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simple unwritten common law and constitution.

b. Monarchy prevails among the gods as among men. Zeus
('Jupiter') is mightier than all the rest together. Athena
(; Minerva') and Apollo are next to Zeus in power. Athena is the
chief divinity of war. Ares (' Mars ') is comparatively insignifi-
cant. Demeter (< Ceres ') is named but six times. Dionysus
(' Bacchus ') is not as yet admitted to the circle of gods on Olym-
pus. Asclepius (' Aesculapius ') is still a mortal. Pan and the
Satyrs are unknown. The gift of prophecy is granted to individual



XIV



INTRODUCTION



men. The oracle of Delphi is hardly mentioned. Temples are
uncommon, and doubtless are simple in structure.

c. The Homeric warriors roast their meat, and do not boil it.
They sit at tables, and do not recline at dinner. They buy their
wives by large gifts of cattle to the parents. The most useful
metal is copper or bronze; iron is little used. Coined money is
unknown ; all trade is barter. The occupations of the rich and
poor differ little. Princes tend flocks and build houses ; princesses
fetch water and wash clothes. The heroes are their own butchers
and cooks. Life even in Homeric palaces is primitive.

d. The brunt of battle was borne by the heavy-armed warriors.
Of these the large shield was the main arm of defense. This was
so heavy that it rendered the chariot necessary for speedy and easy
transportation from one part of the field to another. The battles
were decided for the most part by informal single combats. No art
of war, in the modern sense, was known ; the commander-in-chief
had no plan of battle. The army had no 'military organization 7
into brigades, regiments, companies, or the like, though on the
advice of Nestor (B 362) members of the same clan or tribe were
to fight together. Ajax was not always with his Salaminians, nor
Odysseus with his Ithacans. The light-armed troops for the
most part stood in the rear of the spearmen, but occasionally an
archer took his place in the front rank, perhaps partly protected by
a friend's shield. Cavalry were unknown.



THE STORY OF THE TROJAN WAR.



5, a. Before the Action of the Iliad. The action of the Iliad
itself covers only a few days, but many allusions are made to pre-
ceding events which complete the story. '

Paris (whose Greek name was Alexander), son of King Priam of
Troy (or Ilios) on the shore of the Hellespont, in the northwest
corner of Asia Minor, carried away Helen, wife of King Menelaus
of Sparta. The Achaeans (Greeks) united to avenge the wrong,
under command of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, the brother of
Menelaus. Nestor of ' sandy Pylus' and Odysseus of Ithaca




5 c. THE STORY OF THE TROJAN WAR XV

visited Thessaly and enlisted Achilles (son of Peleus and the sea
goddess Thetis) and his friend Patroclus. The Greeks assembled
at Aulis, a Boeotian town on the strait between Euboea and the
mainland, opposite Chalcis. There a portent was seen, which the
seer Calchas interpreted to mean that they should fight for nine
years around Troy, and capture the city in the tenth year. On
their way to Troy, they stopped at the island of Lemnos, where
they were hospitably entertained, and where they left one of their
chieftains, Philoctetes, who had been bitten by a water snake. On
their arrival at Troy, Menelaus and Odysseus went to the city as
ambassadors, and demanded the return of Helen, which was,
refused. Some of the Trojans even urged that the ambassadors
be put to death, but their host Antenor and others secured
their safety. The Achaeans began the siege. The Trojans sent
to their neighbors and gained allies. The Achaean ships were
drawn up on land, sterns foremost, and supported by props or
shores. By the side of the ships were built barracks (/cA.io-u)
for the men.

b. The siege was not very close. The Greek camp was at a
considerable distance from the city, and the Greeks could not
devote all of their time to fighting. They were obliged to make
expeditions against the neighboring towns in order to obtain sup-
plies. In these marauding forays, the men of the sacked towns
were killed or sent to other countries to be sold as slaves ; the
women were often brought to the Greek camp before Troy. When
the action of the Iliad opened, the wealth of the city of Troy
was nearly exhausted. The Trojans had been obliged to pay and
support their allies, and had been shut out from the use of their
fields. They were afraid to meet the Greeks in open battle.

c. Of the gods, Hera ('Juno'), Athena, and Poseidon ('Nep-
tune.') favored the Achaeans; Aphrodite ('Venus'), Ares, and
Apollo favored the Trojans. The reasons for this division of
sentiment are not made clear. The 'Judgment of Paris' with
regard to the beauty of the goddesses, and the award of the prize
to Aphrodite, seem to be unknown to the author of the ///',/
(except, possibly, O 25 ff.).






xvi INTRODUCTION 6 a.

6, a. The action of the Iliad begins early in the tenth year of
the war. Chryseis, the daughter of a priest of Apollo, had been
captured on one of the marauding expeditions of the Achaeans,
and was given to Agamemnon as the { first-fruit' of the spoils.
The captive's aged father came to the Greek camp, bearing the
fillets of Apollo as his official insignia, and begged to be allowed to
ransom his daughter, but Agamemnon sent him away, slighting his
request. As he left the Greek camp, the old priest prayed for
vengeance to his god, Apollo, who heard his prayer and sent pesti-
lence upon the Achaeans. For nine days the plague raged in the
camp, but on the tenth day an assembly was called by Achilles,
who urged that some prophet be questioned of the cause of
the god's anger. The old seer Calchas told the truth. Achilles
reproached Agamemnon, and the two heroes quarreled. At last
Agamemnon sent Chryseis home to her father, but took from
Achilles his prize of honor, Brisei's. Achilles refused to fight any
longer for the Achaeans, and begged his mother, the sea goddess
Thetis, to invoke the aid of Zeus, and to pray that victory might
be granted unto the Trojans until the Achaeans learned to value and
honor her son's might. This prayer was reluctantly granted by
Zeus, and the First Book of the Iliad closes with a half-ludicrous
scene on Olympus, where Zeus was reproached by Hera for yielding
to the request of Thetis, in the evening of the twenty-first day.

b. At the opening of the Second Book of the Iliad, at the begin-
ning of the twenty-second day of the poem's action, Zeus sent to
Agamemnon a delusive dream, bidding him to arm the Achaeans
for battle, with all haste. After a council of the elders, Agamemnon
tried the temper of the soldiers by proposing to return at once to
their homes. To his grief, the men acceded enthusiastically and
began immediately the preparations for the voyage. They were
stopped by Odysseus, who acted under the direction of Athena.
A second assembly was held, the Greeks were shamed and awed
into remaining, and they prepared for battle. As the Achaean army
advanced against Troy, the poet pauses in order to give a muster of
the forces, the ' Catalogue of the Ships,' which is followed by
a less elaborate enumeration of the Trojans and their allies.



6 g. THE STORY OF THE TROJAN WAR xv ii

c. At the beginning of the Third Book, the opposing armies were
about to meet, when Paris challenged Menelaus to a single combat
which should decide the war. The two husbands of Helen, the
wronged Menelaus and the offending Paris, were the fit cham-
pions of the two armies. This scene would naturally belong to the
first year of the war ; but as the poet begins his story in the tenth
year of the war, the best he can do is to make this combat the
beginning of the conflicts which he describes. Priam was called
from the city of Troy, and a truce was struck: If Menelaus slew
Paris, the Greeks were to take Helen and peaceably return to their
homes ; if Paris slew Menelaus, the Greeks were to withdraw at
once. Menelaus disabled Paris and had him in his power, when
Aphrodite snatched up her Trojan favorite, and deposited him
safely in his home.

d. The terms of the truce had not been fulfilled. Neither com-
batant had been slain, but the victory fairly belonged to the Greeks.
In order that the Trojans might not surrender Helen, and preserve
their city, Athena (who hated Troy) descended a third time to the
field of war, and incited a Lycian archer, a Trojan ally, Pandarus,

to send an arrow at Menelaus. The Greek hero was wounded, and

1

the Greeks, indignant at this treacherous breach of the truce, pre-
pared at once for the battle, and advanced upon the enemy. This
story is told in the Fourth Book.

e. Most of the Fifth Book is devoted to the brave deeds of
Diomed, son of Tydeus, of Argos. Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, and
Ares took part in the battle, and the two latter divinities were
wounded by Diomed, with Athena's aid. Diomed wounded Aeneas
also the incident to which Vergil makes Aeneas allude in Aeneid
i. 96 f.

f. In the Sixth Book, the Trojans were hard pressed, and Priam's
bravest son, Hector, returned to the city in order to bid the matrons
supplicate Athena's mercy. He called Paris to return to the field
of battle, and took a pathetic farewell of his wife, Andromache.

g. The day which began at the opening of the Second Book
ended near the close of the Seventh Book. The coming on of night
put a stop to a single combat between Hector and Telamonian Ajax,






xviii INTRODUCTION 6 h.

of Salamis. The armies struck a truce for one day, for the burial
of the dead. The Greeks spent another day in building a wall
about their camp, a wall which was not needed while Achilles
was fighting on their side, but which was necessary when the
Trojans were ready to assume the offensive.

h. The Eighth Book tells of a brief day of battle, in which the
fortunes of war were continually changing, and in which Zeus often
interfered. At the close of this Book, the Achaeans were driven
into their camp, and welcomed the approach of night which afforded
them relief from pursuit and attack. The Trojans bivouacked upon
the plain and were confident of annihilating their enemies on the
morrow.

i. On the night following the battle of the Eighth Book, the
Greek leaders sent to Achilles an embassy, offering him rich gifts,
and begging him to return to the battle, but he stoutly refused.
The account of this embassy fills the Ninth Book.

j. The Tenth Book narrates the visit (on the same night) of
Odysseus and Diomed to the Trojan camp, where they slew Rhesus,
the Thracian leader, who had just arrived on the field of action,
and captured his famous steeds.

k. With the Eleventh Book begins the third of the four days
of battle of the Iliad, a day which does not close until the end
of the Eighteenth Book. Agamemnon distinguished himself now
more than on any other occasion, but retired from the field wounded,
and was followed by Diomed and Odysseus, who also were disabled.

1. The Trojans pressed forward to the Greek wall, and, at the
close of the Twelfth Book, Hector broke down the great gates, and
opened a way for his comrades into the Greek camp.

m. At the opening of the Thirteenth Book, Poseidon came from
the sea in order to aid the Greeks. Hera distracted the attention
of Zeus while Poseidon and the Achaeans put the Trojans to rout.

n. The previous action continues through the Fourteenth Book.

o. At the opening of the Fifteenth Book, Zeus noticed what was
doing on the Trojan plain, and sent Poseidon back to his home in
the sea. The Trojans pressed forward again and reached the Greek
ships, and Hector called for fire that he might burn the fleet.






6 v. THE STORY OF THE TROJAN WAR x ix

p. At the opening of the Sixteenth Book, Patroclus begged
Achilles to allow him to take his comrades in arms, the Myrmi-
dons, and enter the battle. Achilles consented, and gave his friend
his own armor to wear, but directed him to be satisfied with driv-
ing the enemy from the camp, and not to attempt the capture of
Troy. Patroclus, however, became excited by the fray, and fol-
lowed the Trojans to the very gate of the city. There he was
slain by Apollo and Hector.

q. Most of the Seventeenth Book is devoted to the battle around
the body of Patroclus. Hector stripped off the armor of the friend
of Achilles, but the Achaeans with great difficulty secured the
corpse and carried it back to the camp, hard pressed by the
enemy.

r. In the Eighteenth Book, Achilles learned with overwhelming
grief of the death of his comrade. His mother, Thetis, came from
the sea to comfort him. .His armor was in the hands of Hector,
stripped from the body of Patroclus. He could not enter the
combat, but had only to appear unarmed at the trench, and the
Trojans were frightened away. His mother went to Olympus to
beg for him beautiful armor from Hephaestus (< Vulcan 7 ). Here
ends the third day of battle, which began with the opening of the
Eleventh Book.

s. In the Nineteenth Book, Achilles was reconciled to Aga-
memnon. His hatred for Hector and his desire for vengeance on
the slayer of Patroclus more than overbalanced his more ancient
grudge on account of the quarrel of the First Book.

t. The fourth of the battles of the Iliad begins with the Twen-
tieth Book. The gods descended to take part in the battle, but
did not affect its issue.

u. At the beginning of the Twenty-first Book, Achilles has
driven the Trojans as far as the River Scamander, which flowed
about mil\vay between the camp and the city. There many were
slain, almost without resistance.

v. On the opening of the Twenty-second Book, all the Trojans
but Hector were either slain or had fled within the walls of the
city. But Hector did not yield to the entreaties of his father and



xx INTRODUCTION 6 w.

mother, who, from the wall, prayed him to return. He awaited
Achilles and was slain. His body was dragged to the Achaean camp,
after the chariot of Achilles.

w. The Twenty-third Book is devoted to the burial of Patroclus,
and the funeral games in his honor.

x. In the Twenty-fourth Book, the aged Priam, under the care
of the gods, went to the Achaean camp and obtained from Achilles
the body of his son Hector. The 'iracundus, inexorabilis' Achilles
appeared in a gentler mood. The corpse was brought back to
Troy, and the poem closes with the funeral of Hector.

7. a. Concise Analysis of the Iliad.

a. INTRODUCTION. A. Pestilence (nine days). Assembly. Quar-
rel. Kest from battle (twelve days). Thetis went to Zeus on the
twenty-first day.

ft. THE FOUR BATTLES BEFORE TROY.

I. B-H 380. First great battle, on the twenty-second day.
Single combats between Paris and Menelaus, Hector and Ajax.

II. H 381-K. Burial of the dead and building of the wall, on the
twenty -third and twenty -fourth days. Second great battle, on the
25th day. Embassy to Achilles. Odysseus and Diomed entered
the Trojan camp, and killed the Thracians and their king, Rhesus.

III. A-S. Third great battle, on the twenty-sixth day. Death
of Patroclus. Hephaestus made armor for Achilles.

IV. T-X. Fourth battle, on the twenty-seventh day. Achilles
killed Hector.

y. CONCLUSION. ^, O. Achilles abused the body of Hector on
days 27-38 (twelve days; see a, above). Lament for Hector in
Troy on days 39-47 (nine days). Burial of Hector and erection of
a mound over his body, on the forty-eighth and forty-ninth days.

This scheme shows that the action of the Iliad covers but
seven weeks. Three of these are occupied by the action of the
First Book, and three by that of the last two Books ; only four days
are spent in fighting. The burial of Hector and the building of
his tomb in the last Book correspond to the burial of the dead and
the building of the wall about the Achaean camp, after the first
day of battle.






7b. THE STORY OF THE TROJAN WAR xx i

b. Contents of the Iliad in Greek Hexameters*

1. "AX<a * Xtra? Xpvaov, XOI/JLOV (TTparov, e^#o? avd/crwv.

2. Brjra S' oveipov e%ei, ayopijv, teal vfjas apiQfjiel.

3. Fa/x/xa 8' a/3* a/zc^' 'EXeV?;? oioiv fjidQos earlv atcoiraiv.

4. Ae'Xra flewy ayopij, op/cwv 'xyais, v A/?eo? a/

5. El* /SaAAefc Ku^epetay "Aprjd re TvSeo? tncfc.

6. Z^ra 8' a/o' 'AvSpo/JLa'xrjs /cal "E^ro/30? eVr* o

7. *Hra 5' Ata? TroXe/ufe /ioVa> fjuivos "E/cro/3t

8. 0r)ra ^ewz^ ayoprj, Tptowv /cpdros, "E^ropo?

9. 'EfeoYi; 8' 'A^tX?)o? aTret^eo? Icrrlv 'Iwra.

10. KaTTTra Se* 'P^o-oi; r^ K(f>a\r)V e\e TuSeo? uto?.

11. Adfji/38a 8' ' apiarrja^ kavawv (Bd\ov f/

12. MO T/9cu<yi/ TraXd/jirjcri, /carijpiTre ret^o? '

13. NO 8e- ITocret8a&)z> Aaz/aot? Kpdros coTratre \d0prj.

14. Set KpoviSrjv Xe^eWcri /cat VTTVW rjirafy

15. Ou K/0(WS?7? /ce%d\(0TO Ho&eiSdcovi, /cal

16. Ilet * riarpo^Xo^ 7re(f>vev 'Aprjiov

17. f Pa> kavaol T/)we9 re veicvv Trepi

18. ^Ljfia ert9 'A^tXTjt 7ra/3* 'HfatcrTOV fyepev o?rXa.

19. TaO 8' a7T\Tjj6 ^o'Xoto /cat e/cOope

20. r T fia/cdpcov ept? wpro, (frepei S* ?rt /cdpros

21. 4>et ^0709 Aia/ci&ao Trap* rjtovas Trorafjiolo.

22. Xet 5* a/aa r/3t? 7re/3t ret%09 dj(ov

23. "^et kavaoiaiv aywva SiSovs ere'Xecro-e^ *

24. *fi II/3ta/i09 veicvv via \afta)V ye'pa Sw/cev '

* Ascribed to Stephanus GrammaticiLs in the Palatine Anthology, ix. 385,




xxii INTRODUCTION 7 c.

c. Arrangement of the Action according to Days.

The action of the Iliad, which covers only seven weeks, or forty-
nine days, may be divided as follows :

Days.

1. Visit of Chryses to the Greek camp, A 12.

1-9. Pestilence, A 53.

10. Assembly of the Achaeans, A 54.

10-21. Visit of the gods to the Aethiopians, A 423.

21. Keturn of the gods to Olympus, A 493 f. Visit of Thetis

to Zeus.

22. The Achaeans prepare for battle. Single combat between

Menelaus and Paris. The battle begins. Brave deeds of
Diomed. Hector's meeting with Andromache. Single
combat between Hector and Ajax. B 1-H 380.

23. Burial of the dead, H 381-432.

24. Building of a wall for the Achaean camp, H 433-482.

25. Second day of battle, .
Embassy to Achilles, I.

Odysseus and Diomed enter the Trojan camp, K.

26. Third day of battle. The Trojans break down the Greek

wall. Death of Patroclus. A 1-2 617.

27. Eeconciliation of Achilles and Agamemnon. Fourth great

day of battle. Death of Hector. T 1-* 61.

28. Burial of Patroclus, ^ 62-225.

29. Funeral games in honor of Patroclus, ^ 226-897.
27-38. Achilles drags the body of Hector around the bier or

of Patroclus, O 1-30.

Priam visits the tent of Achilles and ransoms Hector's
body, O 31-676, on the evening of the thirty-eighth
day.

39. Priam brings Hector's body to Troy, O 677-775.
39-47. Lament for Hector in Troy, O 784.

48. Burial of Hector, O 785-787.

49. Erection of a mound over Hector's ashes, O 788-804.



7d.



THK STORY OF THE TROJAX WAR



XXlll



d. The Greek Forces. (See B 494 ff.)

MAINLAND OF GREECE.

Order of

int ntion. Nations and Commanders.

1. Boeotians (Peneleiis)

_. Orchomenians

3. Phocians

4. Locrians

5. Euboeans

6. Athenians

7. Salaininians

8. Argives

0. Myceneans

1<>. Spartans

11. Pylians

12. Arcadians
l:. Epf-ans

1 1. Dulichians

15. Cephallenians

16. Aetolians



17. Cretans

18. Rhodians

19. From Syme

20. From the Sporades

21. Myrmidons
'2'2. From IMiylace
'_':. I'lirrarans

24. Methonians

25. Occhalians

_'''>. Fn>m ( )niicniiiiii

21. From Ar-'ia

28. Eniaiiians
29.



(Ascalaphus)

(Schedius)

(Ajax, son of O'ileus)

(Elephenor)

(Menestheus)

(Telamonian Ajax)

(Diomed)

(Agamemnon)

(Menelaus)

(Nestor)

(Agapenor)

(A mphimachus)

(Meges)

(Odysseus)

(Thoas)

INSULAR GREECE.

(Idomeneus)
(Tlepolemus)
(Xireus)
(Phidippus)

THESSALIAN GKKI < i .

(Achilles)

(Protesilaus)

(Eumelus)

(Philoctetes)

(Podalirius)

(Eurypylus)

(Polypoetes)

(Guneus)

(Prothoiis)



B 494-510.


No. of
ships.

50


B 511-516.


30


B 517-526.


40


B 527-.".:',.").


40


B 536-545.


40


B 546-556.


50


B 557, 558.


12


B 559-568.


80'


B 569-580.


100


B 581-590.


60


B 591-602.


90


B 603-614.


60


B 615-624.


40


B 625-630.


40


B 631-637.


12


B 638-644.


40


B 645-652.


80


B 653-670.


9


B 671-675.


3


B 676-680.


30


B 681-694.


50


B 695-710.


40


B 711-715.


11


P. 71(5-728.


7


B 729-733.


30


I'. 7:H-737.


40


B 738-7 17.


40


B 748-7:..-..


22


P, 75U-75!).


40



Total



1186



xxiv INTRODUCTION 7 e.

e. Trees of Noted Families.

THE PELOPIDS.
(1) TANTALUS

i ' ,

PELOPS HIPPODAMIA NIOBE

i



ATREUS PITTHEUS THYESTES



I
AGAMEMNON MENELAUS AEGISTHUS

(m. Clytaemnestra) (m. Helen)'

I



ORESTES ELECTRA IPHIGENIA HERMIONE



THE AEACIDS.
(2) ZEUS

ABACUS (of Aegina)



PELEUS = THETIS TELAMON



ACHILLES AJAX TEUCER



NEOPTOLEMUS EURYSACES



THE OENEIDS.

(3) OENEUS

TYDEUS = DEIPYLE MELEAGER

(d. of Adrastus
of Argos)

DIOMED = AEGIALEA




7 e. THE STORY OP THE TROJAN WAR

THE ROYAL FAMILY OF TROY, Y 215 ff.
(4) ZEUS

DARDANUS

(founder of Dardanian race)

ERICHTHONIUS



XXV



TROS

(founder of Troy)

1


ILUS

(Founder of Ilios)

LAOMEDON


GANYMED

(Cupbearer of Zeus)


ASSARACUS
CAPYS
ANCHISES

AENEAS
(ASCANIUS)


PRIAM = HECUBA

1


TlTHONUS
(Husband of Dawn)

MEMNON


HECTOR = ANDROMACHE
ASTYANAX



LYCIANS, Z 153 ff.

AEOLUS

SISYPHUS

GLAUCUS

I
BELLEROPHON



ISANDROS



HlPPOLOCHUS

I

GLAUCUS



LAODAMIA
SARPEDON



xxvi INTRODUCTION 8.

8. After the Action of the Iliad. For part of the last act in the
siege of Troy, indications exist in the Iliad and Odyssey. Many
other details were added by later poets, especially by those of the
Aethiopis, the Iliupersis, and the Little Iliad ( 2 d).

a. After the death of Hector, the Amazons came to the help of
the Trojans. Their queen, Penthesilea, was slain by Achilles.
Memnon, a cousin of Hector, the beautiful son of Eos (Dawn)
and Tithonus, came with his Aethiopians. He slew Nestor's son
Antilochus, a dear friend of Achilles, but was then himself slain
by the mighty son of Thetis. Achilles was overcome by Apollo
and Paris, as he was about to force an entrance to the city through
the Scaean Gate. His mother came from the sea, with her sister
Nereids, and bewailed him. She offered his beautiful armor as a
prize to the bravest of the Greeks, and it was awarded to Odysseus.
Telamonian Ajax went mad in his disappointment at not receiving
the armor, and committed suicide. Paris was slain, and Helen
became the wife of his brother De'iphobus. Philoctetes, the bearer
of the bow of Heracles, was brought from Lernnos, where he had
been left ( 5 a, B 721 ff.) ; and Neoptolemus, the young son of
Achilles, was brought from the island of Scyrus. Odysseus entered
the city of Troy as a spy, in the guise of a beggar, and was recog-
nized, and helped out of the city, by Helen. Athena suggested to
Odysseus the building of the ' wooden horse,' in which the bravest
of the Achaeans were hidden, while the rest set fire to their camp
and sailed away. The Trojans dragged the wooden horse within
their city, and at night the Greeks returned, and Troy was sacked.

b. Agamemnon reached home in safety, but was treacherously
murdered by his wife and his cousin, her paramour, Aegisthus.
Menelaus was driven from his course by a storm. Most of his
ships were wrecked on the coast of Crete. He himself, with Helen,
was carried by the wind to Egypt, and wandered for eight years
before his return to his home at Sparta.

c. Nestor, Diomed, and Idomeneus reached home safely. Ajax
the son of ileus, was wrecked and drowned.

d. Odysseus was driven by a storm (perhaps the same as that
which drove the ships of Menelaus to Crete ; see b, above) to the



9 a. THE STORY OF THE ODYSSEY xxvii

land of the Lotus-eaters, thence to the island of Polyphemus (t),
thence to the island of Aeolus, to the land of the Laestrygonians
(where eleven of his twelve ships were destroyed), and to the
island of Circe, where he and his companions remained during a
year (*). Then they went to Hades (A.) to consult the old seer
Tiresias. On their return they passed Scylla and Charybdis ; they
came to the island of the Sun, and (urged by hunger) killed one of
his cows. They were punished by shipwreck, from which Odysseus
alone escaped, as innocent of the offense against the Sun. He was
borne to the island of Calypso (/A), where he remained for eight
years. Then he returned to his home on Ithaca, enduring many
sufferings on the way, but receiving kindly hospitality and aid from
tin- Tliaeacians (-/A; see 9 /-w). He found his faithful wife,



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