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quisition of the bluff could wisely be applied all the way to
the Northampton line. It is hard to overestimate the value



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CITY BEAUTIFUL 329

of such public holdings in the future as the land to the west
becomes built up. Beautiful, spacious and refreshing as
the views from the bluff are, few can fully appreciate them
because of their relative inaccesibility and because most of
the best outlook points are obscured by the density of the
foliage. To leave all this river bank in private control
means to exclude the public forever from a priceless oppor-
tunity of recreation. Few cities are situated upon a great
and beautiful river like the Connecticut, and fewer still
have so bold and lofty a bank from which to command a
prospect of it.

South Bluff. .

South of the city there is another bluff, not so close to
the river's edge, but also commanding an extensive and
pleasant prospect. It begins to be noticeable just south of
South street and runs along for perhaps three-quarters of a
mile on a line just east of Brown street, with the railroad
at its foot. The face of the bluff is naturally about as steep
as earth can stand but has been covered and protected from
washing by a continuous mat of tree roots and other vege-
tation. It is so steep that it cannot possibly be utilized for
building or in any other directly productive way and as
private property is just so much waste land. Being ne-
glected and frequently burned over by ground fires, under-
mined at a few places by the railroad cut, and at an increas-
ing number of points overspread by ashes, gravel and rub-
bish dumped over the upper edge, the vegetation is rapidly
being killed off and the bluff is on the way to become a bare
slipping bank of gravel, sand and rubbish, conspicuously
ugly as seen from the eastward and involving the railroad
and the landowners in the joint (and quarrelsome) burden
of preventing the loose material from constantly dribbling
down on to the railroad location. From every point of view
it would be an advantage if the face of the bluff were to
pass into public hands together with a narrow margin at



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330 CITY BEAUTIFUL

the top sufficient for a promenade. The cost of properly
maintaining the face of the bluff with a cover of vegetation
if intelligently undertaken would be a trifling price for the
public to pay for the opportunity of getting the promenade
and its views, while the private land-owners would be re-
lieved of a burden likely to prove much more troublesome
if neglected than any of them now realize. In places the
margin between Brown street and the top of the bluff where
the promenade would run is now occupied by buildings,
which would be left undisturbed with little or no curtail-
ment of the available area of the lots. In other places are
vacant lots which would be enhanced in value by the pre-
sence of a park along their easterly edge far more than they
would be damaged by a slight curtailment in depth At
other points the edge of the declivity comes so close to
Brown street that there is no available building space worth
mentionoing and at such points Brown street would natur-
ally form the edge of the park and the vegetation would be
so handled as to keep the view open from the street itself.



The River's Edge.

It is probable that at various points along the edge of
the river between the heart of the city and its southern
boundary strips or blocks of park land could be secured to
advantage. It is obvious that in such a location a given
area of park land would have the marked advantage over
an equal area just away from the river of controlling an
outlook over the wide expanse of water toward distant trees
and hills, together with the incident advantage of boating
facilities. Within a factory district the special advantages
of building sites near the river, with which a park strip might
conflict, lie in the use of the river water for condensers and
for various mechanical purposes and in the convenience of
the river as a place for disposing of waste materials. To
the former a narrow park need offer no impediment other



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CITY BEAUTIFUL 331

than a slight lengthening of the intake and outlet pipes, and
in so far as the waste material is not of a character which
it is against public interests to put in the river most of it
can without objection be carried across a narrow park in
pipes or conveyors.

Opposite all the central part of the city an important
branch freight track of the Holyoke and Westfield railroad
follows close to the river bank, and it is obvious that no park
in the ordinary sense of the term nor playground can be
placed next the river in that locality. There is only a very
narrow strip of irregular width between the railroad and
the water, a strip mostly covered with trees and entirely
unused at most points except by tramps and occasional
fishermen. It is not improbable that considerable parts of
this little waste fringe of land might ultimately be made to
afford a good deal of public recreation if they should be
taken over by the city (subject to rights-of-way for pipes
and conveyors), fenced off from the railroad for safety,
provided with a path, and made accessible to the factory
population in Ward 1 by steps down from the county bridge
and by foot-bridges over the railroad at the end of Mosher
street and perhaps at other points.

Outlying Reservations.

In addition to the vitally important local parks and
recreation grounds such as we have discussed above, it has
become fully recognized that it is a great advantage to an
urban industrial community if its people have the oppor-
tunity of easily getting entirely away from the city when
they can take half a day off. Trolleys and the bicycle give a
range of holiday excursion into the country to the mass
of urban population except in the biggest mertopolitan cen-
ters that was formerly enjoyed only by the well-to-do, and
in a city like Holyoke, surrounded on all sides by a region
of much natural beauty, the people are exceptionally for-
tunate in this respect.. But while a trolley ride is refresh-



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332 CITY BEAUTIFUL

ing it is by no means as beneficial merely to whirl out in
the noisy hurrying car and then whirl back again, as it is
to stop and get out for a while into personal contact with
the quiet things of the country. Moreover, some definite
objective is generally needed to start people off on an ex-
cursion, whether by trolley or bicycle or otherwise. It is
solely for the latter reason that electric railways establish
reereation parks, and if they do to some extent fulfill the
former purposes, it is only incidentally and to a very second-
ary degree. They must of necessity sater to the more ob-
vious and exciting forms of recreation and those which will
draw large numbers to a relatively small space, for the sake
of economy in plant and operation. However popularly at-
tractive, these are upon the whole just the least beneficial
forms of country amusement for people whose nerves are
in need of rest, and to make it reasonably easy and attract-
ive for the mass of the people to get the quieter and most
restful kinds of rural recreation which cannot be supplied
at a commercial profit is one of the modern burdens which
cities are learning that they have got to shoulder. The.
problem is to give people access to land where they can
stroll or picnic in the midst of pleasant rural scenes in tol-
erable comfort and safety without injuring or trespassing
upon private property. The need grows rapidly with the
growth of cities in population but it is perhaps not very
pressing upon Holyoke as yet. It so happens, however,
that the foundation of just such provision as will be in con-
stantly increasing demand in the future has already been
laid. Holyoke now owns a large extent of land well adapted
to afford public enjoyment of rural scenery in the reserva-
tions which surround the reservoirs. The ultimate value
of these tracts for purposes of public recreation should be
very large. The degree of their beauty and usefulness over
and above their direct practical value as water reserves
fifty or a "hundred years from now will be dependent mainly
on the precise character and distribution of the woods, of



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CITY BEAUTIFUL 333

the meadows and of the scattered trees then to be seen on
them; these in turn will be dependent upon where and of
what sorts and under what conditions the trees and saplings
and seedlings of the present generation are allowed to grow.
The beauty of these tracts therefore will depend mainly on
these three things: (1) whether vigilant pains are taken
year in and year out to prevent fires from getting into the
woods, (2) whether certain areas are constantly maintained
as open grass land free from the natural encroachment of
brush and woods (either by mowing or by pasturing or
otherwise) but provided with the right number of scat-
tered trees upon the greensward, for shade and landscape
effect, and (3) whether certain other areas are allowed and
induced to grow up to the right sort of woods by the judi-
cious use of the axe. Of course if money is going to be
spent on roads and paths they should be skilfully and in-
telligently planned so as to exhibit the existing and future
beauties of the landscape to good advantage, so as to be
convenient and safe and so as to be as little costly of main-
tenance as possible; and if any money is to be spent on
planting it should be done so as to contribute to the best re-
sult the landscape is capable of; but the vital thing in the
long run is going to be the skilful direction of the common,
ordinary, necessary maintenance work, such as mowing,
leasing out pasturage (if done at all) and the selective cut-
ting of brush and cord wood in such a way as to develop
gradually and systematically a consistent and beautiful
tract of sylvan landscape about the lakes.



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334 CITY BEAUTIFUL



LIST OP TREES SUGGESTED FOR PLANTING ALONG

CANALS.

LARGE AND MEDIUM SIZED.

Acer platanoides — Norway Maple.

Acer rubrum — Red Maple.

Aesculus hippocastanum — Horsechestmit.

Betula nigra — River Birch.

Fraxinus pubescens — Red Ash.

Platanus occidentals — American Plane.

Populns bolleana — Bolle's Poplar.

Populus monilifera — Carolina Poplar.

Quercus alba — White Oak.

Quercus bicolor — Swamp White Oak.

Quercus palustris — Pin Oak.

Quercus rubra — Red Oak.

Salix alba— White Willow.

Salix pentandra — Laurel-leaf Willow.

Salix, other sorts — Willow, other sorts.

Tilia americana — Basswood.

Ulmus americana — American Elm.

Ulmus campestris — English Elm.



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CITY BEAUTIFUL 335



SMALL SIZED.

Amelanchier canadensis — June-Berry.

Carpinus betulus — European Hornbeam.

Carpinus caroliniana — American Hornbeam.

Catalpa bignonioides — Catalpa.

Cornus florida — Flowering Dogwood.

Carategus, of sorts — Thorn, of sorts.

Kolreuteria paniculata — Varnish Tree .

Magnolia, of sorts — Magnolia, of sorts.

Ostrya virginica — Ironwood.

Pyrus, flowering crab, of sorts — Flowering Crab, Apple,
of sorts.

Rhus cotinus — Smoke Tree.

Rhus typhina — Staghorn Sumac.



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336 CITY BEAUTIFUL



LIST OF CREEPERS SUGGESTED FOR PLANTING ON
BUILDINGS ALONG CANAL.

Actinidia polygama — Silver ,Sweet Vine.

Akebia quinata — Akebia.

Ampelopsis quinquefolia — Woodbine.

Ampelopsis veitchii — Japanese Ivy.

Clematis, of sorts — Clematis, of sorts.

Euonymus radicans carrieri — Long-leaved Evergreen
Creeper.

Euonymus radicans vegetus — Round-leaved Evergreen
Creeper.

Tecoma radicans — Trumpet Vine.

Wistaria sinensis — Wistaria.

Notes — All of the vines excepting the Ampelopsis veit-
chii and the Euonymus radicans will require wires, at-
tached to the buildings, to cling to for support. An excel-
lent method is to use twisted galvanized iron ribbon, about
half an inch wide, or less, held in place by eyes about one
and one-quarter inches outside diameter, the shanks of
which have been let into the walls of the buildings. In
addition to vertical wires, there should be wires running
horizontally under the eaves or cornices of the buildings
and in some cases at the height of the different floors be-
tween the windows. The Bignonia radicans might also get
along without wires. Should it develop that this vine also
needs wires they can be provided later.



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REPORT OF

CITY AUDITOR.



To the Honorable, the Mayor, and Board of Aldermen:

Gentlemen: — I present herewith the annual statement
of the receipts and expenditures for the fiscal year 1907 in
the form and manner suggested by the National Municipal
League.

I beg to further report that I have audited the accounts
of the Water Department. Gas and Electric Department,
Tax Collector, City Clerk, Milk Inspector and Sealer of
Weights and -Measures and found them correct, with the re-
ceipts properly recorded and promptly deposited, and the
expenditures approved in due form.

The report also contains other matters pertinent to the
financial side of the city's business which may prove of in-
terest.

Respectfully submitted,

D. W. KEXXEY, City Auditor.



SCHEDULE A— I.

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS OF THE FISCAL YEAR.

Consolidated Statement.

Cash balance, Dec. i, 1906 $142,638.72

Actual receipts* during the year $1,608,404.22

Actual expenditures* during the year 1,634,648.07

Excess of disbursements 26,243.85

Cash balance, Dec. 1, 1907 $116,394.87

* Omitting duplications



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338



REPORT OF CITY AUDITOR



.SCHEDULE A— II.

GENERAL EXHIBIT OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES OF
THE FISCAL YEAR.





Receipts


Expenditures


Ordinary* (Operation and maintenance)


*i,430»5 2 7*io
I77,877.J2


$1,468,364.76
165,078.09


(For details see Schedule A-III.)
Extraordinary, (Construction, etc.)


(For details see Schedule A-III.)


Total Actual Cash Transactions of the Year
(Omitting duplications)


$1,608,404.22
1,589.97


$1,633,442.85
1,205.22


Trust Funds


(For details see Schedule A-V.)


Temporary Accounts


$1,609,994.19
766,000.00

176,516.84


$1,634,648.07
721,000.00


(For details see Schedule A-V I.)
Abatements, Duplicated Receipts and Payments


281,044.65


Total transactions


$2,552,511.03


$2,636,692.72





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REPORT OF CITY AUDITOR 339

Ordinary has relation only to the current revenues and
4 ' running expenses" (operation and maintenance), and does
not include receipts or payments on account of loans, or on
account of permanent construction or other capital accounts.

Extraordinary has no relation to current revenue or
running expenses, but does include receipts and payments
on account of loans, and for permanent construction and
other capital accounts.

Trust funds include all receipts and payments of the
city when acting as trustee or as agent for funds, trusts,
special deposits, etc., which cannot be used except for par-
ticular and specified purposes.

Temporary accounts include, in addition to receipts and
payments which are simplv items paid in, temporarily held,
and paid out again ; also payments duplicated on the funded
debt, sinking funds and interest accounts owing to the
separate and distinct systems which prevail between the
City, Water Department and Gas and Electric Department.



ACTUAL FINANCIAL RESULTS OF THE OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE OF THE CITY FOR THE YEAR.

Ordinary receipts, as above, from taxation
and other sources, not including money bor-
rowed, $1,430,527.10

Ordinary expenditures, as above, for opera-
tion and maintenance (running expenses) 1,468,364.76



Excess of ordinary expenditures for the year $37,837.66
Excess of extraordinary receipts $12,799.03



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34Q



REPORT OF CITY AUDITOR

SCHEDULE A— III.



EXHIBIT OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES FOR THE

YEAR, ORDINARY AND EXTRAORDINARY GROUPED

ACCORDING TO FUNCTIONS.

ORDINARY*



General Administration

Public Safety (Protection Life, Health and Property .

Public Chanty

Public Highways and Sanitation

Municipal Enterprises

Public Education, Library

Public Recreation

Public Indebtedness

Public Interest

Taxation

Special Assessments

Trust Funds

Temporary Accounts



1,892 34
7,879.47
10,757.24
2,13169
453,143.40
17,689 44
6870



22,198.09

908,456.46

6,327.11

1,589.97

766,000.00



Less Duplications, Refunds, Payments, Abatements and Trans-
fers



12,198,133.91
16.84



$ 49,189 64

186,158.58

60,914.96

140,563-35

479,383.80

244,039.28

18.675 08

305 355.16

122,913.88

142,202.23

13^0

1,205.22

721000.00



♦2,471,614.63
281.044 65



|2,198,117.07| 12,190,569.98



EXTRAORDINARY.*



Receipts Expenditures



General Administration

Public Safety (Protection Life, Health and Property I $ 26,800.00

Public Charity [

Public Highways and Sanitation | 83,200.00

Municipal Enterprises 35,247 59]

Public Education, Library I 13,500.001

Public Recreation \ 18,000.001

Public Indebtedness. 176,500.00

Public Interest I 1,129.531

Taxation .



$ 22,74495



73,657.36
22,000.00
37.175.78
9,500.00



Special Assessments...

Trust Funds

Temporary Accounts.



Le^* Dap»?cajed Receipts..



1354,377.12
176,500.00L

$177,877,123



$165,078 09



$165,078.09



* For details see Schedule A-IV.



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REPORT OF CITY AUDITOR

SCHEDULE A— IV.



341



EXHIBIT OF RECEIPTS, APPROPRIATIONS AND EXPENDI-
TURES, DIVIDED INTO ORDINARY AND EXTRAORDI-
NARY, ARRANGED BY DEPARTMENTS AND DIVI-
SIONS AND GROUPED ACCORDING TO THEIR
FUNCTIONS AS IN THE PRECEDING
SCHEDULE.



1. GENERAL ADMINISTRATION.



1-1 Mayor's Department

1-2 Aldermen, Clerk, Messenger

City Messenger's Department ....

Clerk of Committees .

Aldermen, Legislative Expenses.

City Clerk's Department

Recording Births, Marriages and
Deaths



1-3 Law Department



Receipts



City Solicitor

Legal Services, Other Attorneys
Litigation Expenses



1-4 Finance

Auditing Department ..

Assessors

Tres sorer

Tax Collector

Sinking Fond Officials
Expert Auditor



1-5 Elections



Election Expenses, City Clerk ....

Election Registrars of voters

Election pofllog places, rent, etc.
Election Officers & Special Police

1-6 Miscellaneous

License Commission

Printing, Advertising & Sundries



1-7



City Hall

Rentals

Care and Maintenance

Repairs 1 Board

Water ( of

Fuel ("Public

Lighting J Works

Service Transfer



°<«™y or E dVn'a%



$1,875.00



16.84 .



$1,891.81



Totsl Gereral Administration



$1,892-34



Expenditures



Ordinary



$2,537 62



1,350.43
150 00
66627

2,045 55

1,764.43



1,584.14
42900
169.69



3,192 24
6.800.00
4,224 14
4,940.65
75.00
354 25



Extra-
ordinary



1.306.99 .

820.00.

1,388.S4 .

1,724.00 .



1,306.17 .
1,514.91 .



$38,344,321



1,967.50

4.311.98

167.62

87468

3.506.70

1684



$10,845 32



$49,189.64



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342



REPORT OF CITY AUDITOR



SCHEDULE A— IV— Continued.
2. PUBLIC SAFETY. (Protection of Life, Health and Property.)






Receipts


Expenditures




Ordinary


Extra-
otdinary


Ordinary


Extra-
ordinary


2-1 Police Department






$60,727.09




Fines — Police Court


$4,877.04
689.00






Fines— Hampden County




1 "— - ™




$1,800.00






2-2 Pire Department

Engine


15,566.04


$60,727.09




Salaries




$75,856,25
24328.09




General Expenses








Materials


1461.50






Repairs, Buildings (

Fuel " I Board




2,060.88
1,960 40
1,112.20
191.58
5,120.00










Light and Power J of








Water, Buildings 1 Public

Water, Hydrants Works














Highland Engine House I.




7,000.00


$7,000.00






2-3 Health Department

Salaries


$46160


$8,800.00


$110,519.85

$8,499.54

52500

1,554.10

1,688.79

312.50

18000

36 25

17.10

768,60


$7,000.00


Medical Inspection








General Expenses


$2.45
7.40






Inspector Milk and Vinegar






Inspector Provisions and Animals
Hillside Hospital-care












Hillside Hospital-fuel








Hillside Hospital-repairs








Contageous Diseases


150.47












2-4 Inspectors

Superintendent of Buildings


$160.32


$8,68188

$1,499.41
1,867.70
2,011.31




Inspector of Plumbing








Sealer of Weights and Measures...


$660.38












2-5 Armory, Sundry Buildings

Armory


$660.38
$825.00


$5,378.42




Rifle Range




$75.55




Sundry Buildings:


166.23






Sundries




Repairs




319.78
16-75

319.00
24.75
76-70
36.25
8301




Fuel








Water








Weather Bureau, Lighting








City Yard Building, Lighting


.






City Yard Building, Fuel








City Yard Building, Repairs








City Yard Building


40 00


$18,000 00


$15744.95








$1,031.23


$18,000.00


$951.79


$15,744.96


Total Public Safety


$7,879.47


$26,800.00


$186,158.53


$22,74496





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REPORT OF CITY AUDITOR



343



SCHEDULE A— IV— Continued.
3. PUBLIC CHARITY.





Receipts


Expenditures




Ordinary


Extra-
ordinary


Ordinary


Extra-
ordinary


8-1 OityFurm

City Farm, Products


$ 727.05
1,032.30




•20,725.84










Repairs ) Board of

Fuel i Public Works




2,284.38
4,896.69

2,575.01

1,200 00

391.95










8-2 Outdoor Belief

Salaries








City Physician... — -
















Individuals


•8325






City, Out-door Relief




17,128.92

1,51650

268.00

2,088 41

734.00

272.00

1,850.26

355 00
96 00




City, Hospital Relief


i






City, Burials








State, Out-door Relief








State, Hospital Relief


2,771.87






State, Burials






Other Cities and Towns, Out-door
Poor








Other Cities and Towns, Hospital
Relief


2,761.77






Other Cities and Towns, Burials ...














8-8 - Miscellaneous

State Aid


$7376.24

•2,685 00
666.00


•56,377.98

• 2,787.00
978.00
608.00
214.00




Military Aid






Soldiers' Relief






Soldiers' Burial


140.00














•3,381.00


• 4,537.00




Total Public Charity


•10,757.24


•60,914.98





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344



REPORT OF CITY AUDITOR

SCHEDULE A— IV— Continued.



PUBLIC HIGHWAYS AND SANITATION.



Receipts



Expenditures



Ordinary



Extra-
ordinary



Ordinary



Extra-
ordinary



4-1 Administration

Engineet iug Department

Board of Public Works, Salaries..
Super in endent of Streets, Salaries

Office Force, Salaries

General Expenses



4-2 Highways



Railroad Crossing

Opening, Grading and Widening
Street*



Maintenance..
Crosswalks ....

Forestry

Road Rollers .



4-3 Paving, Macadamizing



Street*, Paving

Streets, Macadamizing .
AlUys



4-4 Bridges



Maintenance ....

Lighting

Snow Removal..



4-5 Street Cleaning

Paved Streets

Gravel Streets

4-6 Snow Removal



Street Railway Tracks..
Stretts



4-7 Sidewalks

Curbing and Sidewalks (New

Worki

Repairs and Maintenance

Snow Removal



4-8 Street Lighting

Lighting Streets ....
Transformer .



$ 132-24



$35,000-00



$1,61244
71.95



$35,000.00



$ 7,50000 .

3,200 00 .

2,000.00 .

2.36714 .

721.22

$15,788.36



$ 526!

12,253.61!

2,303.591

663-65 1 .





$ 1,426-37
1,961.13



595.59



$ 762.59
105.38



2,266.50



$22,827.17
16,725.40



11,818.83 $70,000.00



$ 1,868.27

693. 12 i
428 26



$ 6,432.61
3,050.99



$ 782.77
1,772 04



$ 231.38



$ 5,200.00



$31,122.14 $15,792.16



$ 2,089.92 ! $ 6,692-88

10,13162

303.69



$ 231.38| $5,200 00 $12,525.23: $6,692.88



$29,693.39.
27.82.



$29,72121



75,200.00 89,156*94! 52.48504



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REPORT OF CITY AUDITOR



345



SCHEDULE A— IV— Continued.





Receipts


Expenditures




Ordinary


Extra-
ordinary


Ordinary


Extra-
ordinary




2,060.21


75,200.00


89,156 94

$ 2,243.00

694 86

10,760.57

1,880.83

$ 15,428.76

$ 22,983.33

1,746.60

389.24


52,485.04


4-9 Street Sprinkling

Street Fountains, Water


















Water








4-10 Befhee, Collection and Disposal

Collection ashes, ray-roll








Collection House Offal








Sundry Bills










$ 68.58
12.90


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