progress of which we have not yet dreamed.

Laws, no matter how sound, can never do this. They
can only help to set the pace. In the end the voluntary
enforcement of the law by all classes, because they love
justice, will elevate our standards of life as nothing else
can. There is even a remote possibility that there will
come a time when our social organization will rise above
the necessity of all statutes, except the " Higher Law."

Many public-spirited citizens, in New Jersey and else-
where, are entitled both to my gratitude and condolences
for the assistance which they have rendered me in the
preparation of this work.

I am especially indebted to the Neijo York Sun, whose
frequent effusions have been a constant source of stimula-
tion and encouragement to me while I have been occupied
in this delightful task.

M. £). M.

Orange, New Jersey,
February 17, 1912.



" The mere moral impulse in me is of no force unless
it can be translated into action. It is immoral to pro-
pose for the United States something that is not of bene-
fit for the whole United States. It is immoral to promote
legislation for your business unless it is also for the in-
terest of the rest of the country. Our government is not
a paternal institution."— Woodrow Wilson.



" And yet it seems to me tliat the only way to come
to a common understanding is by standing up and talk-
ing about it, and the radicalism lies in the statement of
the fact, not in the proposal of the remedies.

" I understand, just as you understand, that we can
go at a too rapid or radical pace in remedying the things
which are wrong, because the structure of society is
made of a very delicate fibre. Interests, whether these
gentlemen will admit it or not, are so interlaced that
you cannot deal with one at a time without dealing with
all of them ; we are so bound together in common causes
of life that if you detach one part of it impression thrills
through every part, and every sane man understands,
therefore, that you have got to touch the body politic
with the nice art of the prudent physician, but what
would you say of the physician who was so prudent that
he did not get to the bottom of the diagnosis?

" The diagnosis is radical, but the cure is remedial ;
the cure is conservative. I do not, for my part, think
that the remedies applied should be applied upon a great
theoretical scale; nobody is wise enough to have the
absolute ' by the wool ' ; nobody is big enough, nobody
comprehends in his single brain, no group of men com-
prehend in their common conference all the interests in-
volved in the great nation. You have to take item by
item and symptom by symptom; you have got to remedy
one thing at a time, but you must do it, not upon a prin-
ciple of hostility, but upon a principle of reconciliation."
— WooDEOw Wilson.



CONTENTS
CHAPTER I

PAGE

MACHINE VERSUS POPULAR GOVERNMENT ... 3

Contains a Hint of the Story which Is to Follow.

The Political Pendulum in Representative Government
— Classification of Democrats and Plutocrats —
Honest Party Organization Contrasted with Corrupt
Machine Government — Our Real Governor, a Friend
of Organization — A Picture of Machine Government,
Ancient and Modem — The Political Boss — A Few
Questions for him to Answer — Students of Political
Problems Invited to New Jersey to Study History
— A Remarkable Governor who Kept his Pledges to
the People — We Heard Something Drop in the State
of New Jersey — A Fracas between the Machine State
Chairman and the People's Governor — How it Ended
— Our State in a Political Rut — J. Lincoln Steffens's
Prophecy in 1905 — A Non-resident's Rebuke to New
Jersey Citizens — Our Answer: We were Waiting
for a Leader who Came " in a Mysterious Way " —
He Brought with him the Light of a New Day —
And Delivered us from the Seventeen-year Locust.

CHAPTER II

f.ovEKNOR Wilson's nomination and election —
A unique campaign IS

A Question from the Start — Who Discovered Wood-
row Wilson? — The American People — The Demo-
cratic Machine Did Nominate Governor Wilson;
but Why?— What Happened?— A Political Lion
Came Forth, who Could not be Caged in the

ix



X CONTENTS

PAGE

State House by eithei' Board of Guardians — The
Man's Insight — How he Leads — What was Predicted
from the Start by Those who were Associated with
him in Politics — A Hint as to his Fitness — Why Did
Dr. Wilson Consent to Become a Candidate for Gov-
ernor? — His Speech when Nominated — The Reaction
— A Change in the Plans of Republicans — Wood-
row Wilson Gained Ground with Rapidity during the
Campaign — Extracts from Campaign Speeches — Dr.
Wilson Compared with Samson — What Horse-power
is Woodrow Wilson? — The Pivot on which the
Campaign Turned — The Bosses only Smiled when
they Listened to Woodrow Wilson's Promises to the
People — But the Overlords, not the People, Mis-
understood him — Elected by a Plump Plurality.

CHAPTER III

THE SMITH-MARTINB CONTROVERSY . . . .32

A Dramatic Spectacle — What Created a Most Extra-
ordinary Situation — A Glimpse of an Interesting
Personage — A Few Sidelights Turned on his Po-
litical Manoeuvres — The Man's Record as Published
by his Contemporaries — Smithism — The People had
Long Wanted to Start Something but they had
Heretofore Lacked an Executive who Dared to Be a
State Spokesman — But now Times had Changed — A
Fearless Leader — What this Meant to the State —
Who Were the Brave Mariners in the Storm — The
State Schoolmaster Taught the People — His Whole
Plea Was: "Come and Let us Reason Together" —
The Moral Obligation and the Responsibility of a
Great Opportunity — The Jeffersonian Quality of Gov-
ernor-elect Wilson's Speeches during this Contest —
The Main Facts of them Quoted — By what Standard
Shall we Judge New Jersey's Governor? — The Gi-
gantic Size of the Man whom he Licked — " The Big-
gest One-man Politician in America " — After All,
Posterity must Pronounce the Final Verdict upon
him.



CONTENTS xi

CHAPTER IV

PAGE

FROM THE CI-ASSROOM TO THE STATE HOUSE . . .42

A Governor who Made the Most of his Mental Dis-
cipline — A Word-picture of Woodrow Wilson — He
had Never Visited the Trenton Legislature, up to
the Time of his Inauguration — A Parallelism be-
tween his Career as Governor and his Career as an
Educator — A Glimpse of his Ancestry — Views of a
Consei-vative Southerner — Dr. Wilson's Educational
Training — He Found Himself Early — He Practises
Law, but Gives it up to Continue Academic Work
— His First Book — He Enters the Teaching Profes-
sion — He Marries a Southern Lady of Distinguished
Family — Their Children — Dr. Wilson is Appointed
Professor of Jurisprudence, at Princeton — His Ser-
vices on Faculty Committees — An Exceptional Pro-
fessor — Honored by other Universities — His Literary
Career Continues — He is Unanimously Chosen Presi-
dent of Princeton — Brings Order out of Academic
Chaos — Founds Preceptorial System, which Proves
an Innovation — His Third Stroke to Democratize the
Institution — His First Battle for the Forces of De-
mocracy in Conflict -with Special Privilege — Because
Wealthy Gentlemen Gave Money to Princeton, they
Could not Dictate the Academic Policy — The Class-
room Atmosphere must be Kept Democratic — Presi-
dent Wilson Continued his Fight for Democratic
Standards to the End — But the Office of College
President Did not Afford Him Sufficient Opportunity
to Exercise the Numerous Resources within himself
— Naturally a Fighter for Popular Rights — He Re-
signs the Presidency of Princeton to Accept Nomina-
tion for Governor — Leaves University in Flourishing
Condition — America's Foremost Living Historian —
A Constructive Educator Becomes a Constructive
Statesman — Translates himself with Ease from the
World of Author's Politics to the Practical Institu-
tion itself.



xii CONTENTS

CHAPTER V

PAGE

KEEPING FAITH WITH THE PEOPLE . . . .66

Zealously Desirous of Interpreting the Popular Will
— Faith in the American People — Governor Wilson
Did not Dragoon the New Jersey Legislature — But
he Did Use the Preceptorial System in Dealing
with the Side-steppers — Daylight and Fireworks-at-
night Methods — He Stimulates the Legislators to a
Consciousness of their Responsibility — He Leads the
Average Citizen to Look Ahead with him — The
Lonely Dignity of the Poor Man when he Goes to
Vote — The Key-note of Governor Wilson's Political
Conscience; to Study the Interest of the Whole
People — The Function of a Legislature to Look
after the General Good — Restores Contact between
the People and their Representatives; How? — Gov-
ernor Wilson Has a Way, All his Own — Only Custom
Kept him off the Floor of the House — He Exercised
Fearlessly his Executive Functions — There Must Be
Some Force to Bring Public Opinion into Legisla-
tive Business — The Initiative and Referendum Will
Help — Wilson's Exact Position on these Measures —
Where Are Bills Edited? — Necessity of Executive
Leadership — Acute Consciousness of Responsibility
— The American People Have Reason to Be Sus-
picious — Woodrow Wilson Grouped with the Elect
Immortals of the Republic — And a Governor who
Could Discipline a New Jersey Legislature ought to
Be.

CHAPTER VI
REFORM LEGISLATION 78

The People and the Legislators Overwhelmed with the
Programme of Legislation Seriously Proposed in
Governor Wilson's Inaugural Message — But the
Greatest Surprise of All Was that he Meant Every



CONTENTS xiii

PAGB

Word he Said— A Six-cylinder Type of Governor
Strikes Trenton with a Bang; and it Certainly Is
a Slow Town — Some Things Started — A Drastic
Public Utilities Law Enacted in Spite of Protests
from Corporations — And there Has Been Something
Doing Since it Went into Effect — A Few Results —
The Employers' Liability Law — A Real Direct
Primary Law which Bade Defiance to Machines and
Bosses — A Corrupt Practices Act which Reinforces
the Election Law and Does Away with " Spook "
Voters and Dishonest Elections — It Keeps Both the
Voters and the Candidates for Office Straight — A
Commission Form of Government Act — Numerous
Other Measures Passed which Introduced Modern
Methods in Place of Obsolete Relics of Past Years
— One of the Most Remarkable Records of Legisla-
tion that Has Ever Distinguished a Single Legisla-
tive Session in this Country — J. Lincoln Steffens's
Prophecy Fulfilled.

CHAPTER VII

ELEVATION OF THE TONE OF PUBLIC OFFICE . . .90

Necessity of Inducing the Right Men to Become Po-
litical Leaders in Order that we may Provide a
Stimulus for our Legislators — What Is the Greatest
Service which Governor Wilson has Rendered to the
People of New Jersey? — An Opinion Ventured Con-
cerning the Final Judgment which Historians will
Pass on Woodrow Wilson — He Bears the Distinction
of Being the First Governor to Insist on Keeping his
Constituents Informed Concerning the Official Con-
duct of their Representatives — And Some of the
Lovers of Representative Government Threw up their
Hands at such a Democratic Innovation — The Good
Doctor's Answer — Representative Government has
Failed to Represent — There is Nothing Unconstitu-
tional in Strides toward More Democracy — Great
Britain's Democracy — Trusting Executives with



k



xiv CONTENTS

PAGE

Greater Power will Require Greater Caution in
Choosing them — We Must " Learn to Know our
Able Men " — Our Obligations to our Legislators of
which we Must not Be Unmindful — They Should
not be Placed under Temptation, when we Can
Prevent it — Various Forms of Political Knavery —
Bribery, in Modern Times, the Crudest Form — We
Cannot Draw a General Indictment against Public
Officials — Many Measure up to their Official Respon-
sibilities; Some Are Waking up; the Honest Stand-
patters; and those who Knowingly Follow the
Wrong Standards — A Body-politic can Rise no
Higher than its Fountain Source — The Main Cur-
rents in Political Life — Stimulation Necessary — We
Have not yet Reached a Millennium in New Jersey;
but there are Hopes that we Shall at Least Reach
Salvation — This Chapter a Sequel to Discoveries
which were Made by the Author while Collecting
Material for this Story — Some Facts which Show
that Too Often the Wires have been Cut between
the People and their Representatives.

CHAPTER VIII

THE REACTION ON THE BODY POLITIC . . . .99

A Picture of Governor Wilson's Nation-wide Influence
— A Good Thing Came out of the Land of Mos-
quitoes and Nazarenes — Who Wants Woodrow Wil-
son for President?— Who Does not? — Why Did the
New Jersey Assembly Swing Back? — The Manipula-
tions of a Bi-partisan Machine — Essex the Pivotal
Spot — The Home of the Former Sunny Jims —
Revenge, Sweet Revenge — Political Trading — Why
the Governor would not Speak in Essex — The Smith-
Nugent Machine Ostensibly Stripped of Representa-
tives in Trenton — By Compromising himself the
Governor might have Had a Democratic Legislature
— Outside Essex the Democrats Gained — No Post-
mortem for Woodrow Wilson — Men Faking under



CONTENTS XV



PAGE



Clover of the Democratic Party Cannot Injure him —
The Machines Cannot Undo him — He stands Out
"Like Mars at Perihelion" — A Republican Legisla-
ture Does not Worry him — " We are all Sworn to
Serve the State," he Says — Members of the Legisla-
ture Obligated More than ever before to Carry out
Platform Pledges — Governor Wilson Has a Back-bone
instead of a Wish-bone — He has Brought the Ghost
of Popular Government back to Life — The Warnings
of a Statesman who Sees — We Must Remember
History — The Analysis of the New Jersey Election
by those who Understand.

CHAPTER IX

THE TIME, THE PLACE, AND THE MAN .... 106

What Proves that the Time Is Ripe for Change? —
Reasons for Optimism in Political Life — But we
Must not Overlook Defects in our Political Organiza-
tion — Some Grave Problems Requiring Solution —
New Economic Conditions — The Economic Question
which Concerns us Most: the Increase in the Cost
of Living — A Revision of the Tariff Necessary —
The Greatest Test of the Progress of any Age —
We Can only Progress through the Leadership of
Great Men — We Give our Measure by our Attitude
toward them — Few of our Greatest Statesmen Presi-
dents — Shall History Continue to Repeat Itself? —
Facts we Must be Sure of, before we Choose a
Leader — Continued Reference to Governor Wilson
and his Views — What he Says of the Tariff — He
Would not Disturb Anything Honest — What Is the
Trouble with Business? — Indefinite Policies — Shap-
ing Policies to Meet Permanent rather than Tem-
porary Interests of Country — The Question of
Reforming the Financial System — The Money Mono-
poly, the Greatest Question of All — Some Pointed
Questions Concerning it — An Attempt to Answer
them — The Eighth Wonder of the World — Samuel



xvi CONTENTS

PAGE

Untermyer, on Governor Wilson's Famous Harris-
burg Speech — Getting at the Root of the Money-
Monopoly — The Regulation of Corporations — Legit-
imate and Illegitimate Corporations — Inadequacy
of the Sherman Anti-trust Law — Restoration of
Business by Putting it on a Sound Basis — Conserva-
tion — What it Means in its Broadest Application
— Extension of Service which the Government shall
Render its People — To Realize Popular Government
Machinery of Control Must be Placed in People's
Hands — Governor Wilson Does not Believe in the
Recall of Judges — Is he a Radical? — There Is a
Conservative Ring in his Actions — Pays Tribute to
American People's Sense of Justice and Practicality
— The Chief Place for Political Experiments—
Woodrow Wilson, a Friend of Organized Labor —
A People's Man before he Is a Party Man — Prin-
ciples of Progressives in both Parties Practically
Identical — Wilson on World Peace — Time Opportune
for a Real Leader to Come Forward — But Shall
we Recognize him? — We Have not Always Been Able
to Choose the Men Best Fitted to Lead us — The
Present Time Demands Eternal Vigilance from the
American People — The Time — The Place — The Man
— Democracy Another Word for Opportunity — What
Have we a Right to Expect from the Democratic
Party? — The Business of the National Convention —
Shall it Be Possible for a Faction of Special Inter-
ests to Defeat a Man of the People? — An Infini-
tesimal Inconsistency in Woodrow Wilson's Political
Opinions Disposed of — The Charge of Ingratitude
Replied To — What Do his Achievements Indicate?
— A Fearless State Spokesman who Would Be
a Fearless National Voice — We Need a Modern
Justinian — We Are Clamoring for Leadership —
Who Is Best Fitted to Lead? Woodrow Wilson Is
a Southern-Northerner and a Northern-Southerner,
a Yankee-Doodle-Dixie Candidate, and a Thrust at
the New York Sun — We Return to Carlyle's
Theory Concerning the Placing of the Man of In-



CONTENTS xvii

PAGE

tellect at the Head of Affairs — A Picture of the
Future which the Author Hopes to Live to See —
A Political Love Feast which Might Follow Woodrow
Wilson's Election to the Presidency.

SUPPLEMENT 144

What Representative Newspapers, Magazines, and
Prominent Men say of Woodrow Wilson — Biblio-
graphy Used by the Author:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Woodrow Wilson's Published Works, and United States
Senate Reports, Volume 10, Fifty-third Congress, Second Ses-
sion, Serial Number 3188.



ILLUSTRATIONS

Frontispiece

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XIX



Woodrow Wilson

and

New Jersey Made Over



CHAPTER I

MACHINE VERSUS POPULAR GOVERNMENT

" There are certain interested people going round saying that
I am trying to break up the organization. I am doing nothing
of the kind. The organization they mean is merely a clique
of politicians; a group of men here and there, who are com-
missioned in aid of special and private, not public interests.
They are neither Republicans nor Democrats. I am going to
fight them to the end. They are getting nervous, not because
I am fighting them, but because you are on to them.

" The main object of what we are attempting, both in State
and Nation, is to establish a close connection, a very sensitive
connection between the people and their governments; both in
the State and in the Nation, in order that we may restore in
such wise as will satisfy us again, the liberty and the oppor-
tunity in whose interests our governments were conceived.

" But some men put a false interpretation upon this. There
is a certain unreasonable fear in the air as though the process
we have been going through were in some degree vindictive, as
if there had been bitter feeling in it, and the intention to
discredit those who opposed it.

" The crash of political organizations has been only the crash
of those who did not comprehend, or resisted, when there was
no right reason for resisting, and forgot that their very reason
for being was that they might serve opinion and the movement
of the people's will. If any systems of political practice have
collapsed, only those have collapsed which were unsuitable to
the objects which they proposed to serve.


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