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Homer does not assign special names and offices to different Muses. See
on B 484. Cf. avBpa /JLOI II/VCTTC /xoixra a 1. For the following caesural
pause, see 58 , c, /. nT)\T)idScu [YlrjXrjuioov or H^AeiSov] : for the geni-
tive-ending, see 34 c. This adjective is called a 'patronymic,' and is
often used as a proper name. See 39. The last two vowels are pro-
nounced as one. Cf. ^pvo-cu 15; see 25. 'A\tX^os [*A;pAAcc]: for
tin- ending, see "Jo C, IImer often drops one of two doubled consonants.
See 59 d. > .

2. oiXo}u'vT]v : df.tfrni-tii-i . d> wily : <;/'. Milton I'nr. I.n.tt i. 2, 'forbidden
fruit . . . whose imirtnl taste | Uroiiulit death into the world,' and Shaks-
pere's * nmrtid sword.' Muclnth iv. :{. :J. This is put in a kind of apposi-
tion with fjiiji'Li', as if it \\riv an afterthought. The idea is amplified in

1



2 COMMENTARY TO THE

the following relative clause; cf. 10, B 227; see 12 e. pipta: countless ;
not a numeral (/xv/oux) in Homer. For the ' elision ' of a, see 28 a.
For the ' hiatus,' allowed when the final vowel has been elided, see 27 e.

'AXCUOIS : often used for all the Greeks ; see 4 a oX^yea [aAy^] : i.e.

the defeats caused by the absence of Achilles from the conflict. For the
uncontracted form, see 24. 0t]Kv: caused, as T 321 (see 17), nearly
equivalent to rcv^c, below, or to the Attic eTroi^o-ev.

3. iroXXds: the second clause of the relative sentence is closely con-
nected with the first, since TroAAas repeats the idea of /xvpta, while the third
clause is added in the form of a contrast, avrois Sk KT\. tyOifiovs
[/cparepas] : the feminine form i^^i/xa? is used by Horner only of persons.
See 38 a. Mighty souls is nearly equivalent to 'souls of mighty men.'

"A'iSt irpoa\|/v : sent off to Hades, a vigorous expression for a violent
death, as E 190, Z 487. Cf. multos Danaum demittimus Oreo Verg.
Aen. ii. 398. For the use of irpo, cf. irpo rjKt 195. "Ai8i [*Ai80] : a < meta-
plastic ' form of 'Ai&ys, which in Homer is always the name of a person,
the ruler of the nether world. See 37.

4. rjpcocov : brave warriors. The word had not acquired the meaning of
heroes in the English sense ( 17). avrovs : themselves, i.e. their bodies as
contrasted with their souls. cX<6pia [Attic apTra.yrjv'] : booty; cf. canibus
data praeda Latinis | alitibusque Verg. Aen. ix. 485 f. For the
preceding hiatus, see 27 b. rtv\6 KUVSO-O-IV : since the bodies often had
to lie unburied ; cf. B 393. Dogs are the scavengers of the East. Cf.
1 Him that dieth of Ahab in the city the dogs shall eat ; and him that
dieth in the field shall the fowls of the air eat ' 1 Kings xxi. 24 ;< And the
Philistine said to David, " Come to me and I will give thy flesh unto the
fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field " ' 1 Sam. xvii. 44. To be
left unburied was a dreaded fate ; so Hector at the point of death besought
Achilles not to allow the dogs to devour him (X 339). rev\e [ereuxe] : for
the omission of the augment, see 43 a. KVVCO-O-IV [/cv<nV] : for the
ending, see 36 b.

5. olttvouri [oicovois] : the long form of the dative is more frequent in
Homer than the dative in -ots. See 35 d. Soura [Attic toprr)v~] : here of
the food of brutes ; cf. B 383. Aios . . . POV\TJ : instead of Aios /xeyaAov
8ta /foAas. This is joined parenthetically ( 21) to the preceding relative
clause. The will of Zeus was accomplished in the consequences of the
wrath of Achilles. Cf. Such was the will of heaven,' Milton Par. Lost ii.
1025. pov\^| : will ; cf. /3ovA.o/xai. This corresponds to the OiXyiM. (0eA.a>)
of the New Testament (yev^rjreo TO 0e%7/xa crov, in the Lord's Prayer).






MUST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 3

6. e ov KrA. : since first, since once : the starting point for jjifjvLv ov\o-

This expression takes the place in Homer of the prose CTTCI <x7ra,
cVti raxrra, cf. 235. 7rpu>Tov and Tr/owra are used adverbially with little
difference of meaning ; cf. 276, 319. rd : for the short vowel lengthened
before the following consonants, see 59 /. Sicurrrrniv [SiecrrT/rr/v]
pravT : contending separated, i.e. contended and separated, parted in strife
(>s).

7. 'ArpttSijs: of four syllables; see 39 /. For the use of the patro-
nymic, instead of 'Aya/xe/xi/w, see 39 b. For the genealogy of Agamem-
non, son of Atreus, see 7 e. He is described by Helen as ' a good king
and a brave warrior' (F 179). avo| dv8pwv: elsewhere precedes a proper
name ; only here is it found after a patronymic. It is generally applied
to Agamemnon (as 442, 506), as commander-in-chief . He is /foo-iAevraros,
most royal, in I 69. For the ' apparent hiatus,' see 27 N.B., 32. Stos :
ffiHllikc, glorious (cvycvi??), a standing epithet of Achilles and of Odysseus.
No special excellence of character is implied. Observe the metrical adap-
tation to the names of these two heroes, allowing the ' bucolic diaeresis '
after the fourth foot ; see 58 i ; cf. $>or/3os 'ATroAAwv 64, HuAAas 'A-Gyvr)
A 78. &6s 'A^tAAevs closes the verse in Homer more than fifty times.

8. TS T op : who then f Cf. TIS apa OVTOS eoriv Luke viii. 25. A ques-
tion from the standpoint of the hearer, suggested by 6. Cf. 'Who first
seduced them to that foul revolt? Th' infernal serpent,' Milton Par.
Lost i. 33. Some god must have decreed the calamity ; the Homeric
theology recognized no blind chance. ?pi8i vv]K : brought together in
strife. vWTjtce [O-UV^KC] : for the augment, see 43 d. pdxco-Oai : to con-

?. iir&a-triv. Cf- 304, B 377 f. For the explanatory infinitive, see
12 /, 18 e; II. 951; G. 15:5:5.

9. AI]TOVS : cf. 36. For the inflection, see II. 197 ; G. 242 f. Arjrw
seems to be a short form of L at on a, but the latter does not appear in
Greek. Apollo was the mediate cause of the trouble, since the pestilence
occasioned the quarrel. 6 [OVTOS] : for the demonstrative use of the
article, see 42 j. {kuriXTji [jSao-iAei] : i>. Agamemnon, ava di/Spwv.
For the 'dative of association,' see II. 772 ; G. 1177. For the form, cf.
*A^tA^o<; 1. x^ w ^ ' s : soe on 81.

10. vovo-ov [vo<rov, 23 <1~\ : this is called ACH/XOS (pestilence') in 61.
dvd o-rpardv: ti/t thrmujh th<> rump (cf. Kara arparov 318), as the plague
spread from tent to tent, f f. 5:5.. wpo-e : for the retention of a- after p,
see 48 e. K<UCT|V : the adjective is explained by the following clause, the
first word of which takes up the thought of the adjective. For the order




4 COMMENTARY TO THE

of words, connecting KOLKTJV with what follows, see 11 j. Xao

his men, soldiery; cf. T 186 and Agamemnon's epithet TTOI^V Aaeoi/ B 243

shepherd of the people. Attic aTrcOvyo-Kov ol arpaTLwrai.

11. TOV [rovrov TOI/] Xpvo-qv : that Chryses, well known to the hearers
from stories or other songs. Nowhere else in Homer is the article used
with a proper name. T)rCp.curcv : slighted. dptjTijpa : receives prominence
from its rhythm and position, almost equivalent to " though he was," etc.

He is called tepevs (the Attic word) below This verse has a spondee '

in the fifth foot, and hence is called spondaic.' See 57 h ; cf. 21, 157,
291, 600. This gives an emphatic close to the sentence.

12. 0ods : cf. 1/771x71 wKvjropouTLv 421. A standing epithet of the ships

even when they were on shore; see 12 a lirl vfjas [wvs] : i.e. to the camp,

where the ships were drawn up on land ; cf. B 688. For the position of
the preposition between the adjective and noun, cf. 15, 26 ; see 11 m.

13. \uo-6fievos : to release for himself, to ransom. The active is used of

him who receives the ransom (20, 29) ; the middle, of him who offers it

Gv-yarpa [9vyaripa\ : for the form, see H. 188, D; G. 276. Homer knows
her only by her patronymic XpvcrrjLs (111, see 39 g), daughter of Chryses.

<J>'pv : bringing with him, probably on a wagon or pack animal, aycui/
is used 139, 367, 431 of living creatures. dircpeCon.' airotva: bullion
(either of gold, silver, or copper), or vessels of precious metal, or clothing.

14. <rri\L\i.a.T ' AiroXXwvos : cf. Apollinis infula Verg. Aen. ii. 430.
This ribbon, or chaplet, of white wool, bound about the head and falling
down on both sides, marked the priest's official character. He came under
the god's protection, but as a suppliant carried the fillet, instead of wear-
ing it. Cf. laurumque manu vittasque ferentem | Chrysen,
Ovid Ars Am. ii. 401. cKT)(36Xov : he was the Archer Apollo. For similar
epithets, see 22 /. For the loss of quantity in the final diphthong
before an initial vowel, cf. 17 ; see 59 k. 'AiroXXwvos: for the length of
the first syllable, as 21, 36, etc., see 59 d.

15. XP VO " V [XP V(T <?] : not f solid gW, but adorned with golden studs
or nails. See on 219, B 45 ; cf. 246. So the soul of the seer Tiresias had
a xpvcTov a-KrJTrrpov in Hades. ^pvoreo) is pronounced as of two syllables
(cf. 1) and is thus metrically like the Attic form. dvd o-KTJirrpw : on a
staff. Construe with ore/Af-ar' t;(a>i/. Equivalent to Attic ewl o-KrjTTTpov.
For the dative, cf. 55 e; II. 792, 1 ; G. 1196. Princes, judges, priests,
and heralds carried cnaJTrrpa as symbols of authority ; kings were a-Ktprrov-
XOL, scepter bearers (B 86). Cf. B 100 ff., 186. A o-Kfjirrpov was placed in
the hands of him who was about to address the assembly, as a sign that he



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD



ti(

i

dan

r






' had the floor' ; cf. 245, F 218, a-rrj oc /xeVr; ayopry (najTrrpo^ 8e ot /x/3oA.
X/3i | Kypv ft ; >~ f- Achilles swears ly it (2:54). The judge in an
Athenian court had a fiaKTrjpui. Tin- Spartans also carried stout staifs,
and Athenian gentlemen carried canes. irdvras : the bard's hearers easily
made for themselves the necessary limitations for such general expressions.
The priest's errand \vas to the army and its leaders.

16. 8vw [Svo] : for Svu> with the dual, cf. Aiai/re Svco B 406, F 18, Acoire
SvwE 554. This form is more frequent in Homer than Bvo. The pause
in the verse throws this with KooyzTJ-rope. Menelaus, king of Sparta (B 586),
as husband of Helen, is associated with his brother Agamemnon ; cf.
B 408. See 5 a. Koo-jjLTJTOf* : Kooyzcco (cf. KOO/AOS, order) is used of mar-
shaling troops in the sense of the later TOUTO-M. Cf. B 126, 476, 554, F 1;
see 17.

17. The usual introduction to a speech ( 12 h) is omitted. For the
use of the speaker's very words, instead of indirect discourse, see 11 e.
VKVT|fii8s : a standing epithet of the Achaeans ( 12 6). In historical
times, Herodotus mentions greaves as worn by the Lycians in the army of
Xerxes.

18. 0<u : monosyllable by < synizesis ' ; see 25. Cf. Horace's transla-
tion, di tibi dent capta classem deducere Troia Sat. ii. 3. 191.

:19. npidfioio [Ilpta/xov] : for the form, see 35 a. ir6\iv : for the
ngth of the last syllable, see 59 /. ofcoSc: homeward, always of the
turn to Greece, not like otJcdvSe, into the house. See 33 e.

20. iraiSa 8*' : made prominent because of the priest's love for his
daughter; instead of the e/xot Se which is expected in contrast with \>fuv

n/18. Xvo-eu: corresponds to Sottv. Cf. 13. <j>t\T]v : in apposition with
, after the pause in the verse (11 ./), " my dear child." Its position
that it is not an otiose epithet, meaning not much more than my.
I pray thai you may be victorious and have a safe return, so may
ye restore to me" etc. Cf. the prayer of Priam for Achilles, <rv 8e ToivS*
aTrdraio, /cat \6ois \ crqv e? Trarpi'&t yvuav 12 550 f. mayst thou enjoy these
f/ifts unit in xiif'fi/ n<ich thy nutirc Inml, where the return of Hector's body
is the roii'lition implied for the prayer. The infinitive is here used for
the imperative, i, u t in an optative sense (like aaSe 1), not as a command;
cf. the intinitive and imperative in parallel clauses (322 f., F 459) __ T T*
airoiva: the priest points to the -ifts which he brought with him.

21. a6)ivoi [Attic O-/?O/XOXK] KT\. : a prime motive for granting the
request. The Aeha.-ans \\cre to honor the god in the person of his priest.

For the spondee in the fifth foot, tee <>n 11.



6



COMMENTARY TO THE






22. lirev^prjo-av : for the usual tTryvrjo-av, because of the awe which was
required by the priest. It is followed by the infinitive as being equivalent
to K\.V(rav CTretx^/Aowres, they bade with pious reverence ; cf. B 290.

23. alSeurOcu : repeats the thought of d^o/nevot. Upfja [lepea] : equivalent
to aprjTTJpa 11. d-yXad : an important epithet, introducing a motive for the
action. 8x0ai [Se^acr&xi] : second aorist infinitive from Se^o/xat. See 53.

24. dXX' OVK KT\. : a sharp contrast to aXXoi /xeV, giving prominence to
the negative, but not to the son of Atreus. 'ArpeiS-ji : receives further
emphasis from its position immediately before the pause of the verse.
Thus in the preceding verse itpfja. is contrasted with aVoira, as Ovyarpa 13,
and the Xvorai TC 20 with Se^ecr^at. Ovjiw : local, in heart. See- 12 g.
This verse in prose would be dAA' 'Ar/sei'S^s ofy rja-Qr].

25. KdKws: harshly. Cf. the use of KaK-tjv 10. ow^Ui : for the form, as
from a verb in -ecu, see 52 a ; for the omission of the augment, see 43 a.
Homer is fond of using the imperfect to describe an action as in prog-
ress; cf. rev^e. 4. Kparepov : strong, stern. eirl \ivQov ereXXev : laid upon him
his command. lir( : construe with creAAev. See 55 a, b. n00ov : had not
yet received the idea of fiction which is contained in the English myth. It
and 7ro5 (216) are often used for the Attic Aoyos, which is found but twice
in Homer ( 17).

26. pi] KT\. : see to it that I do not, let me not, etc. This warning use of
prj with the first person singular is rare. Cf. B 195, E 487 f. KoX.T]crtv
[KOI'ACUS] : for the form, c/. oiooi/ouri 5 ; see 34 e. vt]v<r( [i/avo-i'j : for the
form, see 23 a.

27. avins lovra: returning ; cf. TraXtv TrXay^eVras 59, So/xevai 7raA.iv 116.

28. \L*f\ vv TOI KT\. : lest perhaps, etc., adds to the preceding command
the result that was to be feared if the command were disregarded. ov
XP<u<r|iT| : the negative and the verb form but one idea, be- useless, of no
avail ; cf. 566, F 289. cncfVirrpov KT\. : "thy priestly dignity."

29. irpfv: sooner, adverb with eTrewriv, with strengthening /ecu, even; much
rather. (Cf. the change in use of rather.) For the animated ' adversative
asyndeton,' see 15 c. jitv [avrrfv} : her. e'ima-iv : shall come upon.

30. TIIUT^PW : the familiar our of the household. v"Ap-yt: i.e. in Pelo-
ponnesus (which name is not found in Homer), v Apyos A^OMKOV, not
HeAao-yiKov "A/oyo? (Thessaly, B 681), nor the city "Apyos, where Diomed
ruled (B 559). This clause is in apposition with the first clause of the
line, and it is repeated again by ryXoOi Trarpr;? [/xaKpav aTro r^s Trarpt'Sos].
The pause is very distinct after OIKW, although it is not marked in print-
ing. Cf. 'Ar/>e% 24.



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 7

31. UTTOV liroixofiVT]v : going to and fro before the loom, plying the loom.
The Greek women stood as they wove at their upright looms. Weaving
was the principal occupation of the female slaves. Xc'xos : accusative of
* limit of motion,' only here with drriaw, approurf,, .</tnrr the couch. See
1 19 ft.

32. 0i fH0ie : for the 'explanatory asyndeton,' see 15 b. o-cuirepos :
more safely: sc. than if thou shouldst refuse to go. This independent use
of the comparative is frequent in Homer. s : in order that, here follows
the emphatic word ( 11 I) ; so ort, o, o<pa, and fra may have the second place
in the clause. Cf. B 125. For KC with the subjunctive, see H. 882 ;
(i. 13G7.

33. Cf. 5(58, F 418. IScurcv : " fear came upon him." For the < incep-
tive aorist,' cf. j3f) 34, c;((i)<raro <54, 6dpa-q<T. 92, rapySTJcravre 331, Sa/cpucras
349, ox^jo-as 517 ; see II. 841 ; G. 1260. Observe the change to the imper-
fect. For the quantity of the first syllable, cf. 406, 568, T 418 ; see 59 A.
6 -y^pttv : 6 ye/xxtos 35.

34. 0i] [/fy] : set out; cf. B 183. For the accent, see 43 b. dic&v:
sc. in terror at the harsh words.

35. iroXXd: earnestly, cognate accusative used as adverb with rfparo.
See 56 & and on 78. dirdvevOc KU&V : i.e. as he left the Achaean camp.

36. TOV [6V] : relative pronoun; see 42 m.

37. K\v6i : for the forms of this verb, see H. 489 D 30. \u\> [/new] : for
this contraction, from /xe'o, see H. 37, D g. apyvporo^ : the use of the
epithet instead of the name gives a touch of intimacy to the address.
Odysseus thus addresses Athena as yAavKoiTrt, and Athena addresses Apollo
as cKaepyc. See 12 b. The gods' instruments are of precious metal even
where the metal is not best adapted to the work ; cf. E 724, 731. In
Homer, Apollo has a golden sword, Hera golden sandals, Iris golden
wings, Hermes a golden wand. Xpvo-rjv, KiXXav : Mysian cities, seats of
the worship of Apollo, on the gulf of A<lrrun\ ttiuin. They disappeared
before the classical period. Chrysa was the home of the priest, who
received his name from it. d^ipt'priKas : " dost guard." The figure is
taken from a beast standing <>MT (/".sV/vV/V/) its young in order to protect
it ; cf. E 299. For the figurative use, cf. ' Let us rather j Hold fast
the mortal s\v<rd. and like good men | Bestride our down-fall'n birthdom,'
Shakspnv Mud, t], iv. .'5. :J ; cf. another figure in the psalmist's 'As
the mountains :uv round about Jerusalem so the Lord is round about his
people,' Psalm cxxv. _'. Cf. (Jradivumque patrem Geticis qui
praesidet arvis Vi-rg. Aen. iii.



8



COMMENTARY TO THE



38. Tcv&oio : cf. est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima f ama j
insula, dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant Verg. Aen. ii.
21 f. The genitive probably depends on the notion of the noun avo,
which is contained in dvacnms. avouro-is : in its original meaning, art
protecting lord. /?ao-iA.evo> is not used of the gods in Homer.

39. cl' mm : if ever, a form of adjuration. \apUvra: 'proleptic,' to thy
pleasure; literally, as a pleasing one. lirl pe\|/a: roofed over, i.e. completed,
built. The early temples were of simple construction. In general the groves
were sacred, rather than a building. The temples of Athena and Apollo






EARLY TEMPLE OF DELOS

in Troy and of Athena in Athens are the only temples named by Homer.
The first temple of Apollo at Delphi was built of laurel boughs, according
to the ancients. The suppliant believes that he has made the god his
debtor by his services, and he claims favors in return ; cf. 503 f. The
gods themselves recognized this obligation. VTJOV [vewv] : Homer follows
the so-called Attic second declension in but a few words. Cf. Aaoi' 10.



FIKST BOOK OF THK ILIAD 9

40. 8rj : nearly equivalent to 77817. Kara : construe with ocr/a. irtova :
as covered with fat ; cf. 460. For the details of a sacrifice, see 458 ft.,
B 421 ff.

41. TO& poi KT ^- ' a formula, after which this desire ' is expressed by
the optative, as here ; by the imperative, as 456, 505 ; or by o>s with the
optative.

42. rkmav: the verb is placed first, as containing the sum of the
speaker's desire. p&eoxriv : /?cAe<rtv. See 30 /.

44. pi] . . . KopTjvwv: as B 167. A 74. PTJ : set out. The motion is
continued in 6 8' ^tc 47. OvXv^iroio : Olympus in Homer is always the
Thessalian mountain as home of the gods (not heaven itself), as is indi-
cated by its epithets, dy<Wt<os 420 snow-capped, n<ocis, /xa/cpos 402, TTO\V-
8ipa? 499, TroA-VTrrv^os. But the peaks tower above the clouds into
heaven (ovpavos). Cf. 195. And see a.7re(3r) yXav*ca>7rt5 'A.0rjvr) \ OuA.u/u,7r6V8'
o#i <f>a.ai #u>v e8os do^aAe? cuet | cf/M/x.ei/at. OUT' dve/xotcrt Tii/ao-o-erat . . . OVTC
Xiwv CTriTrt'AvttTcu KT\. 41 If. Athena departed to Olympus, where (men say)
is the ever jinn seat of the gods. It i* nut s/mken by winds, nor does snow come
nigh it. KapVjvwv : construe with Kara. For its use for the summits of
mountains, cf. B 167, 869. Cf. Kapa, head; see H. 216, D 8 ; G. 291, 16.
Kf)p: accusative of specification, as ^Top, OVJJLOV, <pe'va, all frequent \\ith

verbs of emotion ( 12 g). For this description of the plague, see Lessing
as quoted in 11 d.

45. wfioio-iv: dative of place (see 19 a), equivalent to Attic rc TWI/
wfiwv. dn4>Tip<}>'a : i.e. closed both above and below as it hung on the

i shoulder; see on B 389. The explanation of the lengthened ultima is
un, -,. Main. Apollo as god of the bow always carries bow and quiver; cf.
his words <rvvr)6e<; ad ravra /3aoTaav e/xot Eur. Ale. 40 it is my custom ever
to bear thix botr. So he is often represented in works of art.

46. K\a-y|av : seems to represent to the ear the sound of the arrows in
the ouiver; cf. Xt'y^e /?ids A 125. Cf. tela sonant humeris Verg. Aen.
iv. 149.

47. avTou KivTjdeVros : aurov contrasts the <;od with his arrows ( 11 j\
IL J //). For the genitive absolute, see 19 /, g. WKT-C : a time of dread.
Cf. Z&Oopt <tu'8i/A09 "E/crwp | WKTL Oafj droAai/TOS VTTOJTTUX M 462 f. Hector

(.</ // ///, liki- in i-nuiih mine,' to >////? ///,//,/, and * He on his impious foes ri^ht,
onwanl drove, j ( iloomy as ni-ht,' Milton /'///-. A/i.>7 vi. s:Jl f. Fr Homeric
< comparisons,' see 14. faucets [tiVw?] : for the inflection, see H, 40'J ;

\. 537, 2.
18. fJKrd: info t/o/ mi'lst of the camp.



10 COMMENTARY TO THE



49. 8iWj : attributive with /cXayy^. Cf. horrendum stridens
sagitta Verg. A en. ix. 632. -ye'vero : arose, was heard. 1010 : from the
bow; ablatival genitive; 19 a.

50. ovptjas Kal Kvvas : mules and dogs in the baggage train of the array.
lirw'xero : attacked with his deadly missiles. &p<yovs : swift. The Attic
might be Trp&rov fj.v rots ^/xtoi/ots tTre^et KOL rot? ra^e'cri Kvaw.

51. avrdp : stronger than 8e, correlative with /x,ev 50 ; 21 f. avrouri :
the Greeks themselves, contrasted with their domestic animals. The inten-
sive pronoun is reinforced by the pause in the verse. pcXos : for the
quantity of the ultima, see 59 j. tyicfe : iterative in meaning, like ySoAAc
following.

52. pdXXe: shot, with emphatic position at the close of a sentence and
beginning of a verse; cf. 143 f., 241, 296, 501, 506, 523, 526. irvpat:
plural, since a new pyre was built each day. VCKVUV : so-called genitive
of material.' This is a poetic form of the statement that multitudes per-
ished from the pestilence. OojiciaC : predicate adjective, where an adverb
might have been used ; 56 a.

53. 4wtj(i,ap : ewea is a round number in Homer. Cf. ( Nine times the
space that measures day and night | To mortal men,' Milton Par. Lost
i. 50. XTO : "flew." The arrows are personified; cf. oA.ro 8' dtoros |
ou/3eA?79, KaO* o/xiAov eTriTTTeo-ftu /xeyeaivtov A 125 f. leaped, eager to fly into
the throng.

54. TTJ ScKarr) : dative of time. The article calls attention to this as
the decisive day. The adjective agrees with ^^prj or ^ot implied in
Ivvrjfjuip. Cf. the omission of ^opi 501, B 341, j3ov\rjv B 379, yfj B 162,
Bopdv r 17, x^-cwai/ r 126, irvAecDv F 263, and the use of neuter adjectives
as substantives, as C/AOV 526, KCprofMOurt 539, A 256. &: may stand after
the second word in the clause, since the first two words are so closely con-
nected. <vyopT)v8: for the ending -8e, see 33 e. The agora of the
Achaeans was at the center of their camp, a little removed from the sea,
by the ships of Odysseus. The ayoprj in Homer was not yet degraded to
be a market place (see 17); it corresponded to the meeting place of the
Athenian e/ocArycria. KaXeo-craro : summoned: cf. B 50. Other princes
than the commander-in-chief had authority to call an assembly of the
people. In Vergil's Aeneid (ii. 122), Odysseus (not Agamemnon) demands
of Calchas what must be done to appease the gods. This expresses pic-
turesquely the prosaic KK\r)(ria.v cTrot^crc. For the oxr, see 48 a.

55. TW : equivalent to Attic CU>TO> ( 42 g,j}', literally, for him. &irl
4>po-l 6f]K : put into (literally, upon) his heart. The Homeric Greeks did not



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 11

think of the head as the seat of the intellect. \VKW\VOS : frequent epi-
thet of Hera ( 12 b), not often of women, as F 121 ; cf. POMTTLS 551.
^HpT] : for Hera's motive, cf. 5 c.

56. Aavowv : genitive after a < verb of mental action.' See H. 742 ; G.
1102. pd: you see, with reference to the scene depicted in 51 f. opdro :
for the middle voice, see 50 a.

57. TJ-ycpOcv /crA. : the two verbs are thought to express the beginning
and the completion of the act ; but we may compare the < assemble and
meet together ' of the Prayer Book. For the full expression, see 12 d.

58. Touri [aurots] : 'dative of advantage.' Cf. 68, 247, 450, 571. 8*:
for its use in the 'apodosis,' see 21 a. dvio-rdfievos : the members of



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