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without cause A 520, without a prize A 133, absolutely Β 138, vainly Β 342,
without chariot Ε 255. Most of these meanings are derived from in the



§43c. THE HOMERIC DIALECT. xxxvii

same way as he/ore, the connection determining the special sense of each
passage.

f. The Attic article 6, η, τό, generally retains its demonstrative force
in Homer, but like the intensive pronoun in the oblique cases, appears
occasionally in its Attic signification.

In their demonstrative use, 6, η, oi, at, are best written o, ψ οι, at. —
Tot', rat, τώς are used besides oi, at, ως.

g. Thus the absence of the article does not mark a noun as indefinite;
cf. μηνιν a€t8e θεά A 1 with arm a virumque cano. Frequently
αυτως is equivalent to Attic ωσαύτως (ως being the adverb of the article,
see / above and § 56 c) while ως δ' αυτως Γ 339 is equivalent to Attic
ovτ^ύ ο ωσαύτως.

h. The demonstrative article is often followed by a noun in apposi»
tion with it, as ot δ' εχάρησαν * Αχαιοί re Ύρωές re Γ 111, but these rejoiced,
both Achaeans and Trojans, avrap 6 βονν upevaev άνα$ άν8ρων * Αγαμέμνων
Β 402 but he, Agamemnon, king of men, sacrificed an ox.

i. The forms with initial τ often have a relative force, but refer only
to a definite antecedent. This is a relic of paratactic construction (§ 21),
as is particularly clear in άλλα τα μεν πολίων εζεττράθομεν τα δίδασται
Α 125 but what we took as spoils from the cities, these have been divided.

j. κεΐνοζ is often found for εκείνος.

k. Besides the Attic forms of the relative, δ is used for δς, oov (better
δο, § 35 b) for ου.

-1. The forms ος and δ have also a demonstrative use, especially δς
with ονΒέ, μη^έ, και, and yap.

For the relative use of the article, see i above.

m. The neuter δ is frequently used as a conjunction, like quod. So
also oTi and δ τε.

η. The indefinite and interrogative pronouns have genitive singular
T€o, τεν.

ο. In δ Tts for δς Tts (cf. 6 for δς, k above), the first stem often remains
uninflected.

§43. Conjugation. Augment and Reduplication. (H. 354 ff.;
G. 510 ff.) a. The augment was for a time considered unessential :
whether temporal or syllabic, it may be omitted in the Homeric poems ;
the accent is then thrown back as far as possible, as τενχε A 4, όλεκοντο
A 10, άφιει A 25.

b. When the augment is omitted, monosyllabic forms with long
vowel take the circumflex accent, as βη for εβη.

c. Sometimes initial ρ is not doubled after the augment, as ερεζε
Β 400 ; sometimes initial λ, μ, or σ is doubled after the augment.



xxxviii INTRODUCTION. § 43 d.

d. Stems which originally began with a consonant may take the
syllabic augment or reduplication, as «ιπον, €ηκ€, — Ιοικα, topya.

e. The second aorist active and middle, of verbs. whose stem begins
with a consonant, is often found with a reduplicated stem, as c/cckXcto,
ά/χπεπαλών, ίτετμΐ, τετνκοντο.

f. The so-called Attic reduplication is more common in Homer than in
Attic, and its use extends to the second aorist where the augment also
may be used (cf. Attic ηγαγον), as rjpape, and the peculiar form ηνίπατΓ€
Β 24δ from ίνίτττω in which the final consonant of the theme is redupli-
cated with α as a connective.

g. SctSot/ca and SetSia have irregular reduplication ; probably these are
to be explained as for δεδ/τοικα, ScS/rta.

h. €μμορα (from μύρομχίχ) and (σσνμαι (from σίύω) double the initial
consonant and prefix e as if they began with two consonants.

§ 44. Endings. (H. 375 ff. ; G. δδΐ ff ., 777 ff.) a. The singular endings,
-μι, -σθα, -σι, occur more frequently than in Attic ; especially -μι and -σ*
in the subjunctive, as ΙΒωμι, άγάγω/Αΐ, «^«λτ/σι, βάΧτισι. These endings
are rare in the subjunctive of the contracted /xi-forms, as δώσι A 129.

b. In the pluperfect, the older endings -ca κτλ. are preserved. The
third person singular ends in -ce(v) or -civ, as βφηκαν A 221, ^3c€ Β 409.

c. The second and third persons singular of the first aorist optative ac-
tive end in -eux?, -etc(v), as /xetVctas, KaAeVetev. The second person in -αις oc-
curs very rarely. The third person in -at is more common, as γηθ-ησαί A 255.
The third person plural ends in -ciav, as rtitrctav A 42, aKowrtuxv Β 282.

d. The third person plural optative active of /i,i-verbs ends in -uv, as
(lev, Βαμεΐεν, Sdlcv.

e. The third person plural imperative ends in -των, -σθων (never
-τωσαν, -σθωσαν).

f. α. Active infinitives (except in the first aorist) frequently end in
-/xcvat, which is sometimes shortened after a short vowel to -μεν, as
(μμεναί, εμμεν, Ιλθίμεν{αί), τίθνάμ€ν(α.ί).

β. The shortening of -/xevat to -/x,ev occurs generally before a vowel,
where it may be called elision.

γ. The ending -vat is found only after a long vowel, as δούναι.

g. Aorist passive infinitives end in -μεναι or -ναι.

h. The second person singular of the middle generally remains uncon-
tracted (§ 24), as όδυρεαι, ιδιρι Γ 130, ^άλλίο A 297. Contracted forms
are used occasionally, as μετατρέτη) A 160, γνώστη Β 365, κεκληστ) Γ 138.

i. In the perfect middle, -σαι regularly loses its σ.

j. -σο retains its σ only in the imperative, as εσσο, ϊστασο.

k. The first person plural middle often ends in -μεσθα.



§ 47 e. THE HOMERIC DIALECT. xxxix

1. The third person plural of the perfect and pluperfect indicative mid-
dle often, and of the optative middle always, ends in -αται, -ατο for -νται,
-ντο. Before these endings smooth labial and palatal mutes are aspirated,
as Ιτητίτράφαται (perfect passive of ίτητρίπω).

m. The third person plural indicative of the aorist passive generally
ends in -ev instead of -ήσαν, as η-γερθίν A 57, φάχχνθ^ν A 200, τράφεν A 251
δΐ£τ/Ααγ€ν A 531. Cf. the active t -λυ-σα-ν, €-λνο-ν.

η. Similarly, ν is used for the later -σαν in the imperfect and second
aorist of /Ai-verbs, as ξννιεν A 273, «σταν, σταν, ΐβαν.

ο. For the optative ending of /u-verbs, in -lev not -ίησαν, see d above.

§ 45. Subjunctive Mode. a. The variable vowel ('connecting vowel')
of the subjunctive is generally short in the, first aorist, second aorist of
jux-forms, second aorist passive, second perfect of primitive formation, as
βησομεν, ayetpo/xev, ΐομεν, θ^ίομεν, τραττείομεν, 8αμ€ί€Τ€, ctSo/xcv, πεττοίθομεν.
(Η. 373 D; G. 780.)

This short vowel is found before the endings -μεν, -τον, -τε, and in
middle forms.

b. A few forms of the first aorist have a long vowel following the
analogy of the present, as Βηλησηται Γ 107.

c. There are no certain examples of the short mode-vowel in the
present of verbs in -ω. (For βονλεται άντιάσας A 67, βονλητ άντιάσας
may be substituted, etc.')

N.B. The forms of the first aorist subjunctive are easily confused with
those of the future, with which they are identical in appearance.

§ 46. Optative Mode. For the optative endings, see 44 c, d.

§ 47. Contract Verbs. (H. 409 D ; G. 784 ft'.) a. Verbs in -αω exhibit
unchanged, assimilated, and contracted forms ; the poet's choice between
contracted and uncontracted forms seems to have been determined largely
by the rhythm. The vowels are regularly contracted when the second is
in a short syllable.

b. Uncontracted forms without assimilation occur rarely, as πεινάων
Γ 25. (ουτα, Δ 525 and often, is a second aorist, see § 53.)

c. The vowels of the uncontracted forms are generally assimilated, α
prevailing over a following e or η but being assimilated to o, ω, or ov.
These forms are intermediate between the original and the contracted
stage.

d. One of the vowels is usually lengthened in the text of the Mss.
Sometimes this appears to be a conformation to Attic usage (§ 22/).

e. Verbs in -εω generally remain uncontracted; except εε, which is
generally contracted in the Mss., but often the uncontracted forms are



xl INTRODUCTION. § 47 f.

metrically possible, co is very rarely contracted except in the participle
ending -ενμενος (where contraction occurs to prevent a too frequent
recurrence of short syllables, § 59 e). «ω is never contracted but is often
pronounced as one syllable by synizesis (§ 25).

f. Sometimes the variable vowel c is contracted with c of the stem
instead of with the termination. One of these vowels is sometimes
dropped, as άττοαίρεο A 275.

g. The older form of these verbs, in -«ω, is sometimes preserved, as
ireXeteTo A 5, veLKetyai A 579. See § 23 e.

h. φορέω forms φορίαν Δ 144, φορηναι Β 107.

,i. Verbs in -οω are generally contracted. Sometimes they have forms
with the double ο sound, like verbs in -αω, as €στρατόωντο Γ 187 (which
might be written έστρατόοντο) .

§48. Tenses. Future and First Aorist, Active and Middle. (H. 420ff. ;
G. 777.) a. Pure verbs which do not lengthen the stem-vowel in the
formation of the tenses, often have double σ in the future and first aorist,
active and middle.

b. In the future the σ of the before-mentioned verbs often disappears,
as KoXeovaa Γ 383, oActrat Β 325.

c. Stems in δ often show double σ in the aorist.

d. Most of these forms with σσ may be explained as original or assim-
ilated, as νείκεσσε from the theme νεικεσ (cf. νεΐκος), κομίσσατο for κομι^
σατο (cf. κομίΒη). Thus the stem-vowel of these verbs was not final
originally, and hence is not lengthened in the future and aorist.

e. Some stems in λ and ρ retain the w of the future and aorist
(as some do in Attic), as Ιλσαι A 409, κυρσας Γ 23, ωρσε A 10.

f. The so-called Doric future with tense-sign σε, is found in εσσεΐται
Β 393.

g. Some verbs have a future without tense-sign, as εΐμι, κακκείοΡτες to
lie down, cSo/xai, ττίομαί, ερύω. Most of these verbs are old presents which
acquired a future signification, εΐμι is not always future in Homer, cf. B. 87.

h. Some verbs form the first aorist active and middle without σ, as
εχεεν Ζ 419 (from εχεα for εχενα), εσσενα Ε 208, εκηα Α 40 from καίω.

ί. The first aorist often has the variable vowel of the second aorist o/^,
as r^oi/, Βνσετο. So in the imj)erative, as βήσεο Ε 109, ορσεο Γ 250, α^ετε
Γ 105, οίσετε Γ 103; infinitive, οίσεμεναι Γ 120; participle, επιβησόμενον
Ε 46.

j. Verbs in -^ω often have themes in γ, and thus futures and first
aorists in -|ω and -^a, as εξαλαττά^αι A 129, ιττολεμίζομεν Β 328.

§ 49. Perfect. (Η. 446 ft'., 490; G. 682 ff.) a. The so-called first per-
fect in -κα is formed only from 20 vowel-stems. It is almost as rare as



§52. THE HOMERIC DIALECT. xli

the first aorist in -κα (Ιδωκα, €ηκα, Ιθηκα). Forms without κ are derived
even from vowel-stems, especially participial forms, as κ^κμηκας Ζ 262,
but κεκμηωτί Ζ 261.

b. The final mute of the stem is not aspirated.

c. The endings are affixed immediately to the reduplicated verb-stem
in βεβάασι, γεγαώτας, ΒείΒίθι, Ιίκτην, tS/xev, κεκ/χτ/ώς, έττίτηθμεν, τ€τλαθί.

ά. Ιρρίγ(ΐσί Γ 353 and όλώλϊ/ Δ 164 have the force of present subjunc-
tives.

e. ακαχημ^νο^ and ίσσνμενος are accented irregularly as presents.

f. The second perfect often has a long vowel in the stem where the
second aorist has a short vowel, as ορωρεν Β 797, tupopc Β 14G.

g. In the feminine participle the short form of the stem appears, as
άρηρως, but apapvta ; hence «κυΓα not άκνία Γ 386 etc.

§ 50. Voices. Middle, a. The active and middle forms bpav (about
40 times) and ορασθαι (about 20 times), I8eiv (more than 200 times) and
Ι^ίσθαι (90 times), are used often without appreciable difference of mean-
ing. Cf. Ιφατο Β 807, Ιφη A 584.

b. The first aorist middle is sometimes used without diiference of
meaning from the second aorist active, as βησετο, Γ 262, εβη A 311 ; iSv-
σετο Γ 328, ?δυ Γ 36.

C. The future middle is sometimes used as passive, as τεΧίεσθαι Β 36.
Cf. 51 e.

d. The aorist middle is often used as passive» Cf. χολωσαμίνη Γ 413
with χολωθείς A 98, χάρη Γ 76 with κεχαροίατο A 256, ayepovro Β 94 with
η-γερθεν A 57, άμφεχντο Β 41, κταμένοιο Γ 375» Cf ελελίχθησαν Ε 497
theij rallied, θωρηχθηναι Α 226 arm himself

The passive foi'mation in Greek is comparatively late.

§51. Passive, a. For the ending of the aorist passive infinitive, see §44^.

b. For the ending of the third person plural indicative, see § 44 m.

c. The second aorist subjunctive passive usually remains uncontracted,
and follows the rule of /xt-verbs (§ 52 c).

d. In the second aorist subjunctive, the passive suffix is often long
(and the mode s^owel short in the dual and in the first or second person
pluial, § 45 a), as 8αμηΎΐ



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