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the shaft of a central cross in high relief, but into the
left side of the calvary. The Anglo-Saxon stone, we
fear, is irrecoverably lost. Returning from this digres-
sion we complete our description of the Neston stone, by
noting that the reverse side displays an angel, full-faced
and standing, but very strangely proportioned (the feet
seeming attached to the waist or hips,) and still more
** squab" than a similar figure sculptured upon the base
of the Leeds cross, or than several of analogous angels
on the head of a very interesting cross at Eyam-in-the-
Peak, the shaft of which bears a beautiful scrollwork and
floral design, evidently copied from some Roman British
Mosaic pavement, a source whence a large proportion of
A.S. cross-ornament sprang. The last-named has lately
been re-engraved on stone, for illustration of Mr. Alfred
Rimmer s dissertation on the " Ancient Stone Crosses of
England,'* lately contributed to the Art Journal, Tt
follows a notice,* likewise illustrated, of the writer's
description of the West Kirby sculptured remains.f The
borders here are corded, including that of the arc of the
inner circle of the head. The edge in this case is like-
wise graven, bearing an elongated chain pattern, of rare
• No. CLIV., New Series, p. 293. + Transactions N.S. XI.

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occurrence ; yet we notice it, also, as a border on the left
side of the Kirk Andreas cross, already referred to.
B 3, — Portion of the limb of a cross, having within its trian-
gular compartment a trifoliate knot, the exact counter-
part of each of the four limbs of a cross at Douglas,
The border is corded. Reverse, similar.
From the coarseness of its workmanship, with the lighter
colour and harder grain of its stone, A would appear to be
the sole representative of a cross. B 1, 2, 3 — of much better
execution, and displaying designs corresponding to those
depicted in the illuminated MS. works of the ninth century,
are, nevertheless, formed from the local red sandstone, and
are probably portions of but one large cross, despite an appa-
rent discrepancy in the varied pattern of the arc of No. 2, as
it may have had a corresponding vis a vis ; but the excavations
being completed we may never recover the missing portions
of this once fine cross. Sculptured monuments, such as this,
were, before the conquest, so common, as to be held in but
slight veneration, and when the fabric of a church was rebuilt,
they would appear, not unfrequently, to have been utilized as
foundation stones, or ^% filling between walls. With palpable
proof of such precedents, we need not wonder at the ruthless
barbarism of succeeding ages, and the unconscionably bad
taste displayed by ** restorers ** as at West Kirby, in the same
district of Wirral. Dean Howson reports, that during the
recent restoration of Chester Cathedral, an important angle of
the superstructure was found based upon a number of beau-
tifully-carved Anglo-Saxon crosses, laid regularly side by
side, and in all probability coolly abstracted from the adjoin-
ing burial ground of St. Werburgh's Monastery ! Owing to
their important position only one was raised.
C. — Tombstone, 2 feet long by 13 inches broad ; head with
a plain cross rudely cut on a circular recess; border
corded. Reverse, similar. Date, 10—12 century. It

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closely resembles a small one at Braddon, and another
at Maughold of superior execution.
D. — Ditto. — Length, 6 feet 4 inches; width at head, 16
inches; at foot, 21 to 22 inches. It bears in high relief
a finely-chiselled floreate cross, the three upper limbs of
which terminate in fleur de-lys, whilst the lower one
narrows downward for insertion within the open mouth
of a lion's head, from which, on either hand, commences
a beautiful border of scrollwork and roses, which is car-
ried round the whole frontal edge of the stone. From
the centre of the cross's head depends a hand, inclining
to the left, and supporting the top of a scroll or band,
which, falling to the foot of the shaft is there carried
behind it, and up the opposite side. Through its whole'
length of 6f feet this band has been ornamented with
bosses, 2 inches wide, of pale green ^lass, set in lead,
and a few inches apart. Enamel has been found orna-
menting sculpture, but we cannot recal any other instance
of the use of glass on Medieeval sepulchral monuments.
Of the few Coins and Tokens noticed during the excava-
tions here, the following are alone deserving of notice: —
Two " Nuremburg Tokens" in brass, struck by or for Hanns
Krauwinckel,* 16 — 17 century.

* In our last Annual we chronicled similar pieces, found upon Hilbre Island
and at Huyton Church, giving some description of this peculiar class of counters
or jettons, to which we now append some interesting remarks communicated to
The Jteliquary, (Vol. IX., p. 126,) by the late Richard Sainthill, Esq., of Cork :—

" When this system of keeping, or rather of easting up, accounts commenced
** in England, or when it ceased, I am quite ignorant. Many years ago, for a few
*• minutes only, I saw in the library of a Mend * Record's Arithmetic,* printed
** circa 1550, in which the whole system was explained or taught and illustrated
** by engravings. A vestige of this system existed with us in the early part of
" this century at the card table, where, with four counters, players recorded
*♦ their winnings at whists from 1 to 9, 10 being game." Mr. Sainthill then
records several German jettons like ours, shewing that the inscriptions are
perfectly sensible, being contractions of German or Dutch words, as the case
might be. For instance, one of this very ♦♦ Hanns Krav Winckel in Nur"-
(emburg,J has upon the reverse a legend, '♦ FleUige, Jtechmmg, Maght, Richt-
** heitj" i.e., indiutrioits (or careful) reckoning makes correctnest. Another
bean " Gotes^ Meic, Bleiht^ Ewick." The kingdom of God remains for ever.

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A Scotch Twenty-penny Piece, or Quarter Noble of James I.

of England.
Ob. SOOT. ANG. FRA. ET. HIB. REX. The king's bust.

with flowing hair extending to the edge, XX behind.

The aver;ige weight of similar pieces, a considerable number
of which were examined by the late John Lindsay of Cork, he
found to be 13 grains; our sample being chipped in two
places has only 9 grains. As a quarter of the Scotch noble,
a perfect piece in good condition, should, of course, weigh
15 grains.

Hitherto no sketches or photographs have been taken of
the sculptured relics of the earlier church at Neston, but we
have great pleasure in stating that Mr. Doyle has courteously
promised careful drawings of all the carved portions.

Products of the Sea Beach of Cheshire.

Being pressed for time, we have secured, on this occasion,
the services of Mr. Potter for particulars of the historic relics
noticed upon the shore during the past year, when ill health
kept us in distant localities. The objects found in recent
years are, with few exceptions, accretions to his now valuable
and considerable collection, and it is a source of great satis-
faction to the writer, upon leaving, probably for a lengthened
period, the neighbourhood of this very remarkable (and still
in some respects mysterious) locality, and whilst compiling
his, possibly final, annual report of its historic out-crop, that
the future harvest, whether rich or poor, will continue to be
as thoroughly looked aft^r as by the older hand of past years.

During the year, a deposit of human remains was dis-
covered in the isolated " Little Eye," (locally pronounced ecy)
the least of the Hilbre group, a spot of great exposure to the
elements, and yet the blustering western and north-western

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winds had hitherto failed to uncover what appears to have
been a very early interment, seeing that the remains had been
carefully deposited in a hollow of the native Keuper sand-
stone rock, and piled over with stones and boulders from the
contiguous beach. In all probability the interment had
occurred when this sea- wasted islet formed part of a promon-
tory, extending some miles beyond the main, like Spurn Point,
upon the opposite side of Britain ; but unlike the Yorkshire
promontory, artificial aid has come too late to arrest its com-
plete severance, (save at low water,) from the main. As at
Hilbre, the tided action of the sea has been wearing away the
coast of Holderness for unnumbered centuries, and even
during the last three or four of these, the sites of several
towns and villages have been wholly swept into the German
ocean. But for a large and strong embankment^ the insulation
of Spurn's sandy neck would have been long since effected.


Bronze. Pin of ajihula, with portion of its wire spring.

Pins for fastening the dress (3 j, with semi-globular and solid
heads ; two of these are three inches long, the other two inches.

Bell-shaped object^ but possibly the extinguisher of a small
lamp : its form is hexagonal ; height 1^ inches.


Denarius of Constantinus Magnus. Head of the Emperor
VRBS. ROMA. Eev, The Wolf and Twins, a rod or wand
between and a star above each.

Anglo- Saxon or Early Irish,
Dress or Hair Pin, of bronze, the top adapted for a pen-
dant, and possibly reversible, head, like several engraved by
Dr. Hume in Ancient Meols.*

Two " third-brass " coins, both illegible.

* Plate V. and p. 76.

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Mthelred II. Penny. A fragment ; the centre only ; bust
to the right; no sceptre. Rev. Hand of Providence, on either
side the letters A and W, for Alpha and Onaega. (Second
occurrence of this type on Meols beach.)

Cnvt. A divided penny — half. Bust with sceptre to right.
Rev, OD ON LEI (Leicester) ; a voided cross and square with
pellets at each comer. (Meols beach.)

Silver. Mediaeval.

Wm, I or II. A divided penny — half. Bust full faced,
a star on each side^ £x an. Rev. A cross on a square and
pellets. (Meols beach.)

Henry II. Penny. Full face and sceptre, henricus rex.
Rev. A small double cross, with a small cross boton^ in each
angle, an — avd on ca (Canterbury.) (Meols beach.)

Henry III. A divided penny — half. Full face, no sceptre.
rex, and the numerals iii. Rev, A long cross to outer circle,
three pellets in the angles, on. (Meols beach.)

Henry III. A divided penny — half. Full face with
sceptre, the numerals iii. Rev. Long cross, vnd. (London.)
(Meols beach.)

Henry III. A divided penny — quarter. The half still
being folded for the purpose of division. (Meols beach.)

Henry III. Penny. Full face and sceptre, henricvs rex.
Rev, Long cross, three pellets in each angle, nicole on cant.
(Canterbury.) (Meols beach.)

Edward I or II. Penny. Full face, edward r. angl.
DNS. HYB. Rev, Cross and pellets, vill. sci edmvndi. (St.
Edmundsbury.) (Meols beach.)

Edward II. Penny. Much defaced, edwar. an.

Stuart. Jumes II. A shilling, gun money. Head to left,


Crown and sceptres in saltire. Oct. 1689. (Found in a garden
near the Meols station, Hoylake railway.)

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Recent Jinds,

Roman, Third brass, illegible.

Henry III. Divided penny — quarter, nic, probably for

Charles II. Farthing, 1673 or 5.

Latten. Cross, for personal wear, of plain form {HumetUe
or couped St. George's cross,) with ring atop for suspension.
The shaft and limbs ou the front are covered with cusps,
bearing traces of their original setting with coloured enamel,
and in four cases the cement remains. Size If by If inch.

Brooch, circular, one inch diameter, and rudely ornamented
with incised line work ; pin wanting.

Ditto, with lozenge ornament ; pin wanting.

Pin for the dress, two inches long, with bifurcated head,
though— as is usual in medieeval pins, needles, and other small
articles made of thin sheathing metal — ^it is as small in the
shaft and as sharply pointed as any needle of equal length
now used.

Clapper of a bell, gilt ; it has evidently been suspended by
leather to th6 top of the bell, as a portion still remains in the
bifurcated top or slot.

Appendages or furniture of leathern Belts and Straps, viz.,
buckles, hasps, tags, studs, and other ornaments, to the num-
ber of thirty-seven.

Miscellaneous objects and fragments, numbering twenty-

Pewter or Lead. Necklet or Coronal, This elegant
ornament, described at length in. our last year's report as
occurring in 1873, and which was found in detfiched portions,
has now been rendered nearly complete by the recovery of two
additional links and a pendant. We have great pleasure
in referring to the engraving (plate II.,) for an excellent deline-
ation, in actual size, of this unique ornament, worn by a lady
of the latter half of the fourteenth or the earlier part of the
fifteenth century.

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Brooch or Boss, of anDular form, 1 Jin. diameter, and orna-
mented with pellets. As no trace of any furniture appears,
our second appellation is probably the more correct one.

Ornamented Studs, six, various.

Buckles, Hasps, Tags, &c., eleven.

Net Sinkers in lead, four.

Miscellaneous objects and fragments, nine.

Iron. Knife Blades, of Norman, if not still earlier manu-
facture, being long and narrow — the hefts are wanting, the
wood having become decomposed. Six in number.

Ditto, Five still retain their apparently well-finished hefts
of bone or wood.

Arrow-head, one.

Fish-hooks, of ordinary types, four.

Glass. Beads of small size.

Wood. Digging-fork, 8 feet long.

Mr. Potter considers this year to have been decidedly the
least productive of any within his remembrance, although the
tidal ranges both on the primeval (wood) beds and the
mediaeval stratum have been fully up to, if not beyond, the
average, through high gales concurring with spring tides.
These again have brought down such a quantity of sand that
little chance occurred of detecting small objects.

Singular Equine Interment on Holt Hill, Tranmere.

We are indebted to Mr. W. Lownsborough, surveyor, of
Tranmere, for the subjoined notice.

A Mr. Getley lately purchased a piece of land, on the top
of Holt Hill, and nearly opposite the Nunnery, from the
trustees of W, W. Perry, Esq. This plot, about twenty years
ago, was an unenclosed common, with furze bushes growing
upon it, and had never been disturbed within the memory of
man. However, in digging the foundations of some houses,
the workmen came upon three large slabs of stone, about two


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feet below the surface ; these formed the covering of a grave,
carefully hewn in the solid rock, about 8 feet long, 4 feet
broad, and 3 feet deep, and which was found to contain the
bones of a h^rse, accompanied by a quantity of dry material
like tinder. Upon searching among the last, a copper coin
was found, almost defaced by wear and rust, but which proves
to be a halfpenny of William and Mary. There was likewise
disclosed the handle of a sword, the heft of which is of bone,
carved in a reticulated manner, whilst the strig and rivets are
of iron.

I think that I have somewhere read, that William III, on
his journey to or from Ireland, stayed at the Old Hall,
Tranmere,* and halted on this hill ; if so, I think it very
probable that the steed must have been a favourite of one of
his troopers, and died either from the effect of recent wounds
in Ireland, or sudden illness after crossing the channel —
possibly a combination of both. The deposition of the coin
is, to my mind, an excellent mode of handing down the date
of the animal's death to future generations.


In November of this year, Messrs. Vandyke and Brown,
the well-known artist-photographers, issued their Prospectus
of a proposed work to be entitled Herdmans Pictorial Relics
of Ancient Liverpool^ compiled from original information and
authentic sources, by Richard Brown, who, by the by, assures
us that he possesses no less than a couple of hundred sketches
of more or less topographical interest. A large proportion
of the best of these have been laboriously worked up (singly
or by two or three in conjunction) into very superior draw-
ings, of good size, by that patriarchal illustrator of old
Liverpool, William Gawin Herdman. These drawings, (to

* Described and Dliistrated^y Mr. Joseph Mayer, Tram, iii, p. 107.

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be reproduced for the work by the autotype process,) suitably
mounted and handsomely framed, were exhibited for a couple
of months in Old Post OflSce Place, and although this, one of
the most interesting exhibitions ever produced in our midst,
was as usual but very partially visited by the great mammon-
hunting community of this locality, yet many availed them-
selves of the opportunity of seeing and comparing the old
aspects of various parts of the town and its public buildings
with those of to-day. The writer was tempted, upon his
earliest visit, to take a few sketches and woodcuts from his
small portfolio of Liverpool views, &c., to compare with Mr.
Herdmans reproductions ; but in several instances was sur-
prised to find that he held in his hand an earlier and more
picturesque sketch or woodcut, as the case might be. It may
be worth while to note these for future reference; and we
commence with a little book, in very humble dress, but
containing a series of proofs before letters ^ and (with one
exception) on India paper, from wood blocks, and which
probably belonged to the engraver himself, seeing the first,
(answering for a book-plate,) gives us the name and address of
William J. Roberts, who also carried on the business of
cabinet maker and upholsterer, at No. 20, Torbock Street,
Liverpool.* He has signed several of the succeeding cuts
with his name or initials. Unfortunately, we possess no
biographical notices of local artists. A carefully compiled
work on this subject is a great desideratum ; and although
Mr. Mayer possesses abundant materials for such a produc-
tion, they form a portion of a vast accumulation for the future
illustration of British artists and their works, which may
never see the light in our day. In default of this, a care-
fully compiled brochure on the artists of old Liverpool would
prove most useful at the present juncture.

* Afterwards cf Berry Street, an early member of our Society, and the
contributor to its transactions of several papers of local interest.

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Betnrning to Mr. Boberts*s little specimen book, we find
the first page occupied by the book or business plate already
referred to, with the owner and engraver s name, occupation,
and address, as graven on a white marble tablet, let into the
front of a large and square tomb of black marble, with orna-
mental apex and borders. Beneath is the cut of a large seal
of King Stephen, when only Duke of Normandy.

Page 2 contains one cut only, the " Observatory, formerly
*' stood near the Mount, L pool (see Enfield's Hist, of L pool,
*' fol. 61)" This cut, which has neither been reproduced nor
used by Gregson in his Fragments^ or by poor Troughton in
that well -illustrated History which ruined him, is signed
"M. Gregson, Esq., del."— " W. I. Roberts, sculp." The
building was completed about 1 792, being the second erection
of the kind in the town. The earlier one was situated upon
ground now occupied by the Philharmonic Hall, then the
highest part of Hope Street. It was planned and erected by
William Everard, the architect and mathematician, — the first
curator of the books which formed the nucleus of the Liver-
pool Tuibrary, and which he originally kept at his residence in
St. Paul's Square and afterwards in John Street, 1758 — 70.*
This view was altogether unrepresented in Post OflSce Place,
but Mr. Herdman tells us that a copy is to be found in Mr.
Binns's invaluable collection, vol. ix.

Page 3 presents us with the " Fire Beacon, Everton," which,
originally erected as early as about 1220, temp. Henry II,
was blown down in a storm in 1803,t having probably been
intermediately rebuilt (not earlier than 16th century) of local
sandstone. This is a nearer and more picturesque view than
that worked up in drawing No. 78. No artist's name is
attached in print, neither does it appear either in Gregson or
Troughton ; however, " John Drinkwater, Esq., del." has
been appended by the same hand which has supplied the
• Transactions, Yol. x (N.S.), 1869-70. + Troughton, p. 49.

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various titles given to the cuts, and which we show within
inverted commas.

Page 4. The Tower of Liverpool, as it still appeared
shortly previous to demolition, the MS. title being — " Tower,
*' Water Street, as it now stands, August, 181 9." This portion
was, we believe, the last to remain standing, as it was probably
the latest erected and in best repair. Upon the removal of
its foundations between 1819 and 1821, one of the bulbous
bottles of olive-coloured glass of the 1 6th century was dis-
covered, bearing on its neck a medallion in relief with the
badge of the Stanley family, " the Eagle and Child " This
interesting relic is in the possession of Miss Ellison, of
Litherland, a descendant of the ancient local family of
Seacombe. The cut, signed ** W. I. R." represents the very
plainest portion of this prison, as it had become, the rough
pavement-boulders completely surrounding the base; but
above, to the left, towers the fine new steeple of St. Nicholas's
Church. This view does not appear in either Gregson or

Page 5. Cloisters of Birkenhead Priory ; but called
" Part of the Stables of Birkenhead Priory, Cheshire," whilst
under the cut, which is signed " G. N." (no doubt George
Nicholson, a local artist, but we believe unknown as a wood
engraver), appears '' Chubbard del, in the possession of
** M. Gregson, Esq." The cut, however, has neither been
published by Ormerod, Gregson, nor Troughton : it is the
only one of the lot printed not on India paper but on a page
of the book. Whether the original was a painting or sketch
by Chubbard the painter we are not aware.

Page 6. " Melling Chapel, Lancashire." This cut appears
in Gregson's Fragments, and is described chap, xx, p. 221.
It is signed, though in a barely legible manner, *' W. I.
" Roberts, sculp."

Page 7. ^^ Prince Ruperfs Head Quarters, Everton,"

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evidently taken from a sketch made between 1780 and 1800.
It is the best, most pioturesque, and most reliable view we
have ever seen of this historic cottage, and is certainly older
than the better known one published by Trough ton in his
History. The building remains surrounded by the native
sandstone rock upon which it was built, and the old windows
are intact. To the right an old garden door of wood appears,
which in other views is replaced by a common gate. No
artist's name appears to this interesting cut, which seems to
have been unknown to either Gregson or Trough ton, as we
were the first to notice and to publish it, though without any
encourgement or appreciation of the view by the Liverpool
public. It is not used in Mr. Herdman e drawing of Everton
Brow and Rupert Lane (No. 81), but an interesting view of
the interior, taken by this gentleman shortly before the demo-
lition of the tenement, is numbersd 83 in the catalogue.

Page 8. With the exception of the MS. title, " The Euins
" of Burscough Priory, near Ormskirk, Lancashire," this
page is blank, the cut (only secured by its extreme comers)
having disappeared.

Page 9 contains two cuts. That to the left presents us with
the " Entrance to the Stone Quarry, St. James's, Liverpool,"
a view of the approach to the present cemetery, not published
either by Gregson or Troughton. It is signed W. I. Roberts.
Secondly we find " The initial F., pendant to the foundation
*' charter of Furness Abbey, Lane, in the Duchy Record
" Office, M.G., Esq.*' This initial, of large size, is elaborately
ornamented with foliage and quatrefoils, whilst suspended
atop is the shield of arms of the celebrated Cistercian abbey.
The cut is utilised repeatedly by Mr, Gregson in his Frag-
menis, but is not signed by the engraver.

We have now exhausted the contents of this little book
of proofs, but not all the local interest attaching to it.
Deposited for a few minutes upon a chair in the saloon, it

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attracted the notice of two visitors, who upon our approach

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Online LibraryHistoric Society of Lancashire and CheshireTransactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire for the year .. → online text (page 9 of 18)