Homer.

The first six books of Homer's Iliad online

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ποΒάρκεϊ ΐΐηλείωνί, ποδώκεα ΐΐηλείωνα, ά/χν/χονα ΐΐηλείωνα, or *Α;^ιλλ^α
τΓτολίπορθον, after the feminine caesura of the third foot, with διος 'Α;^ιλ'
λενς as a tag when the verse is filled up to the Bucolic diaeresis ( § 58 A) .

Cf. the epithets of Apollo, εκάτοω A 385 w w v^, εκηβόλον A 14 w w w,

εκάεργος A 479 w w w? εκατηβόλον A 370 w kj vy v-/» εκατηβελεταο

A 75 WW \^ \y ^. See § 12 b.

d. The dialect is essentially Ionic and seems to have originated among
the lonians of Asia Minor, influenced possibly by the speech and cer-
tainly far more by the old poems of their Aeolian neighbors. The oldest
form of Greek Epic songs seems to have been Aeolic, but the lonians
brought Epic poetry to perfection. Even the Pythian priestess delivered
the oracles of Apollo in Epic verse and Ionic dialect, and the Dorian
Spartans sang about their camp-fires the Ionian songs of Tyrtaeus.

e. Some forms seem to be borrowed from other dialects ; but it must
be remembered that when the poems were composed, there was less differ-
ence between the dialects than at the earliest period when we have monu-
mental evidence concerning them.

f. Some anomalies of form (as of verse) are as yet unexplained, but
it may be assumed that all which remain either (1) were justified by the



§25. THE HOMERIC DIALECT. xxix

usage of the people and might be explained by more^poraplete knowledge
of the history of the language, or (2) followed the malogy of what was
in use, or (3) are errors which have found their way into the text during
the course of transmission to the present time. As the poems were
handed down among the Greeks at first orally, and afterwards still
uncritically for centuries, errors unavoidably crept in and there was a
gradual assimilation of what was obsolete to later and more familiar
forms, when the older forms were unprotected by the metre.

§ 23. Vowels and Vowel Changes, a. η is regularly used for a,
as άγορη, ομοίη, except in θ^ά goddess, Xaos people, and some proper
names (as Atveta?). Occasionally, as Β 370, μ,άν is found instead of the
less frequent μψ (the strong form of piv). αλτο A 532 (from αλλομαι)
is another instance of ά, unless it is to be written αλτο. ' (Η. 30 D.)

b. The final ά of the stem is retained in the genitive endings -ao and
'άων of the 1st declension, as Άτρειδαο A 203.

c. άο is often changed to €ω by transfer. ^f quantity: *Ατρεί8αο,
*Ατρ€ΐδ€ω. Cf. βασιληος with Attic ^βασιλέως. But the frequent λαός
never has the Attic form λεώ?.

d. Compensative lengthening is sometimes found where it is not in
Attic, as ζείνος (^cV/ros), εΐνεκα (Lesbian εννεκα), κονρη (κόρρα), μοννος,
ovpos {ορρός), Βονρός.

e. Diphthongs occasionally preserve t w^here it is lost in Attic be-
fore a vowel : αΐεί, αίετός, ετελείετο (§ 47 g), οίνοβαρείων, ολοιη, πνοίη,
χρνσειος.

f . But t is lost before a vowel in ωκεα (ωκεΐα) Ίρις Β 786, in -οο for -oto as
genitive-ending of the 2d declension (§ 35 b), and in εμ^ο for e^tAeto, etc. ; cf.
χρνσείοίς A 246 with χρνσεω A 15. As in Attic, the penult is sometimes
short in νΙός (as A 489, Δ 473). In these cases t has turned into the
y-sound. Likewise ν is sometimes dropped between two vowels. See § 59 iJ; δ.

§ 24. Contraction. Concurrent vowels generally remain uncontracted :
αεκων, αλγεα, ττάις (in nominative and vocative singular), οις {ορις = ovis,
ewe). Attic ευ is regularly iv before two consonants, and the adjective
is always ενς or ^υς. Patronymics from nouns in -ενς form -ειΒης, -είων,
as ΆτρείΒης A 7, ηηλείωνα A 197. (Η. 37 D ; G. 846.)

§ 25. Synizesis. a. Vowels which do not form a true diphthong may
be blended in pronunciation into one long sound : *ΑτρειΒε



Online LibraryHomerThe first six books of Homer's Iliad → online text (page 4 of 54)