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Pope's translation of Homer's Iliad, books I, VI, XXII, XXIV; online

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The general, who is deluded with the hopes of taking Troy with-
out his assistance, but fears the army was discouraged by his
absence and the late plague, as well as by length of time, contrives
to make trial of their disposition by a stratagem. He first com-
municates his design to the princes in council, that he would pro-
pose a return to the soldiers, and that they should put a stop to
them if the proposal was embraced. Then he assembles the whole
host, and upon moving for a return to Greece, they unanimously
agree to it, and run to prepare the ships. They are detained by
the management of Ulysses, who chastises the insolence of Ther-
sites. The assembly is recalled, several speeches made on the
occasion, and at length the advice of Nestor followed, which was
to make a general muster of the troops, and to divide them into
their several nations, before they proceeded to battle. This gives
occasion to the poet to enumerate all the forces of the Greeks and
Trojans in a large catalogue.

The time employed in this book consists not entirely of one day.
The scene lies in the Grecian camp and upon the sea-shore ; toward
the end it removes to Troy.

BOOK III

THE DUEL OF MENELAUS AND PARIS

The armies being ready to engage, a single combat is agreed
upon between Menelaiis and Paris (by the intervention of Hector)
for the determination of w r ar. Iris is sent to call Helen to behold
the fight. She leads her to the walls of Troy, where Priam sat
with his counsellors, observing the Grecian leaders on the plain
below, to whom Helen gives an account of the chief of them. The
kings on either part take the solemn oath for the conditions of
the combat. The duel ensues, wherein Paris, being overcome, is



ARGUMENTS 5

snatched away in a cloud by Venus, and transported to his apart-
ment. She t>h en calls Helen from the walls, and brings the lovers
together. Agamemnon, on the part of the Grecians, demands the
restoration of Helen, and the performance of the articles.

The three-and-twentieth day still continues throughout this book.
The scene is sometimes in the field before Troy, and sometimes in
Troy itself.

BOOK IV

THE BREACH OF THE TRUCE AND THE FIRST BATTLE

The gods deliberate in council concerning the Trojan war : they
agree upon the continuation of it, and Jupiter sends down Minerva
to break the truce. She persuades Panclariis to aim an arrow at
Menelaiis, who is wounded, but cured by Machaon. In the mean-
time some of the Trojan troops attack the Greeks. Agamemnon
is distinguished in all the parts of a good general ; he reviews the
troops, and exhorts the leaders, some by praises, and others by
reproofs. Nestor is particularly celebrated for his military disci-
pline. The battle joins, and great numbers are slain on both sides.

The same day continues through this, as through the last book ;
as it does also through the two following, and almost to the end of
the seventh book. The scene is wholly in the field before Troy.

BOOK V

THE ACTS OF DIOMED

Diomed, assisted by Pallas, performs wonders in this day's battle.
Pandarus wounds him with an arrow, but the goddess cures him,
enables him to discern gods from mortals, and prohibits him from
contending with any of the former, excepting Venus. ^Eneas joins
Pandarus to oppose him, Pandarus is killed, and ^Eneas in great
danger but for the assistance of Venus, who, as she is removing
her son from the fight, is wounded on the hand by Diomed. Apollo
seconds her in his rescue, and at length carries oif ^Eneas to Troy,
where he is healed in. the temple of Pergamus. Mars rallies the
Trojans, and assists Hector to make a stand. In the meantime



6 THE ILIAD

JSneas is restored to the field, and they overthrow several of the
Greeks; among the rest Tlepolemus is slain by Sarpedou. Juno
and Minerva descend to resist Mars ; the latter incites Diomed to
go against that god; he wounds him, and sends him groaning to
heaven.

The first battle continues through this book. The scene is the
same as in the former.

BOOK VI

THE EPISODES OF GLAUCUS AND DIOMED, AND OF HECTOR AND
. . ANDROMACHE

The gods having left the field, the Grecians prevail. Helenus,
the chief augur of Troy, commands Hector to return to the city, in
order to appoint a solemn procession of the queen and the Trojan
matrons to the temple of Minerva, to entreat her to remove Diomed
from the fight. The battle relaxing during the absence of Hector,
Glaucus and Diomed have an interview between the two armies;
where, coming to the knowledge of the friendship and hospitality
past between their ancestors, they make exchange of their arms.
Hector, having performed the orders of Helenus, prevails upon
Paris to return to the battle, and, taking a tender leave of his wife
Andromache, hastens again to the field.

The scene is first in the field of battle, between the rivers Simois
and Scamander, and then changes to Troy.

BOOK VII

THE SINGLE COMBAT OF HECTOR AND AJAX

The battle renewing with double ardour upon the return of
Hector, Minerva is under apprehensions for the Greeks. Apollo,
seeing her descend from Olympus, joins her near the Scsean gate.
They agree to put off the general engagement for that day, and
incite Hector to challenge the Greeks to a single combat. Nine of
the princes accepting the challenge, the lot is cast, and falls upon
Ajax. These heroes, after several attacks, are parted by the night.
The Trojans calling a council, Antenor proposes the delivery of



ARGUMENTS 7

Helen to the Greeks, to which Paris will not consent, but offers to
restore them her riches. Priam sends a herald to make this offer,
and to demand a truce for burningthe <^d, the last of which only
is agreed to by Agamemnon. Wj^Bthe funerals are performed,
the Greeks, pursuant to the adj^^^P Nestor, erect a fortification
to protect their fleet and ca.rn^H ^Ked with towers, and defended
by a ditch and palisades, ^feptune testifies his jealousy at this
work, but is pacified by a premise from Jupiter. Both armies pass
the night in feasting, but Jupiter disheartens the Trojans with
thunder and other signs of his wrath.

The three-and-twentieth day ends with the duel of Hector and
Ajax ; the next day the truce is agreed : another is taken up in the
funeral rites of the slain; and one more in building the fortifi-
cation before the ships; so that somewhat above three days is
employed in this book. The scene lies wholly in the field.

BOOK VIII

THE SECOND BATTLE AND THE DISTRESS OF THE GREEKS

Jupiter assembles a council of the deities, and threatens them
with the pains of Tartarus, if they assist either side: Minerva only
obtains of him that she may direct the Greeks by her counsels.
The armies join battle ; Jupiter on Mount Ida weighs in his bal-
ances the fates of both, and affrights the Greeks with his thunders
and lightnings. Nestor alone continues in the field in great danger ;
Diomed relieves him, whose exploits, and those of Hector, are excel-
lently described. Juno endeavours to animate Neptune to the
assistance of the Greeks, but in vain. The acts of Teucgr, who is
at length wounded by Hector and carried off. Juno and Minerva
prepare to aid the Grecians, but are restrained by Iris, sent from
Jupiter. The night puts an end to the battle. Hector continues
in the field (the Greeks being driven to their fortifications before
the ships), and gives orders to keep the watch all night in the
camp, to prevent the enemy from reimbarking and escaping by
flight. They kindle fires through all the field, and pass the night
under arms.

The time of seven-and-twenty days is employed from the open-
ing of the poem to the end of this book. The scene here (except
of the celestial machines) lies in the field toward the sea-shore.



THE ILIAD
BOOK IX

TO ACHILLES




Agamemnon, after the lasl^ defeat, proposes to the Greeks
to quit the siege, and return^^^^ir country. Diomed opposes
this, and Nestor seconds him, praising his wisdom and resolution.
He orders the guard to be strengthened, and a council summoned
to deliberate what measures are to be followed in this emergency.
Agamemnon pursues this advice, and Nestor farther prevails upon
him to send ambassadors to Achilles, in order to move him to a
reconciliation. Ulysses and Ajax are made choice of, who are
accompanied by old Phoenix. They make, each of them, very
moving and pressing speeches, but are rejected with roughness by
Achilles, who notwithstanding retains Phoenix in his tent. The
ambassadors return unsuccessfully to the camp, and the troops be-
take themselves to sleep.

This book, and the next following, take up the space of one
night, which is the twenty-seventh from the beginning of the
poem. The scene lies on the sea-shore, the station of the Grecian
ships.

BOOK X

THE NIGHT ADVENTURE OF DIOMED AND ULYSSES

Upon the refusal of Achilles to return to the army, the distress
of Agamemnon is described in the most lively manner. He takes
no rest that night, but passes through the camp, awaking the
leaders, and contriving all possible methods for the public safety.
Menelaiis, Nestor, Ulysses, and Diomed are employed in raising
the rest of the captains. They call a council of war, and deter-
~mine to send scouts into the enemy's camp, to learn their posture,
J x fthd discover their intentions. Diomed undertakes this hazardous
\y enterprise, and makes choice of Ulysses for his companion. In
their passage they surprise Dolon, whom Hector had sent on a
like design to the camp of the Grecians. From him they are
informed of the situation of the Trojan and auxiliary forces, and
particularly of Rhesus and the Thracians who were lately arrived.
They pass on with success, kill Rhesus with several of his officers,



ARGUMENTS 9

find seize the famous horses of that prince, with which they return
in triumph to the camp. .

The same night continues ; the scene lies in the two camps.

BOOK XI

THE THIKD BATTLE AND THE ACTS OF AGAMEMNON

Agamemnon, having armed himself, leads the Grecians to bat-
tle ; Hector prepares the Trojans to receive them ; while Jupiter,
Juno, and Minerva give the signals of war. Agamemnon bears
all before him ; and Hector is commanded by Jupiter (who sends
Iris for that purpose) to decline the engagement, till the king
should be wounded and retire from the field. He then makes a
great slaughter of the enemy; Ulysses and Diomed put a stop to
him for a time; but the latter, being wounded by Paris, is obliged
to desert his companion, who is encompassed by the Trojans,
wounded, and in the utmost danger, till Menelaiis and A jax rescue
him. Hector comes against Ajax, but that hero alone opposes
multitudes and rallies the Greeks. In the meantime Machaon, in
the other wing of the army, is pierced with an arrow by Paris, and
carried from the fight in Nestor's chariot. Achilles (who over-
looked the action from his ship) sends Patroclus to inquire which
of the Greeks was wounded in that manner. Nestor entertains
him in his tent with an account of the accidents of the day, and
a long recital of some former wars which he had remembered,
tending to put Patroclus upon persuading Achilles to fight for his
countrymen, or at least to permit him to do it clad in Achilles'
armour. Patroclus in his return meets Eurypylus, also wounded,
and assists him in that distress.

This book opens with the eight-and-twentieth day of the poem ;
and the same day, with its various actions and adventures, is ex-
tended through the twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, six-
teenth, seventeenth, and part of the eighteenth books. The scene
lies in the field near the monument of Ilus.

BOOK XII

THE BATTLE AT THE GRECIAN WALL

The Greeks being retired into their intrenchments, Hector
attempts to force them; but it proving impossible to pass the



10 THE ILIAD

ditch, Polydamas advises to quit their chariots and manage the
attack on foot. The Trojans follow his counsel, and having divided
.their army into five bodies of foot, begin the assault. But upon
the signal of an eagle with a serpent in his talons, which appeared
on the left hand of the Trojans, Polydamas endeavours to with-
draw them again. This Hector opposes, and continues the attack ;
in which, after many actions, Sarpedon makes the first breach in
the wall : Hector also, casting a stone of a vast size, forces open
one of the gates, and enters at the head of his troops, who victori-
ously pursue the Grecians even to their ships.



BOOK XI I T

THE FOURTH BATTLE CONTINUED, IN WHICH NEPTUNE ASSISTS
THE GREEKS : THE ACTS OF IDOMENEUS

Neptune, concerned for the loss of the Grecians, upon seeing
the fortification forced by Hector (who had entered the gate near
the station of the Ajaxes), assumes the shape of Calchas, and
inspires those heroes to oppose him ; then, in the form of one of
the generals, encourages the other Greeks, who had retired to their
vessels. The Ajaxes form their troops into a close phalanx, and
put a stop to Hector and the Trojans. Several deeds of valour are
performed ; Meriones, losing his spear in the encounter, repairs to
seek another at the tent of Idorneneus ; this occasions a conversa-
tion between these two warriors, who return together to the battle.
Idomeneus signalizes his courage above the rest ; he kills Othryo-
neus, Asius, and Alcathoiis : De'iphobus and ^Eneas march against
him, and at length Idomeneus retires. Menelaiis wounds Helenus,
and kills Pisander. The Trojans are repulsed in the left wing.
Hector still keeps his ground against the Ajaxes, till, being galled
by the Locrian slingers and archers, Polydamas advises to call a
council of war : Hector approves his advice, but goes first to rally
the Trojans ; upbraids Paris, rejoins Polydamas, meets Ajax again,
and renews the attack.

The eight-and-twentieth day still continues. The scene is
between the Grecian w r all and the sea-shore.



ARGUMENTS 11

BOOK XIV
JUNO DECEIVES' JUPITER BY THE GIKDLK OF VENUS

Nestor, sitting at the table with Machaon, is alarmed with the
increasing clamour of the war, and hastens to Agamemnon: on
his way he meets that prince with Diomed and Ulysses, whom he
informs of the extremity of the danger, Agamemnon proposes to
make their escape by night, which Ulysses withstands ; to which
Diomed adds his advice, that, wounded as/tney were, they should
go forth and encourage the army with their presence; which
advice is pursued. Juno, seeing the partiality of Jupiter to the
Trojans, forms a design to overreach him; she sets off her charms
with the utmost care, and (the more surely to enchant him)
obtains the magic girdle of Venus. She then applies herself to
the god of Sleep, and with some difficulty persuades him to seal
the eyes of Jupiter; this done, she goes to Mount Ida, where the
god, at first sight, is ravished with her beauty, sinks in her
embraces, and is laid asleep. Neptune takes advantage of his
slumber, and succours the Greeks; Hector is struck to the ground
with a prodigious stone by Ajax, and carried off from the battle :
several actions succeed; till the Trojans, much distressed, are
obliged to give way ; the lesser Ajax signalizes himself in a par-
ticular manner.

BOOK XV

THE FIFTH BATTLE, AT THE SHIPS ; AND THE ACTS OF AJAX

Jupiter, awaking, sees the Trojans repulsed from the trenches,
Hector in a swoon, and Neptune at the head of the Greeks ; he is
highly incensed at the artifice of Juno, who appeases him by her
submissions ; she is then sent to Iris and Apollo. Juno, repairing
to the assembly of the gods, attempts with extraordinary address
to incense them against Jupiter; in particular she touches Mars
with a violent resentment ; he is ready to take arms but is pre-
vented by Minerva. Iris and Apollo obey the orders of Jupiter ;
Iris commands Neptune to leave the battle, to which, after much
reluctance and passion, he consents. Apollo reinspires Hector
with vigour, brings him back to the battle, marches before him



12 THE ILIAD

with his segis, and turns the fortune of the fight. He breaks down
great part of the Grecian wall ; the Trojans rush in, and attempt
to fire the first line of the fleet, but are yet repelled by the greater
Ajax with a prodigious slaughter.

BOOK XVI

THE SIXTH BATTLE ; THE ACTS AND DEATH OF PATROCLUS

Patroclus (in pursuance of the request of Nestor in the eleventh
book) entreats Achilles to suffer him to go to the assistance of the
Greeks with Achilles' troops and armour. He agrees to it, but at
the same time charges him to content himself with rescuing the
fleet, without farther pursuit of the enemy. The armour, horses,
soldiers, and officers of Achilles are described. Achilles offers a
libation for the success of his friend, after which Patroclus leads
the Myrmidons to battle. The Trojans, at the sight of Patroclus
in Achilles' armour, taking him for that hero, are cast into the
utmost consternation : he beats them off from the vessels, Hector
himself flies, Sarpedon is killed, though Jupiter was averse to his
fate. Several other particulars of the battle are described, in the
heat of which Patroclus, neglecting the orders of Achilles, pur-
sues the foe to the walls of Troy, where Apollo repulses and dis-
arms him. Euphorbus wounds him, and Hector kills him; which
concludes the book.

T : BOOK XVII

THE SEVENTH BATTLE, FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS J THE ACTS
OF MENELAUS

Menelaiis, upon the death of Patroclus, defends his body from
the enemy : Euphorbus, who attempts it, is slain. Hector advanc-
ing, Menelaiis retires ; but soon returns with Ajax, and drives him
off. This Glaucus objects to Hector as a flight, who thereupon
puts on the armour he had won from Patroclus, and renews the
battle. The Greeks give way, till Ajax rallies them : JEneas
sustains the Trojans. 2Eneas and Hector attempt the chariot of
Achilles, which is borne off by Automedon. The horses of Achilles



ARGUMENTS 13

deplore the loss of Patroclus : Jupiter covers his body with a thick
darkness : the noble prayer of Ajax on that occasion. Menelaiis
sends Antilochus to Achilles, with the news of Patroclus' death,
then returns to the fight, where, though attacked with the utmost
fury, he and Meriones, assisted by the Ajaxes, bear off the body to
the ships.

The time is the evening of the eight-and-twentieth day. The
scene lies in the fields before Troy.



BOOK XVIII

THE GRIEF OF ACHILLES, AND NEW ARMOUR MADE HIM BY

VULCAN

The news of the death of Patroclus is brought to Achilles by
Antilochus. Thetis, hearing his lamentations, comes with all her
sea-nymphs to comfort him. The speeches of the mother and son
on this occasion. Iris appears to Achilles by the command of
Juno, and orders him to show himself at the head of the intrench-
ments. The sight of him turns the fortune of the day, and the
body of Patroclus is carried off by the Greeks. The Trojans call
a council, where Hector and Polydainas disagree in their opinions ;
but the advice of the former prevails, to remain encamped in the
field. The grief of Achilles over the body of Patroclus.

Thetis goes to the palace of Vulcan, to obtain new arms for her
son. The description of the wonderful works of Vulcan ; and,
lastly, that noble one of the shield of Achilles.

The latter part of the nine-and-twentieth day, and the night
ensuing, take up this book. The scene is at Achilles' tent on the
sea-shore, from whence it changes to the palace of Vulcan.



BOOK XIX

THE RECONCILIATION OF ACHILLES AND AGAMEMNON

Thetis brings to her son the armour made by Vulcan. She
preserves the body of his friend from corruption, and commands
him to assemble the army, to declare his resentment at an end.



14 THE ILIAD

Agamemnon and Achilles are solemnly reconciled : the speeches,
presents, and ceremonies on that occasion. Achilles is with great
difficulty persuaded to refrain from the battle till the troops have
refreshed themselves by the advice of Ulysses. The presents are
conveyed to the tent of Achilles, where Briseis laments over the
body of Patroclus. The hero obstinately refuses all repast, and
gives himself up to lamentations for his friend. Minerva descends
to strengthen him by the order of Jupiter. He arms for the fight ;
his appearance described. He addresses himself to his horses,
and reproaches them with the death of Patroclus. One of them is
miraculously endued with voice, and inspired to prophesy his fate;
but the hero, not astonished by that prodigy, rushes with fury to
the combat.

The thirtieth day. The scene is on the sea-shore.

BOOK XX

THE BATTLE OF THE GODS AND THE ACTS OF ACHILLES

Jupifer, upon Achilles' return to the battle, calls a council of the
gods, and permits them to assist either party. The terrors of the
combat described when the deities are engaged. Apollo encourages
jEneas to meet Achilles. After a long conversation, these two
heroes encounter ; but ^Eneas is preserved by the assistance of
Neptune. Achilles falls upon the rest of the Trojans, and is upon
the point of killing Hector, but Apollo conveys him away in a
cloud. Achilles pursues the Trojans with a great slaughter.

The same day continues. The scene is in the field before Troy.

BOOK XXI

THE BATTLE IN THE RIVER SCAMANDER

The Trojans fly before Achilles, some toward the town, others to
the river Scainander ; he falls upon the latter with great slaughter,
takes twelve captives alive, to sacrifice to the shade of Patroclus ;
and kills Lycaon and Asteroparus. Scamander attacks him with
all his waves ; Neptune and Pallas assist the hero ; Sirnois joins
Scamander; at length Vulcan, by the instigation of Juno, almost



ARGUMENTS 15

dries up the river. This combat ended, the other gods engage
each other. Meanwhile Achilles continues the slaughter, and
drives the rest into Troy : Ageiior only makes a stand, and is con-
veyed away in a cloud by Apollo, who (to delude Achilles) takes
upon him Agenor's shape, and while he pursues him in that dis-
guise, gives the Trojan an opportunity of retiring into their city.
The same day continues. The scene is on the banks and in the
stream of Scamander.

BOOK XXII

THE DEATH OF HECTOR

The Trojans being safe within the walls, Hector only stays to
oppose Achilles. Priam is struck at his approach, and tries to per-
suade his son to re-enter the town. Hecuba joins her entreaties,
but in vain. Hector consults within himself what measures to
take ; but, at the advance of Achilles, his resolution fails him, and
he flies : Achilles pursues him thrice round the walls of Troy. The
gods debate concerning the fate of Hector; at length Minerva
descends to the aid of Achilles. She deludes Hector in the shape
of Deiphobus ; he stands the combat, and is slain. Achilles drags
the dead body at his chariot, in the sight of Priam and Hecuba.
Their lamentations, tears, and despair. Their cries reach the ears
of Andromache, who, ignorant of this, was retired into the inner
part of the palace ; she mounts np to the walls, and beholds lier
dead husband. She swoons at the spectacle. Her excess of grief
and lamentation.

The thirtieth day still continues. The scene lies under the walls,
and on the battlements of Troy.

BOGK XXIII

FUNERAL GAMES IN HONOUR OF PATROCLUS

Achilles and the Myrmidons do honour to the body of Patro-

clus. After the funeral feast he retires to the sea-shore, where,

. falling asleep, the ghost of his friend appears to him, and demands

the rites of burial; the next morning the soldiers are sent with

mules and wagons to fetch wood for the pyre. The funeral pro-



16 THE ILIAD

cession, and the offering their hair to the dead. Achilles sacrifices
several animals, and lastly twelve Trojan captives, at the pile ;
then sets fire to it. He pays libations to the winds, which (at the
instance of Iris) rise, and raise the flame. When the pile has
burned all night, they gather the bones, place them in an urn of
gold, and raise the tomb. Achilles institutes the funeral games :
the chariot-race, the fight of the csestus, the wrestling, the foot-race,
the single combat, the discus, the shooting with arrows, the dart-
ing the javelin : the various descriptions of which, and the various
success of the several antagonists, make the greatest part of the book.
In this book ends the thirtieth day: the night following, the
ghost of Patroclus appears to Achilles : the one-and-thirtieth day is
employed in felling the timber for the pile; the two-and- thirtieth
in burning it; and the three-and-thirtieth in the games. The
scene is generally on the sea-shore.

BOOK XXIV

THE REDEMPTION OF THE BODY OF HECTOR

The gods deliberate about the redemption of Hector's body.


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Online LibraryHomerPope's translation of Homer's Iliad, books I, VI, XXII, XXIV; → online text (page 3 of 13)