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F 31). Cf. Kara 0-^015 B 366. Kcivouri : i.e. the centaurs.

272. ot vvv KT\. : who no/r fin- H* niortn/s npon the earth. The construc-
tion would have seemed more natural if /?poros had been in the main
clause, as ov TI? TWV ftporuv ot trnxOovioi daiv. Cf. Z 452.




30 COMMENTARY TO THE

equivalent to ITTL ^Oovl ovres. See H. 588. fiaxoiTo : present optative
from fjua^OfjML, a collateral form of /xa^o/xai, cf- aiSelcrOai 23 with ai8o/xeV<o
331.

273. (BovXecov [ySovAwv] : for the form, see 34 d. Note the parallelism
of the two halves of the verse ; cf. 79.

275. d-yaflos irep 6v : as 131. diroaipeo [cU^ai/oov] : 'syncopated' from
aTToat/Qceo, 47 f. It is followed by two accusatives, as 182.

276. la: sc. Kovprjv. ws irpwra: as once; cf. 6 86<rav : see on 124,

299.

277. JJITJT 0\e: noli; cf. B 247. fkuriXfji: used of Agamemnon, as 9.

278. dvTipi]v: originally cognate accusative; sc. eptSa, cf. T 435. The
adverb receives emphasis from its position. ov iro0' ofioujs: i.e. a greater.
The Greek idiom leaves to the connection the determination of the exact
meaning. Cf. post mihi non simili poena commissa luetis Verg.
Aen. i. 136. eppopc : has share of, has received. This is followed by a
1 genitive of the whole.'

279. <rKT]irrovxos : see on 15. w re Zvs KT\. : see on 176.

280. el : not conditional in thought here, but refers to a matter of fact.
Cf. d rore Kovpos ca, vvv avri /xe yry/oas oiraa A 321. Kaprepos : as 178.
Ocd 8 KT\. : second clause of the protasis, explaining the first; " being sor
of a goddess." 0ed : i.e. Thetis; cf. 351 ff.

281. d\\d: as in 82 . irXcovco-o-iv : see B 108, 576 ff.

282. 'ArpetSt), <ri> 8e: the vocative in Greek poetry often precedes the
clause with which it is connected; of course it has no syntactical construc-
tion in the sentence, and thus cannot be followed immediately by Sc. Cf.
B 344, Z 86, "EKTO/D, drap crv joiot e<r<ri Trarrjp Kal TTOTVLO. fJ^rrjp Z 429.
iravc : cf. 192, 207. avrdp eyw ye : " And I also on my part beg thee."

283. \(cnro|iai: sc. ere 'AxiX-Xfji : dative of opposition. The name is

used with special emphasis (cf. 240), instead of the pronoun (275, 281).
(icO^juv: cf. fjieOrjfUDv B 241. os p^ya KT\.: the motive for the request.

284. fe'pKos iroXe'noio: as A 299; cf. cpKOs OLKOVTMV A 137, I/OKO? /3eXeW
E 316. For the ablatival genitive, see 19 a. With another use of the
genitive, Ajax is called cpKos 'A^atwi/ F 229 bulwark of the Achaeans.

286. iravra: is not to be urged in meaning. It refers especially to
284. "All this is true, but ." Agamemnon admits no fault on his
part, but throws all the blame on Achilles; cf. dAAa, below.

287. irepl irdvrwv : cf. 258.

288. This verse repeats the thought of the foregoing. The speaker's
passion is shown by the use of synonymous expressions. 12 d.



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 31

289. &: in which, accusative of specification. rivd: some one, espe-
cially Agamemnon himself. ireurccrOai : from truOu.

290. atxjiT]TT|v : pregnant, lor /cpa/repos ai^/xr/Tiy? F 179. eOco-av :
equivalent to iiroLrprav. Cf. IB^Ktv 2. aUv tovrcs : cf. 6eS*v atayei/eTacov
B400.

291. irpoOt'ovo-iv : i.e. commission him, allow him. The word seems
chosen here with reference to tOto-av.

293. rj -yap: Achilles gives at once the reason for his course. KoXcoC-
(|v : should be called, i.e. should be. Cf. B 260, F 138.

294. From Agamemnon's complaint, 287 ff., Achilles infers with
exaggeration that he is expected to obey in everything (TTOLV Ipyov) . el
Wj: "in case that I actually." farcfgoiuu: the form of the condition is
changed, and the future indicative is used in the protasis instead of the
optative .

295. STJ: construe with the imperative, as 131. ravra: i.e. TTO.V epyov
vireiKecrOaL. JIT] -yap ijioi : in contrast with oAAowriv.

296. ov: construe with en, as in prose they are united, OVKCTL. 6Cw :
with the future infinitive, as 170. This verse is parallel with 289.

297. This verse is used when the speaker changes the subject in the
middle of liis speech. It is followed by the new thought, without a con-
junction Cf. accipite ergo animis atque haec mea figite dicta

Verg. Am. iii. 250.

298. |Uv: correlative with Be 300 . The contrast is changed from that
between action and heart, to one between /coupes and TU>I/ aAAwv. Kovprjs :
would have tin 1 article in prose.

299. d^tXeo-Oe : the aorist assumes that Agamemnon's threat has been
executed, and the second person holds the Achaeans responsible because
of their acquiescence (cf. 231). 86vrs : ye who gave. Cf. Achilles'
words, yepas 8e /xoi os Trtp l8wKv | avros e<v)3pitov cAero Kpet'oav 'Aya/xe/xvtov

367 f. The ycpa? was a ////'/ (cf. owrav 270), not a right, like the share
the booty.

300. 0ofj: for such standing epithets, see 12 a. irapa VTJ: i.e. in my
tent; cf. 32!) For th- position of the adjective, see 11 ///.

301. TWV : repeats ran/ aAAwv. OVK av TI <f>cpois : the optative with av
and a negative ofti-n rxpn-ssi-s a confident expectation, and sometimes
approacht-s a threat, as here. 4><pois dvcXwv : cf. o<o eAW 1:5!).

302. c(: retains its original force as an interjection. "Up then,

r'ie." - a-ye : as in iJ2. y v " faKrt : ^O/U fCCOffnvtt if. />< r<-< !r< it. referring to
following verse. Cf. ISo, 888* For the r,,nn. rf. Swwo-tv 137.




32 COMMENTARY TO THE

303 . The preceding Truprjo-aL represents a protasis to which this would
be the apodosis ; cf. 583. " If he tries, he and the rest will find out."

304. jiaxT]o-a|i.4vft> : cf. /xa;(eo-0ai 8.

305 . dvo-TTJTTjv : stood up, rose from their seats. Xvcrav : the dual and
plural are seen to be used in this verse without special distinction. Cf.
321; see H. 634; G. 155. The speeches of 285-303 were uttered infor-
mally, while sitting; cf. 246.

307 . MevoiridSfl : Patroclus was so well known to the hearers of Homer,
from old stories and songs, that he needed no more exact designation
here; see 39 I. When a boy in Opus, Patroclus killed a comrade in a
fit of anger and was taken by his father to Phthia, where Peleus received
him kindly (^ 84 if.), and brought him up with Achilles. He attended
Achilles on this Trojan expedition as his warmest and most faithful friend
and squire (Of.pa.Trwv) . The narrative of his exploits fills a large part of
the Sixteenth Book of the Iliad. He was slain by Hector (H 818 ft.). To
avenge his death, Achilles ends his quarrel with Agamemnon. Most of
the Twenty-third Book is occupied with an account of the funeral games
in his honor.

308. 'ArprfStis KT\. : sc. as he had planned (apa), 141 ff irpo4pv<r<rv :

caused to be drawn down from its position on shore ; cf. 486, B 152 f .

309. 4s 84: as 142. All four adverbs (es, es, dva, iv) refer to j/>}a, sup-
plied from 308. 4s 84: into it, adverb with firjo-e &IKOO-IV: ships for

other purposes than war generally have twenty oarsmen in Homer.

310. pijo-c: cf. /3rjo-o//,evl44. dvd: adverb with cto-ei/ (aorist from fo>).

311. frywv : see on ton/ 138 dpxos : cf. 144 '08vcro-vs : as TroX.vfjLr]Tis,

TroAvpJxaj/os, he was often sent on embassies; cf. T 205. See 5 a.

312. The story which is here broken off, of the voyage to Chrysa, is
resumed at 430.

313. diroX\>natv<r0<u : they were to purify themselves symbolically from
the sin of Agamemnon which had brought upon them the pestilence. Cf.
the action of the children of Israel, after their idolatry : < And they
gathered together to Mizpeh, and drew water, and poured it out before
the Lord, and fasted on that day, and said there, We have sinned against
the Lord,' 1 Sam. vii. 6. They trusted that the pollution would depart
from them into the sea, where they washed themselves.

315. T\T]4o-<ras : see on 66.

316. -irapd 6iva: as 34. The line of people was stretched out along the
strand.

317. irepl tcairvw: around, in the smoke. See 55 a.



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 33

318. Transition to another scene, which fills the blank during the
journey of the embassy to Chrysa. Kara o-Tpar6v: (do/m) through the
coinp; cf. ava. crTparov 10, 53, Kara vr/a? B 47, Kara /3a>/xovs B 305. For
the transition, at the bucolic diaeresis,' see 58 h.

319. cpiSos : as 210. irpwrov : once ; see on 6. 4irr]irXT]<r : see 181 ff .

320. irpo<r&iirv : is regularly followed by the direct address in the
next verse, but occasionally some incidental remark intervenes by way of
parenthesis.

321. Oepdirovre : companion*, x'/nires. Patroclus is Otpdirw of Achilles,
brave warriors are called df-panrovr^ "Aprjos (B 110), and kings are Ocpa-

7TOVTC5 AlO<J.

322. pxo-9ov: here followed by the accusative of 'limit of motion.'
19 b. Agamemnon does not go in person (avros 185), since Achilles had
declared (298) that he would make no resistance.

323. x t P<te : genitive of the part touched, witli cAwre. Cf. KO/XT^ 197,
yovvojv 407, 500, 770805 591. d-yc'pev [ayeiv] : infinitive for the imperative,
parallel with Ip^tcrBov. Cf. Avorut 20. This contains an explanation of
the preceding imperative and hence is not connected with it by a conjunc-

Ition ( 15ft); cf. 363.
324 = l:J7, with ou-prtv for ooWiv.
325. Ka(: strengthens pi'ytov.
326. fci . . . T\\v: us 25. pvOov : i.e. the preceding command.
327. dcKovre : because of their dread and reverence for Achilles ; cf. 331.
pdrr|v ( 52 c) : dual forms generally have no augment in Homer. iropd
Otva : cf. 347. The quarters of Achilles were at the extreme right of the
camp ; cf. ITT Atavros KAio-ias ^8* ?r' 'A^tXA^os, roi p ca^ara vfjas
i(ra<s | pvo-av, rjvopey TTWTWOI KOLI Kaprc'i ^eiptiov A 7 ff. to the tents of A j ax

nnd to those of . 1 r/////r.M, ir/i/t (//>'/ >//> tlnir shi/>s at the extremities of the line,
trusfi/n/ to fln'ir ftn i rrr>/ dinl tlic xtrcnyth of their arms.
329. TOV: ivf.M-s Luck t> :J22, nz. Achilles.
330. ov6' apa: but nntnrn/li/ not. y^l 1 l o " V : "did joy enter his heart ";
inr,.j,tiv- anrisi : cf. '<'>. !_'. 'J55.

331. rappT|cravT : .sv h.t-il by fear (the opposite of ^apo-7Jo-as 85), while the
]>i-<'sriitttioo/xeV(u 'xpiv<s-s tlie continued attitude of their minds.

333. 6 e-yvw: for the hiatus, cf. :>:J2, B 105; see 27ft. *yv : sc.
thrir rrrand. Cf. 302.

334. x af f* T : ^"' '"stoiiiary -iveting. Aios ayyt\oi KT\.: they are
invinlal)!*' servants of 8toiy>e<W (3a(TL\r)w (on 170). Ih-mn-s is not yet
tin- patron god of heralds in Hoim-r.




34 COMMENTARY TO THE

335. liraCnoi: to Name ; sc. core. Cf. 153. 'A-yaji,|xvwv : sc. eTramos e<rrt.

336. o: os- KotipT]s : Kovpos and Kovprj are used especially of young
men and women of noble families. But Kovpou 'A^aioiv (473) does not
differ materially, except in metrical form, from mes 'A^atoiv (162).

338. a^civ: final infinitive ; cf. /xa X o-^at 8, ayiptv 443, B 477, T 117.
TW 8' avrco: these two themselves. The very men who executed the unjust
order are to be witnesses of its injustice and of Achilles' justification in
withdrawing from active service.

339. irp6s: in the sight of, before. Cf. 239, Xen. An. i. 6. 6. For the
repetition of the preposition, cf. that of e/< 436 ff. 0tov, dv0pcoirv: for a
strong " all persons."

340. KaC : after T, re, gives special prominence to this clause . irpos
TOV pouriX/nos dtnjvfos : before that king, the cruel king; equivalent to TT/OOS
TOVTOV TOV /3acriAos TOV d.Trr)vov<s. For the order of words, cf. 11, TOV
XtDftrjTTJpa CTreo-^oAoi/ B 275. Since the article is still a demonstrative in
Homer, the foregoing are merely apparent exceptions to the rule that the
attributive adjective stands between the article and its noun. 8rj avre :
for the ' synizesis,' cf. 131. avrc : not again, marking a repetition, but
indicating a situation opposed to the present ; cf. 237.

341. XP 1 y /VT l Tai: this happens in the Ninth Book; see 6 i. The
object before the speaker's mind is Agamemnon. Hence at the close of
the sentence, rots aAAots is used instead of the general word 'A^aiots.

342. roisaXXots: dative of interest with d/wmi, cf. 67. yap: length-
ened, as B 39, for an unknown reason.

343. ov8 TI : and not at all. vof|<rcu KT\. : proverbial expression for
prudence; cf. T 109. The infinitive follows oTSe, knows how.

344. ot : ethical dative with crdot /ua^coearo. naxeota/ro [/xa^otvro] :
that they should Jight. The present of the principal sentence is followed by the
optative, since the purpose is presented as a mere conception of the mind.

347. eryciv: as 338. avns : like TraXiv 59.

348. dKov<ra : this indicates that Briseis was more than a mere yejoas
to Achilles, and that his anger arose not simply from the insult offered to
his dignity but also from wounded love. So at I 340 he asks whether the
sons of Atreus alone love their wives; he loves his heartily, though she is
a captive. In T 287 ff., she mourns bitterly for the dead Patroclus on her'
return to the tent of Achilles. yvvf\ : explanatory appositive with 17.
The scene ends at the 'bucolic diaeresis' ( 58 h) ; cf. 318, 430. avrdp
'AxiM-svs KT\. : a simple description of the effect which the loss of Briseis
had upon the hero, without depicting his feelings in modern fashion.



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD



35







ACHILLES SENDS AWAY BRISEIS

349. 5aKpv<ras : fell to weeping. Burst into tears is perhaps too strong a
translation, but gives the inceptive force of the aorist. crdpwv : construe
with VOOX/H Aiao-dci's. cuf>ap : construe with Aicur&t's, cf. 594.

350. 0iv |>' o\6s : i.e. eVt ffivu. KT\. Construe with CTO <ty' : is

accented, in spite of the elision, in order to prevent the reader from con-
st ruin - it with 0X09 (55 c /?). &X6s: oAs and 0aAa<rou are the general
words for sea ; TTOITOS is the high, deep sea (often with reference to a par-
ticular tract ; cf. B 115) ; TrcAayos, the open sea.

351. iroXXa : as :>.">. ^peyvvs: not avav\(utv (x^P - 1 * oLvaa-^v 450), since
while invoking tin- sea divinity he stretched out his hands toward the
deep. Cf. I 5is, wln-rr Althaea beats upon the ground as she calls upon
the nether p><ls ; palmas ponto tendens utrasque . . . Di, quibus
iinperium est pelagi Veru r - -I"'- v. -j:j:J ff.



36 COMMENTARY TO THE




352. ercKcs y : t ne prominence given by ye emphasizes the fact as
responsible for the inference which is drawn from it. " Since you gave
me birth, you ought to see that I am made happy. Zeus ought to grant
me honor since he does not vouchsafe me long life." |uwv0dSiov : equiva-
lent to WKV/XO/OOS 417 - ire'p: in its original use, very.

353. n^v ircp : honor at least ; placed first with emphasis. 'Chiastic'
with /uvw&xSiov (16 a). o<j>\\v : the past tense of verbs of obligation
is used to imply that the obligation was not complied with.

354. ti\I/ipp|Tiis : cf. Seivov Se ftpovrrja-t Traryp dvSpwi/ re 0ewv re | vif/aOev
(thundered terribly from on high) Y 56. vvv 8^: but as it is, marking a return
to the reality from a merely hypothetical case ; cf. 417, B 82.

356. IXwv exei : differs from etXe chiefly in giving prominence to the
possession as still continued. Cf. (of the same act) eiAer' e^ei 8' aXo^ov
1336. dirovpas: participle of aTrrjvpwv 430; explanatory of eAtov. For
the strengthening by avros, cf. 137, 161, 185, 324.

357. s <|>dTo KT\. : cf. sic f atur lacrimans Verg. Aen. vi. 1.

358. irarpl -y^povn : i.e. Nereus, who is not named by Homer but only
designated as oAtos ye/awv (538). His home is in the Aegean Sea. With
him is Thetis, who has left her aged husband Peleus.

359. &\6s : ablatival genitive, from the sea. See 19 a. T|VT o^x^ 1 ! :
like a mist, which rises easily and quietly from the water; the com-
parison is especially fitting for a sea goddess. Cf. ' As evening mist
Risen from a river o'er the marish glides,' Milton Par. Lost xii. 629 f .
For the Homeric comparison, cf. 47 ; see 14.

360. irdpoiO* avroio: before him(self). The intensive pronoun contrasts
Achilles himself with his voice, which his mother had just heard ; cf. 47.
See 42 h. Sdicpu x^ OVT s : ^ ne repetition of these words from 357 is
characteristic of the fullness of epic style. The Homeric heroes were
never ashamed to express emotion. They wept copiously.

361. Kar6p| : for the single p after the augment, see 30 c. For the
epic fullness, cf. 57, 88.

362. <r4, <f>pevas : accusatives of the whole and part, thy heart.

363. 4ati8a KT\. : the second imperative repeats the thought of the
first, hence the 'asyndeton'; cf. 323. vow: as in 132.

364. papv : cf. evpv 355, fieya 78.

365. ot<r6a : cf. 355 f - rj : is not a simple sign of a question in Homer
(see on 133), and hence can be joined with TL. ISvi-g : intransitive.
Though his mother knows all, Achilles tells the story. A man in suffer-
ing finds relief in rehearsing his ills, and this recital was followed by the






FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 37

sympathy of the poet's hearers. The repetition is more natural because
the consequences of these events continue through the whole poem.
d-yopevb) : 'subjunctive of deliberation.' For the verbal repetition, cf.
B 10-15, 23-34, 60-70.

366. Observe that this story is introduced without a conjunction.
u>x6fit0a: sc. on his marauding expeditions in the neighborhood of Troy.
See on 125 TjpTjv : the connection of Chryseis with Theba is not made
plain. Was she there on a visit? Or were Theba and Chrysa sacked on
the same expedition? UpVjv : since the gods were worshipped there.
Note the simple order of words.

367. ^ojiev tv0<x8 : Andromache tells of the sack of the city, of her
father's death and her mother's captivity, in Z 414 if TJ-yl JLv: implies liv-
ing creatures, especially prisoners. Cf. <j>ip<i>v 13.

368. cv : properly, so that each received his due share. Sourcravro : cf.
Se'Sao-Tcu 125, 8aoy>ios 166.

369. *K 8' 2\ov: as yepa? (eaiperov, cf. B 227), besides his share of the
spoils. See on 124 The capture of Chrysa (37), or at least of Chryseis,
on the same expedition is assumed here. B 690 ff. shows that Lyrnessus
was sacked, and Briseis taken captive, on the same voyage, which seems to
have been shortly before Chryses' visit to the camp.

371-379 = 12-16, 22-25.

380. irdLXiv: back; cf. 7raA.ii/ TrAayx^eiras 59, So/Acrat 7raA.iv 116.

381. 4>CXos TJCV: sc. 6 yepan/. This was shown by the event.

382. rr 'Ap<ytoi<ri : cVt" with a dative of the person in Homer often
implies hostility, like ern with the accusative in prose; cf. 51, T 15, 132.
K<uc6v: cf. 10. p&os : as 51.

383. 4ircur<rvTpoi : in quick succession; cf. 52.

384. ap.fii [T^/XIV] : for us.

385. 0oirpoiras : as 87. tKaroio : of the Far Darter . cicaro? is a short,
<pet' form of e/caT^oXos (as 'EKarrj was a name of the moon goddess).
Cf. ZfuvOfv 39. For similar epithets of Apollo, see 22 /.

386. avrCica : for the lack of a conjunction, see 15 d iccX6|u|v : <-f.

62 ff., and see on 74.

387. Arpctwva KT\. : equivalent to *Arpciwv c^oXoi^ (cf. xaXci)0eis 9).

388. T|irXii<rev jivOov : the English idiom reverses the construction, he
uttered the threat 8: 09, as 336.

389. T^V fUv : contrasted with TTJV Sc 391. <rvv vrjC : irith a ship, almost
equivalent to by ship. This expression seems more instrumental than
where the comrades also are mentioned; cf. 179, 183,




38 COMMENTARY TO THE

390. irqiirovo-iv : escort ( 17). The present is used, since the act

is not completed. The 'historical present' is not Homeric a-yovo-i

8^: a subordinate member of the sentence, with ' chiastic ' relation to

Tre/xTTovo-ii/ ( 16) Swpct : i.e. victims for sacrifice. avaKTi : Apollo; cf.

36, 444.

391. TTJV 8e KT\. : contrasted with 389. Wov : adverb with efiav
ayovre?. pav \l(^rjcrav] a-yovres : cf. l/3av <f>pov<rai B 302, (3fj <evy<ov
B 665. otxo/wxt is more frequently used with a participle; cf. B 71,
ol^aOai 7rpo<f>epov(Ta' OveXXa Z 346. See on Itav 138, 168.

392. 86<rav KT\. : as 162 ; see on 124.

393. ircuSos t^os : thy valiant son. It seems part of the poet's naivete
that the heroes apply such epithets to themselves ; but the phrase is part
of the poet's stock, and he hardly thinks whether he is applying the epi-
thet himself or is putting it in the hero's mouth.

394. Aa : for the length of the ultima before Xtitrat, see 59 h et

wore : cf. 39, 503 ff.

395 . im, pyw : emphatically placed in contrast, at the beginning and
the close of the verse. KpaSiTjv Aios : for the 'periphrasis,' see 16 d

T|c KCU : or also.

396. iroXXdia: for the omission of final s, see 30 /. <re'o : genitive of
source with aKovcra. irarpos : i.e. of Peleus, in Thessaly, where Thetis
seems to have remained after her marriage until the outbreak of the
Trojan War; cf. H 221 ff. (where mention is made of the chest of Achilles
that Thetis packed for him as he set out for Troy). See on 358.

397. 6vxop.vrjs : supplementary participle with a to, cf. 257. ore KT\. :
explains evxoptvrjs. See 11 j.

398. detect KT\. : as 341 ; cf. 67.

399. oiriroTe: when once upon a time. Thetis makes no use of this
suggestion in her interview with Zeus. Aristotle observes this, and
remarks that men do not care to be reminded of the favors which they
have received.

400. The three divinities named are now on the side of the Achaeans.

401. IXOowra : see on tw 138. Oca: marks her power to accomplish.
vire\i)<rao Seo-fiwv : didst loose from under the chains, didst free from the
pressure of the chains. Transition to direct discourse from the infinitive
construction of 398 ; cf. B 12, 126 ; see 11 e.

402. eKaTo < Yx l P v : c f- centimanus Gyas Hor. Carm. ii. 17. 14,
beluacenticepsi'6. ii. 13. 34. KoXeVcura : by calling, coincident in time
with vTrcXvo-ao.






FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 39

403. Bpidlptwv : ly transfer of quantity for ~Bpidprjov, 23 c. The
name ( /// ^/-//-handed ; cf. fipiapos) marks his strength and character.
He is called AiyouW (Stormy ; cf. aiyt's, Aiyai, Aiyira) in the popular speech,
as a sea divinity. He is the personified might and roar of the sea. Hesiod
makes him aid Zeus against the Titans. Homer attributes to the lan-
guage of the gods names \\hich are going out of use (but which may seem
clearer in meaning than the others) ; cf. B 813 f. See on B 782.

404. avr: on hi* part. ov irarpos : i.<. Poseidon, the mighty sea god.
All of Poseidon's sons are represented as violent. ov: cf. TJV 72.

405. os pa : no he ; for the demonstrative use of the relative, see 42 p.
KvSYi -ycuwv : delighting in the fullness of his might. This seems to play
upon the name AiyatW.

406. teat: also : marks the effect corresponding to jcvSei ycuW. Cf. 249.
v7r0io-av : for the length of the antepenult, cf. 33. ford with verbs of
fearing, fleeing, yielding marks the superiority on the side of the person
who is the efficient cause. ': indicates the close connection of the two
clauses ; cf. 82, 218, B 179. cSr|<rav: possibly a play on efSeorav.

407. TWV : see on 160. \iiv : construe with /Airycracra. Trape'^eo would
govern the dative. -yovvcov : for the genitive, c/". ^eipos 323. This was
the attitude of a suppliant ; cf. 500 ff.

408. at K6v irws : cf. 66. &irl apTjgai : come to the aid of. Cf. the force of

7Tl III o l-'i.

409. Kara irpvjivas : the ships were drawn up with their sterns toward
the land. dp.4>' oXa : about the sea, i.e. on the shore between the promon-
tories Sigeum and Rhoetr-um. Until now the battles had been fought on
the plain, far from the ships and near the city. Cf. Achilles' words, o<f>pa

eyw /ACT' 'A^aioto-tv 7roA./uoi/, | OVK 0Ac(rKe /u-a^ryi/ OLTTO TCt'^co? opvvfMev
E/crcop I .")_' f. . 1 x IOIKJ iis I wu fighting amour/ the Achaeans, Hector n-as not

H'HIiiii/ to rouse (//'' batf/<> a>ra>/ f,-//i tli>> /ra/l (of the city) 'A\aiovs : in

apposition \\ ith rov?.

410. ^iravpwvrai : mat/ min<> to i n/'o// : ironical, f'f. quidquid <leli-
rant re-'.-v. plectuntur Achivi Hor. A'///.^. i. _>. 11.

411. Ka : a/so, i.i . as w-ll as the other (in-i-ks.

412. r\v a-n]v : //is blind infatuation, //is hlin<l m'ss . This is made more
by o re KT\. (i.e. OTL Tt). as iMl. Cf. B 11 1.

413. Kara: const rue with ^e'ovcra.

414. TI w : ////// noir. to trhnt < ml : accusative i>t' sjiecification. alvd :
accusative \vith rcKOvcra, t/rfadfu/l//. to sorrotr. Cf. KftKr) aiay 4\*.

calls herself St'cmpioTOToVcwi ^ .">[ tnnt/it r of an unhappy hero.




40 COMMENTARY TO THE

415. otO 1 6<|>e\es: for this form of expression for an unattainable wish,
see H. 871 a; G. 1512. dSdKpvros KT\. : i.e. full of joy and happiness.
This thought receives the emphasis.



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