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men carried canes. — iravTas: the bard's hearers easily made for them-
selves the necessary limitations for such general expressions. The priest's
errand was to the army and its leaders.

16. Άτρ€Ϊ8α δύω [δυο] : for δυω with the dual, cf. Αίαντε Βνω Β 406,
Γ 18, λίοντε δΰω, Ε 554. This dual form is infrequent. — Menelaus, king
of Sparta (B 586), as husband of Helen, is associated with his brother
Agamemnon ; cf Β 408. See § 6 a. — κοσμήτορί : κοσμίω is used in the
sense of the later τάσσω, cf. Β 554, Γ 1 ; see § 17.

17. The usual introduction to a speech (§ 12 A) is omitted. — For the
use of the speaker's very words, instead of indirect discourse, see § 11 e.
— €υκνήμιδ€ς: a standing epithet of the Achaeans (§ 12 h). In historical
times, Herodotus mentions greaves as worn by the Lycians in the army
of Xerxes.

18. 06oC: monosyllable by «synizesis,* see § 25. ~Cf. di tibi dent
capta classem deducere Troia, Horace Sat. ii. 3. 191.



riKST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 5

19. Πριάμοιο [Πριά/Αου] : for the form, see § 35 a. — ιτόλιν : for the

length of the last syllable, see § 59 I. — ol'KaSe: homeward, always of the
return to Greece, not like οΙκόνΒε into the house. See § 33 d,

20. παΐδα Se: made prominent because of his love for his daughter ;
instead of the c/xot δε which is expected in contrast with νμΐν μ^ν 18. —
λνσ-αι: corresponds to Sotcv. Cf, 13. — "As I pray that you may be
victorious and have a safe return, so may ye restore to me " elc, Cf. the
prayer of Priam for Achilles, συ δέ τώνδ' άπόναω, και eXOoLs | σην es ττατρι'δα
yaTav Ω 556 f. May^st thou enjoy these gifts and in safety reach thy native
land, where the return of Hector's body is the condition implied for the
prayer. The infinitive is here used for the imperative, but in an optative
sense (like αειδε 1), not as a command ; cf. the infinitive and imperative
in parallel clauses, 322 f ., Γ 459. — τά τ άττοινα : the priest points to the
gifts which he brought with him.

21. άξόμ6νοι [Attic σφόμενοι] κτλ. : a prime motive for granting the
request. The Achaeans were to honor the god in the person of his priest.

— The spondee in the fifth foot (see § 57 A) gives an emphatic close to
the sentence, cf. 11, 157, 291, 600.

22. Ιπευψήμησ-αν : for the usual βτττ/ι/τ/σαν, because of the religious fear
which was required by the priest. It is followed by the infinitive as
being equiv. to «κέλευσαν Ιπευφημονντί^ they hade with pious reverence;
cf. Β 290.

23. αΐδεΐσθαι: repeats αζόμ^νοι. — Ιερήα [ίερεα] : equivalent to άρητηρα
11. — άγλαά: an important epithet, introducing a motive for the action.

— δε'χθαι [Attic δε'^ασ^αι] : 2d aor. inf. from δέχομαι, see § 53.

24. άλλ* ουκ κτλ. : a sharp contrast to άλλοι μίν, giving prominence to
the negative. But not to the son of Atreus. — Άτρείδη: receives further
emphasis from its position immediately before the pause of the verse.
See § 11 h. Thus in the preceding verse ίερ^α is contrasted with αττοΐι/α,
as θνγατρα 13, and the λΰσαι tc 20 with ζζχεσθαι. — θυμω: local, iti heart.
See § 12 (7. — This verse in prose would be αλλ' *Ατρειδϊ/5 ονχ ησθηΤ^ ^

25. κακώ? : harshly. Cf. the use of κακήν 10. — άφίει : for the form, as
from a verb in -ε'ω, see § 52 α ; for the omission of the augment, see § 43 a.

— Homer is fond of using the imperfect to describe an action as in prog-
ress (see § 19 A), cf. τευχε 4. — κρατερόν : strong, stern. — lirl αΰθον ετελλεν :
laid upon him his command. — εττί : construe with ετελλεν, see § 55 «, h. —
μΰθον : had not yet received the idea of fiction which is contained in the
English myth. It and εττο? (216) are often used for the Attic λόγος which
is found but twice in Homer.

26-32. Agamemnon first rejects the admonition to fear the god and then
refuses the request itself.



6 COMMENTARY.

26. μη κτλ. : see to it that I do not, let me not, etc. This prohibitive
use of μη with the 1st pers. sing, is rare. — κοίλησ-ιν [κοιλαις] : for the
form, cf. οιωνοΓσι 5; see § 34 e. — νηυσ•£ [νανσί] : for the form, see § 23 a.

— κιχ€ίω \_κίχω'] : 2d aorist subjunctive from κίχάνω, § 51 d.

27. avTis Ιόντα : returning, of. τταλιν πλαγχθίντας 59, δό /xcvat πάλιν 116.

28. μή νύ τοι κτλ. : lest perhaps etc., adds to the preceding command
the result that was to be feared if the command were disregarded.

— ού χραίσ-μη : ου is used, not μη, since the negative and the verb
form but one idea, he useless, of no avail; cf. 566, Γ 289 . ^— σκήιττρον
κτλ. : " thy priestly dignity."

29. irptv: sooner, adv. with Ιττίίσιν, with strengthening Kat eyen ; almost
much rather. — For the animated ' adversative asyndeton,' see § 15 c. —
μίν [αυττ^ν] : her. — circicriv: shall come upon.

30. ημ€τ^ρω: the familiar our of the household. — «ν'Άργίϊ: i.e. in
Peloponnesus (which name is not found in Homer), "Αργός Άχαακόν, not
Π£λασγικόν "Αργός (Thessaly, Β 681), nor the city "Αργός where Diomed
ruled (B 559). — This clause is in apposition with the first clause of the
line, and it is repeated again by τηλόθι ττάτρης [μακράν άττο της ττατρίΒος'].
The pause is very distinct after οίκω, although it is not marked by punc-
tuation. See on Άτρ^'δτ; 24.

31. Ιστόν €ΐΓθΐχομ^νην : going to and fro before the loom, plying the loom.
The Greek women stood as they wove at their upright looms. Weaving
was the principal occupation of the female slaves. — λ^χο? : ace. of 'limit
of motion,' only here with άντίάω, approach, share the couch. See on 254.

— άντιόωσαν [άι/τιώσαν] : for the form, see § 47 c.

32. ϊθι, βρ^θιξί : for the ' explanatory asyndeton,' see § 15 b. — σ•αώτ£ρο5 :
more safely, sc. than if thou shouldst refuse to go. This independent use
of the comparative is frequent in Homer. — «s : in order that, here follows
the emphatic word (§ 11 I) ; so on, o, δφρα, and ίνα may have the second
place in the clause. Cf. Β 125. — For κί with the subjunctive, see II. 882 ;
Goodwin 1367. — νίηαι [very]: for the uncontracted form, see §44 h.
veo/xat is equivalent to Ιρχομαι.

33. Cf. 568, Γ 418. — €86ittv^cvs is a short, familiar form for "^μινθοφθόρος,
epithet of Apollo as the averter of the plague of field mice. — €Ϊ ttotc :
if ever, a form of adjuration. — χαρίίντα: 'proleptic,' to thy pleasure, lit. as
a pleasing one. — «ττ^ρίψα: roofed over, i.e. completed, built. The early
temples were of simple construction. The first temple of Apollo at
Delphi was built of laurel boughs, according to the ancients. — The sup-
pliant believes that he has made the god his debtor by his services, and
he claims favors in return ; cf. 503 f . .The gods themselves recognized
this obligation. — νηόν [νεών] : Homer follows the so-called Attic second
declension in but a few words. Cf. λαοί 10.

40. δή : nearly equivalent to η^η. — κατά : construe with €κηα. —
«ιτίονα : as covered with fat, cf. 460. — μηρία : these and the synonymous
μηρα are the thigh pieces, with more or less flesh, as cut from the μηροί
(460) thighs of the victims, and sacrificed to the gods as burnt offerings.
For the details of a sacrifice, see 458 ff., Β 421 ff. — €κηα [«καυσα] : § 48 h.

41. τόδ€ μοι κτλ. : a formula, after which ' this desire ' is expressed by
the opt. as here ; by the iinv., as 456, 505, or by



Online LibraryHomerThe first six books of Homer's Iliad → online text (page 20 of 54)