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him of money and a pistol, which deponent afterwards saw in
the possession of an Indian. Some days afterwards he was
found dead, lying in the river near our ferry premises. His
death could not be accounted for, though he seemed to have
been shot. Dr. Lincoln had furnished him with supper the night
before his death; he left in good humor, and went away, saying
he was going to California. Deponent believes that he was
killed by the Indians.

As to the Indians, they always professed great friendship for
the company, were continually about the premises, ate habitually
in the houses, and were always treated with kindness personally.
The boat of the Indians was set adrift, being at our ferry in the
night; it was a boat of hides, the only one they had to ferry
people across. It belonged to a Mexican, who consented to its
being set adrift. We gave them a skiff to ferry with at the
lower ferry, and never destroyed any of their property. The
Mexicans say that the Yumas still have the boat Gen. Ander-



S6 HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF SOUTHE^RN CALIFORNIA.

son gave them, and also the two boats belonging to said com-
pany.

Deponent further states that he firmly believes that said
Yumas intend to do harm to all Americans who may pass
through their country; that many emigrants, including women
and children, are now on the point of reaching the junction of
the Gila and Colorado rivers, who in all probability will arrive
in small parties, unapprized of danger, and unprepared to meet
it, unless some immediate steps be taken by the pubHc authori-
ties with this view. Deponent has made affidavit substantially of
the massacre on the Gila, before the Alcalde at San Diego, and
applied to the commanding officer of the U. S. troops at that
place for assistance, but none has been sent. There are forty
U. S. soldiers, infantry, at said town of San Diego.

WILLIAM CARR.
ABEL STEARNS.

We, the undersigned, two of the persons named in the fore-
going statement of William Carr, have heard statement read,
and fully concur in all the facts therein stated, believing the
same to be true in all respects.

JOSEPH A. ANDERSON.
MARCUS L. WEBSTER.
Signed before me.
ABEL STEARNS,

1st Alcalde de Los Angeles.

Be it remembered that on the ninth day of May, A. D. 1850,
before me, Abel Stearns, first Alcalde of Los Angeles, personally
appeared the aforesaid William Carr, Joseph A. Anderson and
Marcus L. Webster, whose declarations are above written, and
subscribed and made oath to the same in manner and form as
appears above. Given under my hand this 9th day of May,
A. D. 1850. ABEL STEARNS.



ORIGIN OF THE TROUBLE BETWEEN THE YUMAS
AND GLANTON.

DEPOSITION OF JEREMIAH HILL.

This 23rd day of May, A. D. 1850, before me, Abel Stearns,
first Alcalde of the district of Los Angeles, and State of Cali-
fornia, and Judge of the first instance in the Criminal Law,
personally appeared Jeremiah Hill, who being duly sworn, de-
poseth and saith, that he is one of a party of fourteen Ameri-
can emigrants, who have crossed the Colorado since the mas-
sacre of John J. Glanton and his companions by the Yumas.
About five days before reaching the mouth of the Gila, they
met a Creek Indian by the name of John Lewis, who speaks
the English, Spanish and Yuma languages, and had come from
Tucson previously with Gen. Anderson of Tennessee. This
Creek Indian showed them a certificate given to the Yumas by
Gen. Anderson, to the effect, that he left them the boat which
he had built for the purpose of crossing his company, upon con-
dition that they would cross all Americans at $1.00 for a horse,
$1.00 for a man, and $1.00 for the cargo (pack), and that upon
a violation of this contract, by any higher charge than this, said
boat should be forfeited. As deponent understood, this boat
was used at the lower crossing, commonly called ''Algodones."
The Creek said he and three other men were then up the river,
by orders of Glanton, hunting planks to make a raft for the
purpose of going down tO' build another boat, that he (the
Creek) was a partner with Glanton, and also owned half of the
aforesaid Indian boat. That Glanton had a ferry at the mouth
of the Gila, and plenty of provisions. One of the men of de-
ponent's party, by the name of Anderson, an old acquaintance
of Glanton's, immediately started ahead to get provisions and
anaimals from Glanton, but on the 23rd of April, about 9 o'clock
in the night, he returned, saying that from the signs eiven by
the Mexicans at the mouth of the Gila, not understanding their
language, he believed that Glanton's party were all killed. He
related that as he approached close to the ferry, signs were
made to him, but which he did not understand, and went on,
being on horseback, until finally the Mexican women pulled him
off his horse, stripped him, gave him the hat and clothes of a
Mexican, and hid him, which perhaps was all that saved his



58 HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF SOUTHE^RN CAUF'ORNIA.

life. This was about 30 miles from the mouth of the Gila. De-
ponent's party went next day perhaps 20 miles, but saw no In-
dians, though some Mexicans said that the Indians had fol-
lowed Anderson to within five miles of our camp of the previous
day (23d). Next day the road led us to within 600 yards of
Glanton's late ferry where there is a mound; here the road
forks, one leading down to Glanton's ferry, the left hand leading
about six miles further to the present ferry occupied by the In-
dians. We stopped only to see that Glanton's ferry was en-
tirely evacuated, and no sign of boat or habitation on either
side; three Indians were there, but, as we rode towards them,
they ran and hid in the bushes. We went on then towards the
Indian ferry, the approach to which, for four .miles, is through
the thick brush of mesquite, young willow and cottonwood, by
a very narrow path, barely sufificient for a single -horse, the
bushes dragging the packs on each side most of the way. We
had stayed all day and night of the 25th, at our camp, about
±0 miles beyond Glanton's ferry; on this day, in the afternoon,
about 4 o'clock, ten Yumas, unarmed, came up to our camp, by
one of whom^ we sent for the chief, for the purpose, as we as-
sured them, of having a talk with him. and making him some
presents. The chief came the same night about 7 o'clock; we
gave him shirts, handkerchiefs, jewelry, pinole, etc., after which
we asked him in reference to the massacre of Glanton. The
chief said that Gen. Anderson had left him> a boat on the con-
tract as above stated, and that he would comply with it when-
ever any Americans came to cross, but as yet none had come;
since the departure of Gen. Anderson, many Mexicans had
come to cross at the Indian ferry, which had made Glanton
mad, and that he (the chief) knew of no other ofTense the In-
dians had given said Glanton; that one day Glanton sent his
men down, and had the Indian boat destroyed, and took an
American whom they (the Indians) had with them, engaged in
working their boat, up to his (Glanton's) camp, with all said
American's money, and that Glanton had shot said American
and thrown him into the river. The chief said that he then
went up to see Glanton, and made an of¥er that Glanton should
cross all the men and baggage, while the chief should cross the
animals of the emigrants, and thus they would get along quietly.
Whereupon Glanton kicked him out of the house, and beat him
over the head with a stick; the chief said he would have hit him
back, but was afraid, as the Americans could shoot too straight.
This was before Glanton went to San Diego, according to the



ORIGIN OF the; TROUBIvE: BE^TWEJEN THE; YUMAS AND GLANTON. 59

Chief's statement, for the purpose of purchasing whisky and
provisions. The chief said he immediately, on receiving this
insult, went back and held a council of his people. The result
was a determination to kill all the Americans at the ferry, and
another chief was sent up to see the position of the Americans,
who found that Glanton was gone to San Diego. They then
determined to wait until he returned, as their main object, the
chief said, was to kill Glanton. The chief who had been sent up
as just stated, went up afterwards from day to day, to the Ameri-
can camp, and finally one day came back with the report that
Glanton had returned. Then the chief who had been before
insulted went up, and found Glanton and his men drinking;
they gave him something to drink, and also his dinner. After
dinner, five of the Americanos laid down and went to sleep in a
hut, leaving him sitting there; others were ferrying, and were
on the opposite side; three had gone up on this side for some
purpose. The chief said he watched till he thought the five
were asleep, when he went out to his people on this side, who
were all hid in the bushes just below the houses; a portion of
them he sent up after the three Americans who were up cutting
poles, instructing his men to get possession of their arms; he
had previously posted 500 Indians on the other side, instructed
to mix among the Americans and Mexicans, and get into the
boat without suspicion. He himself then went up on the little
mound perhaps as high as his head, but commanding a view of
all his Indians, and the whole scene; from this mound he was to
give the signal. There he was to beckon to those hid in the
bushes to come near the American tents, which they were im-
mediately to enter and give a yell as they killed the Americans,
whereupon he was to give the sign with a pole having a scarf on
it to the Indians on the other side as well as those who were
watching the three above. He gave the signal, when those in
the boat and at the houses were all killed. The Indians who had
been sent after the three Americans ran, and these three suc-
ceeded in getting into a little skifT and escaped by going down
the river. His men pursued on the shore, on both sides, but
several were killed by the Americans, and many wounded. He
showed us two of the wounded, and when asked if "as many
as ten" of the tribe were killed, he said, "More." He said
one of the Americans would row, while the others fired, and his
people hesitated to pursue further. When the chief went up to
see Glanton, as above stated, about the ferry, Glanton said
that he would kill one Indian for every Mexican they should'



6o HISTORICAL SOCIETY 01^ SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.

cross. He showed us by signs the amount of money in bags
which he took from the Americans' camp. It seemed from his
description to 3e about three bags of silver, each about three
feet high, and about two feet round, which must have contained
at least $80,000, besides a bag of gold, about a foot high and a
foot round. This, he said, he divided amongst his people, then
burnt the houses over the bodies of the dead. The six who
were killed in the boat were thrown into the river as fast as they
were killed, all killed with clubs. The five on shore were killed
with clubs, except Glanton, who was killed with a hatchet, which
the chief showed to us; their clothes were burnt, and perhaps
their flesh somewhat burnt by the burning of the little shed of
brush in which they had been killed; their bodies were then
thrown into the river. After giving this account of the trans-
action, the chief said that, upon the death of these Americans,
another council was held as to whether they should kill all
Americans who might come along, at which it was resolved by
every Indian that they would. He said that in two days they
could muster four thousand warriors; he said their arms were
principally bows and arrows and clubs; and that they had a few
guns, including all the arms they got from Glanton's party, but
that they intended to collect all they could from every source.
We sa wthem take guns away from the Sonorantians by force.
The Sonoranians refused to sell or buy arms of them. They
oiTered deponent two fine Colt's revolvers, one five-shooter, the
other a six-shooter (the same, no doubt, worn by Glanton, as
the chief said^ and deponent had seen it in his belt), for his
double-barreled shot gun, saying they knew the use of a gun, but
not of the pistols. Deponent refused to trade with them, of
course; and the Sonoranians or Mexicans there passed a resolu-
tion not to trade any arms of any description with them.

He told us finally that, if we would go to the river next day,
he would be there, and keep the Indians from coming into our
camp, and secure us an unmolested passage. We went, accord-
ingly, on that day (26th), but he was not on the ground, nor
did we ever see him again. On touching the bank, Sefior
Montenegrin, who was on a little island about 30 steps from the
shore, called to us to come over, which we did immediately, the
water being only belly deep for the mules. A great number of
Indians were on the island, including a few women and chil-
dren. The Indian men said very little to us, but the women
and children would come within three feet of us, pointing at
us, and using very abusive language, sometimes in Spanish,



ORIGIN OF the; trouble between the yumas and glanton. 6i

and every now and then the boys used the plain EngUsh, in such
expressions as "God d — m your souls, Americans!" They
agreed to cross us that day; and all got over except two, who
remained that night amongst the Indians. When they crossed
seven of us they refused to take any more, unless they were paid
over again for all; and we had to pay; they watched us all night,
apparently with the view of getting into our camp, but we had
a strong guard, and very few slept. They could be disintctly
heard slipping through the bushes. Our animals were nearly
all still on the other side. We had already paid them twice for
crossing men, animals and baggage.

Next morning (27th) the Indians came down to the river
with bottles of whisky in their hands, and pretty well drunk.
We had to pay them over $3.00 apiece for crossing the balance
of the animals; they drowned one mule; we gave them a horse,
blankets, shirts, jewelry, etc., besides about $80.00 in cash. The
crossing was finally effected the evening of the 27th, but Mr.
Sled and Seiior Montenegro were told by the Indians that they
had better get away from the island or they would kill them;
and when asked if they intended to cross the animals the chief
replied that he did not know whether he v/ould or not, that he
would keep them if he thought proper, but that they had better
get away. Consequently these gentlemen crossed ahead of the
animals. Another Mexican gentleman who still remained, had
to give them a mule belonging to Sefior Montenegro, and other
presents, before they would cross the animals at all, after being
paid three times. On the evening of the 27th, after we had
crossed everything, and were preparing to start immediately,
the Indians commenced coming over in great numbers, some in
boats, and some swimming. After they had got across they
went to Sefior Montenegro, and told him to separate his men
from the Americans, as they were going to fight us, and had
come over expressly for that purpose. Seiior Montenegro, hav-
ing no intention of doing so, arranged that our animals should
be driven with his advance company of fifty men, that we should
keep disengaged from the care of the animals to meet an Indian
attack, while he brought up the rear with the rest of his animals
and one hundred men. After we had got out some distance from
the river, Seiior Montenegro remaining behind to see his mules
off, was taken prisoner by the Indians, and accused by them of
protecting the Americans, and threatened with death. We
knew nothing of this. And they would doubtless have killed
him, but one of his men with a pack mule happened to be a little



62 HISTORICAL SOCIETY OP SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.

behind. To him Senor Montenegro called, and he got off by
giving the Indians a bag of pinole and one of panoche, opening
at the same time trunks containing his and his son's clothes, out
of which the Indians helped themselves. He overtook us at
dark and related these circumstances, and the further promise
he had to make the Indians, that when he returned from Cali-
fornia, he would bring each of the chiefs a suit of red cloth.

The next day, three of these Indians came through our
camp, ten miles this side of the river, near the first well, and
when questioned, said they were going to California; we saw two
more of the Yumas at New river, who told the Mexicans that
they were there looking out for the Americans who might be
sent from San Diego, or other part of California, to fight them.
Twenty times in our presence they stated that they were at war
with all Americans, and the chief himself told us we were the
last party that should ever cross there, and that he intended to
keep "muchos" Indians scattered along the road, to kill the
Americans as they came along and take their animals. Depo-
nent thinks there are between 75 and 100 Americans, men, women
and children, whom he supposes now to be about at the Gila,
and who will be on the Colorado in less than a month, and are
compelled, from the usual way of traveling in that quarter, to
come there in very small parties, easily exposed to a successful
Indian attack. And further deponent saith not.

JEREMIAH HILL.

State of California, County of Los Angeles, ss :

Be it remembered that on this 23rd day of May, A. D. 1850,
before me, Abel Stearns, first Alcalde, and Judge of the First
Instance, of the Criminal law, of said county, personally ap-
peared Jeremiah Hill and subscribed and made oath to the above
statement. Given under my hand.

ABEL STEARNS.



PIONEERS

or

Los Angolos Countv



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

1903- J 904



BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

W. H. Workman, Chas. H. White,

J. Frank Burns, J. W. Gillette,

H. D. Barrows, J. M. Guinn.

Louis Roeder,

officers.

J. Frank Burns President

J. W. Gillette First Vice-President

Chas. H. White Second Vice-President

Louis Roeder Treasurer

J. M. Guinn Secretary

membership committee.

C. N. Wilson, Russell W. Ready.

M. F. QuiNN,

finance committee.

W. H. Workman, Chas. G. Keyes.

H. A. Barclay,

committee on programme.

Louis Roeder, Mrs. Abbie Hiller,

Dr. K. D. Wise, Mrs. Jennie S. Read,

Mrs. Virginia W. Davis, N. C. Carter,

Mrs. Elenor Grosser, J. J. Gosper.
Dr. a. H. Wern,

good of the order.

Dr. H. S. Orme, Jerry Newell,

J. M. Riley, Mrs. Dora Bilderbeck,

E. J. Vawter, Simon B. Smith,

Oscar Macy, Alfred James.

J. L. Starr,

committee on entertainment.

Mrs. Mary Franklin, Chas. H. White,

Mrs. Harriett S. Perry, N. C. Carter,

Mrs. J. W. Gillette, E. K. Green,

Mrs. J. G. Newell, N. Mercadante,

Mrs. Susan C. Hopkins, J. M. Stewart.



Pioneers of Los Angeles County

CONSTITUTION

ARTICLE I.

This society shall be known as The Pioneers of Los Angeles
County. Its objects are to cultivate social intercourse and
friendship among its members and to collect and preserve the
early history of Los Angeles county, and to perpetuate the
memory of those who, by their honorable labors and heroism,
helped to make that history.

ARTICLE II.

All persons of good moral character, thirty-five years of age
or over, who, at the date of their application, shall have resided
at least twenty-five years in Los Angeles county, shall be eligible
to membership; and also all persons of good moral character
fifty years of age or over, who have resided in the State forty
years and in the county ten years previous to their application,
shall be eligible to become members. Persons born in this
State are not eligible to membership, but those admitted before
the adoption of this amendment shall retain their membership.
(Amended September 4, 1900.)

ARTICLE III.

The officers of this society shall consist of a board of seven
directors, to be elected annually at the annual meeting, by the
members of the society. Said directors when elected shall
choose a president, a first vice-president, a second vice-presi-
dent,a secretary and a treasurer. The secretary and treasurer
may be elected from the members outside the Board of Di-
rectors.

ARTICLE IV.

The annual meeting of this society shall be held on the first
Tuesday of September. The anniversary of the founding of
the society shall be the fourth day of September, that being the



CONSTITUTION AND BY-IAWS. 65

anniversary of the first civic settlement in the southern portion
of Alta CaHfornia, to wit: the founding of the Pyeblo of Los
Angeles, September 4, 1781.

ARTICLE V.

Members guilty of misconduct may, upon conviction after
proper investigation has been held, be expelled, suspended, fined
or reprimanded by a vote of two-thirds of the members present
at any stated meeting; provided, notice shall have been given to
the society at least one month prior to such intended action.
Any officer of this society may be removed by the Board of
Directors for cause; provided, that such removal shall not be-
come permanent or final until approved by a majority of mem-
bers of the society present at a stated meeting and voting.

ARTICLE VI.

Amendments to this constitution may be made by submit-
ting the same in writing to the society at least one month prior
to the annual meeting. At said annual meeting said proposed
amendments shall be submitted to a vote of the society. And
if two-thirds of all the members present and voting shall vote
in favor of adopting said amendments, then they shall be de-
clared adopted. (Amended September 4, 1900.)



BY-LAWS

MEMBERSHIP.

[Adopted September 4, 1897; amended June 4, 1901.]

Section i. Applicants for membership in this society
shall be recommended by at least two members in good stand-
ing. The applicant shall give his or her full name, age, birth-
place, present residence, occupation, date of his or her arrival
in the State and in Los Angeles county. The application must
be accompanied by the admission fee of one dollar, which shall
also be payment in full for dues until next annual meeting.

Section 2. Applications for admission to membership in
the society shall be referred to the committee on membership,
for investigation, and reported on at the next regular meeting



66 PIONEERS OF LOS x\nge:li;s county.

of the society. If the report is favorable, a ballot shall be taken
for the election of the candidate. Three negative votes shall
cause the rejection of the applicant.

Section 3. Each person, on admission to membership, shall
sign the Constitution and By-Laws.

Section 4. Any person eligible to membership may be
elected a life member of this society on the payment to the
treasurer of $25. Life members shall enjoy all the privileges
of active members, but shall not be required to pay annual dues.

Section 5. A member may withdraw from the society by
giving notice to the society of his desire to do so, and paying
all dues charged against him up to the date of his withdrawal.

DUES.

Section 6. The annual dues of each member (except life
members) shall be one dollar, payable in advance, at the annual
meeting in September.

Section 7. Any member delinquent one year in dues shall
be notified by the secretary of said delinquency, and unless said
dues are paid within one month after said notice is given, then
said member shall stand suspended from the society. A mem-
ber may be reinstated on payment of all dues owing at the date
of his suspension.

DUTIES OF OFFICERS.

Section 8. The president shall preside, preserve order and
decorum during the meetings and see that the Constitution and
By-Laws and rules of the society are properly enforced; appoint
all committees not otherwise provided for; and fill all vacancies
temporarily for the meeting. The president shall have power to
suspend any officer or member for cause, subject to the action
of the society at the next meeting.

Section 9. In the absence of the president, one of the vice-
presidents shall preside, with the same power as the president,
and if no president or vice-president be present, the society shall
elect a member to preside temporarily.

Section 10. The secretary shall keep a true record of all
the members of the society; and upon the death of a member
(when he shall have notice of such death) shall have published
in two daily papers of Los Angeles the time and place of the
funeral; and, in conjunction with the president and other of!i-



CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 67

cers and members of the society, shall make such arrangements
with the approval of the relatives of the deceased as may be
necessary for the funeral of the deceased member. The secre-
tary shall collect all dues, giving his receipt therefor; and he
shall turn over to the treasurer all moneys collected, taking his



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