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416. atora : sc. ecrrt. Here like aiwv, term of life. nCvvvOa: adverb
modifying the eon' to be supplied, which is sometimes modified by an
adverb in Homer ( 18 i). Cf. aKrjv eyeVovro o-uDTrrj F 95, ov8' ap Ti 8^v \
yv Z 139 f., A 466, "nor did he live long." ov TI jidXa 8rjv : the preceding
thought is repeated in negative form For the length of the ultima of
fju&a, see 59 h ft.

417. vvv &: as 354 ri: its position is free; cf. B 281.

418. ir\o: than art, literally thou becamest by decree of fate ordered at
thy birth. TO>: therefore. She infers from the foregoing, not the fact
but the justification of the expressions aiva reKoixra, KaKrj 01077. Kaicfj C&TQ:
to an evil lot.

419. TOVTO en-os : i.e. 407 ff. TO: dative of interest; cf. rot 425 f.
tpe'ovo-a: future participle, expressing purpose. Both hiatus' in this
verse are merely apparent. 27 N.B., 32.

420. "OXvfjiirov d-ydvvi<|)ov : see on 44. at K ir(0i)T<u : cf. 207.

421. 0-vfj.c'v: correlative with 426. The interposed explanation makes
it natural to change the form of the apodosis from eyo> Se. vvv: i.e. until
her visit to Zeus. irap%evos: as 488. Inactivity is implied; cf. B 688,

694. Thetis does not encourage her son to carry out his threat of 169,

to return to Phthia.

422. |i4pac: present imperative, continue to rage. See on 210. Cf.
/xijnv 1, 247.

423. Zeus ydp KT\.: gives the reason for the preceding direction, espe-
cially for vvv, showing why his request cannot be granted at once. cs
'fticcavov : to the abode of Oceanus, near which was the home of the Aethio-
pians. The Aethiopians lived in the southeast and southwest of the
Homeric world. They are represented as a god-fearing people, enjoying
the personal intercourse of the divinities. ptra.: as 222.

424. x l *s: predicate adjective instead of adverb, as 472, 497, B 2,
F 7 . See 56 a. Kara [/xera] 8atra : cf. Kara Trprjw, on an errand, 7rA.ao/Avoi
Kara A^iSa, wandering for plunder. ajia irdvrcs : cf. 495. eirovro : apparent
contradiction of 195, 221 f ., where Athena and Hera are thought of as on
Olympus.

425. 8w86Kdrn: cf. 54. This is reckoned from the day on which
Thetis is speaking. Twelve is sometimes a round number, in Homer as
well as in the Bible. iXcvo-erav: eon.



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 41

426. xoXKopares: ////// Ironze threshold, an epithet applied four times
to the home of Zeus, once to that of Hephaestus, ami once to the palace of
Alcinous. The threshold of wood was probably covered with a plate of
bronze. The floor of the hall of Zens was covered with gold, A 2. Cf.
and the floor of the house he overlaid with gold, within and without/
1 A'/m/.s- vi. 30, of Solomon's temple.

427. Kai |uv, KO.C |uv : for the animated repetition, cf. KM fuv ftaAov
wjMov . nttfW ey<i> y <f>d[Ar)v 'AiSwi/vJi Trpoituf/civ E 188, 190 and I hit him
in the shoulder, and I said that I should send him to Hades. youvdo-ojxcu :
cf. Aa/3e yowwv 407.

428. dirpT|<rTo : only in this place in the verse, before the bucolic
diaeresis ( 58 h) ; elsewhere, dirc/ft/ is used; see 50 b avrov : intensive
when adverbial (not very frequent) in Homer, as well as when a pronoun.

429. -yvvaiicfc: genitive of cause, with ^wo/xevov. See on ev^wX^s 65.

430. pig KT\. : by force, against his will. CKKOVTOS : sc. Wtv, genitive of
separation.

430-487. The scene in Chrysa naturally intervenes between the
promise of Thetis and its fulfillment, and thus seems to fill up in part the
twelve days' delay. See on F 121.

430. turnip 'O8v<r<rvs KT\. : cf. 311 ff. For the beginning of the narra-
tive, cf. the transition at avrap 'A^iAAevs 348.

431. ixavev a-ywv : cf. cp^o^ ^wv 168, TJKC TwroxK^epvr^ ^(oi/ TJ)V eavrov
X-n. An. ii. 4. 8. aya>v, with, is used because the hecatomb was

composed of live animals. See on 13.

433. lo-rCa o-reCXavro : they took in their sails. The middle takes the
place of a powessive pronoun. Cf. 480, 524.

435. irpot'fxo-o-av : when near their haven they furled their sails and
rowed the boat to land.

436. IK &': for Urn repetition, cf. 339 f. ; see 16ft. cvvds: these were
tones \\liich served as anchors. These were cast from the prow,

while the TrpvfjLvrjaia (476) held the stern. When the boat was to remain
loiii, r , it was drawn up on land.

437. patvov: for the descriptive imperfect, cf. a<i' 25. brl : for the
length of the ultima, see 59 j.

438. prjo-av: first aorist, transitive. Cf. 144, 191, 310, ta-rrja-av 448.

439. The rhythm has be.-n thought to imitate the maiden's measured
steps ; 13 b. K : adverb, as above, but more exactly defined by VTJOS.

440. 4irl PW^OV: the god is thus made a \vitness of the return. Tims in
Boeotian inscription a man emancipates his slave eyavrtov 'Ao-KA^ioi), in



42



COMMENTARY TO THE






the presence ofAsclepius. The priest dwelt in the sacred inclosure
aAcros) of the god. Observe that no temple is mentioned.

441. iv \epcrl Ti0ei: placed in the arms. For the dative, cf. yatrj 245.
For xei'p as arm, cf. Z 81, 482. r(0ci : for the form, cf. a<f>ia 25.

442. irpo (hither) 2irqu|rcv : cf. Trpb T/KC 195.

443. &yl|icv: for the infinitive, cf. ayetv 338. eKaTonpTjv p'cu : c/. tepa
peas 147.

444. virep Aavawv : in behalf of the Danal. This figurative use of wrep,
frequent in later Greek, hardly appears elsewhere in Homer.

446. Chryseis here disappears from the story.




RECONCILIATION OF CHRYSES



448. 4iTjs: in order, since eKaTo/x/?r;v is collective. &rn]<rav: first
aorist, transitive ; c/". /3vj(rav 438.

449. x P vtl l /avTO : tnev could not pray to the gods with unwashed hands.
Cf. F 270, X P"' ^* OLVLTTTOLCTLV Ait Xtiftuv aWo7ra olvov OL^O/JML (dread}
Z 266. ovXoxvras : unground, bruised barleycorns (ovAai KpiOai), which,
roasted and mixed with salt (cf. ' with all thine offerings thou shalt offer
salt,' Levit. ii. 13), were thrown upon the fire (7rpo/?aAovro 458) as an



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 43

initiatory sacrifice, whence they were proleptically called ouAoximu, poured
out i ' t r1 c i/co ni a. The use of these in sacrifices is a survival of usage from
the time when the grinding of grain was unknown. Vergil (Aen. i. 179)
is accurate in making the Trojan heroes parch their grain and then bruise
it. dWXovro : took uji : xc. from the basket standing on the ground.

450. rouriv: for them, as 68, 247. \uyaXa : family; cf. TroXXd 35.
Xipas dvao-\wv : the palms were extended towards the gods, the usual atti-
tii'le iii prayer, as is shown by works of art. Cf. 351, F 318. So also
among the Hebrews. Cf. 'And it came to pass, when Moses held up his
hand, that Israel prevailed; and when he let down his hand, Amalek
prevailed,' Exodus xvii. 11. See Vocabulary s.v. x/o.

451 f. = 37 f. With the same formula with which the priest began
his prayer for vengeance, he now prays that the punishment may be
averted.

453. TJI&C'V, T|& : paratactic construction, where the English idiom uses
" as . . . so " ; see 21 d. 8rj irore : once already, correlative with In 455
once more.

454. Explanatory appositive asyndeton.' Tijn]<ras KT\. : sc. by send-
ing the pestilence which avenged the slight offered to the priest.

455. KO.I vvv : contrasted with Trapos, above. r68 KT\. : i.e. the follow-
ing wish, as 11.

456. f\br\ vvv : now at once. Aavaouriv KT\. : cf. 97. 457 = 43.
458. In the sacrifice described in y 440 ff., the victim's forelock is cut

off and thrown into the fire, before the barleycorns are offered. tun-dp eim :

I this is repeated in this narrative, 464, 467, 469, 484.
459. avtpwav: they drew up (back) the head of the victim, in order to
tighten the muscles of the neck. &r<j>oav : i.e. opened the large artery of
the neck, to let the blood.

460. pipovs ^Vajiov : instead of the more definite c/c firjpui rapvov, cf.
40. icvUro : dative of means. Two layers of fat were placed over the
thigh pieces ; and upon the fat, bits of raw meat from all parts of the
body (TTCLKTOV /xe\tW), symbnli/ing a sacrifice of the whole animal. These
were burned, and thus the gods, according to the Homeric belief, took
part in the sacrificial feast. Cf. '517.

461. 8irrvxa : >r. KVLtnjv. equivalent to SiVA/iKi STJ/XO).

462. KO.U : tC. the fjujpui with the fat and flesh. o-xOfts : cf. B 425.

463. Woi : i.i. t he cipiiijianioiis of ( )d\ -SSI-IH. in contrast \\ith 6 yepoov,
the old priest. ( '/: B 789. irop* aurdv : //// the priest ////;<>v//'. who is thus

larked as the princii-al, directing person at the sacrifice.




44 COMMENTARY TO THE

these bronze five-lined forks seem to have been used to keep the sacrific
from rolling into the ashes.

464. Kara KOLTJ : these pieces were intended for the gods and therefore
were entirely (/cara) consumed by the fire; cf. 6 8' ev irvpl ftdXXt OvrjXds
I 220 he threw the sacrificial pieces into the fire. irouravro : sc. in order to
have a share in the sacrifice. This was no part of, but only an introduc-
tion to, the meal which followed.

465. juo-ruXXov KT\. : cf. pars in frusta secant, verubusque tre-
mentia f igunt Verg. Aen. i. 212.

466. irp|>pa8s : sc. to keep it from burning. epvcravro : drew it off
from the spits, after it was roasted.

467. ircuio-avTo : the aorist indicative is often used in relative clauses
(with cTrei) where the English uses the pluperfect. Cf. 484, B 513. See
H. 837.

468. IUTTJS : equal, i.e. of which each had a fair share. The feast was
common to all, but the leaders had the better portions.

469. A set verse to mark the end of a feast ; see 12 h. Vergil imitates
this in postquam exempta fames et amor compressus edendi
Aen. viii. 184. 4|: construe with evro. epov [epwTa] : for the form,
see 37 b. The previous pouring out of the wine (which might bo
expected) is not mentioned.

470. Kovpoi |JLV KrX. : sc. for a solemn libation of the whole company,
since only Chryseis poured a libation before (462). iroroto : genitive afte::
the idea of ' fullness ' in the verb. This verse seems to have been mis-
understood by Vergil (or did he think to improve the description?) ; cf.
crateras magnos statuunt et vina coronant Aen.i.724, magnum
cratera corona | induit, implevitque mero Aen. iii. 525 f.

471. vwpi<rav (sc. TTOTOV) : a frequentative of veftw. The otvo^oos
dipped (a(f>vcr<r<i)v 598) the wine from the large bowl (Kprjnrjp) into a
pitcher (TT/OOXOOS). The Kovpot proceeded from left to right (ev8eua 597)
through the company, distributing to the guests (Trao-tv, to all~), i.e. filling
their cups for the libation and the banquet. 4irapgd|Acvoi : thus beginning
the religious ceremony, equivalent to d/o^a/xevoi eTrtve/xoi/res. Construe with



472. iravriiie'piot : through the whole day which remained, uninterruptedly
till sunset. For the predicate adjective, cf. 424.

473. KoXov : cognate accusative with det8ovTes, instead of /coAois. Cf. 35,
78. _ irai^ova [Traiava] : here a song of praise to Apollo as their preserver,
T The verse explains /u,oA7nJ, above,






FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 45

474. fU\irovTs KT\. : cf. 'Hymning th' eternal Father' Milton Par.
Lost \\. JHJ. -singing their great Creator' ib. iv. 684. For the quantity
of the ultima of /xt ATTOKTC?, see 32 a, 59 j. <j>pva : cf. KYjp 44. Wpwr
OKOVWV : delighted in hearing. The god hears the song (as he had heard the
prayer), although he is far away, among the Ethiopians.

475. brlijXOcv: came on.

476. KoijiTJo-avTo : observe the force of the aorist, laid themselves to rest.
irapd irpv|ivTJ<ria : along by the stern hawsers (see on 436), i.e. on the sea-
shore. Their boat was not drawn up on land; they remained but one
night. Of course the tides on the coast of Asia Minor are insignificant.

477. po8o8a.KTv\os : a notable epithet. The ancients had observed the
diverging rays of rosy light before sunrise. Cf. 'Hws KpoKOTrtTrXos 1
saffron robed, ' in russet mantle clad.'

478. Kal rdre: T^/XOS is expected after 17/40?, but the relative is not
always followed by the corresponding demonstrative. For KOL in the
apodosis, see 21 b. dvd-yovro : (were putting out), put out upon the high
sea ; cf. Kardyovro, came to land.

479 . IKJJKVOV ovipov KT\. : Aeolus was master of the winds, but each god
could send a favorable breeze.

480. orfyravTo: for the middle, see on 433. UrrCa: what pertains to
the IO-TOS, strictly an adjective which has become a substantive. The
Homeric boat seems to have had but one sail. 481. dji<J>: adverb.

482. 7rop<J>vpov : foaming. \uyaXa. : construe with ia\e. vt]6s : in the
transitional stage from limiting genitive with orttpg to the genitive abso-
lute; see 19 g (3.

484. pd: refers to the preceding verse. fKovro : for the use of the
tense, cf. Travo-avro 467. Kara o-rpardv : njij>osite (off) the camp, i.e. to the
landing plae-. The verse closes like 478.

485. vT)a|Uv: correlative with avrot 8e. lir Trn-etpoio : up on land. No

is disrrrnihle between with the genitive here and cVi with
e dative in 486. Cf. T 293 and Z 473.

486. vxj/ov KT\. : explanatory of or* rrirupouo, i.e. so as to rest high <, n
ie sands, wh.-iv it was before; cf. 308. viro &: adverb, beneath, i.e.

under the ship. {ppara: as B 151, props (sometimes stones), which were
put along the keel on either side in order to hold the boat steady.

488. turnip 6 \i-f\vit : sc. as his mother had directed. 1:M f. ; cf. 428 f.
Achilles withdraws from the action for the present. In the Ninth Book,
an embassy is sent to him, be^^in^ him to ^\\<- up his wrath and take
in the war (I 119 ff.). In the Eleventh Book, he is roused from his



difference

the dativ.
486. I

the sands



46



COMMENTARY TO THE






apathy on seeing the rout of the Achaeans (A 599 ff.). In the Sixteenth
Book, when Hector reaches the Greek ships and throws fire into one
of them, Achilles sends Patroclus and the Myrmidons into the conflict
(H Iff.). He receives the news of the death of Patroclus in the Eight-
eenth Book (] 1 ff.), and is reconciled to Agamemnon in the Nineteenth
Book and arms himself for battle (T 40 ff., 364 ff.). He takes part in
the fourth (and last) great battle of the Iliad, on the twenty-seventh day
of the action of the Iliad. See, further, 6.

489. vies: for the short penult, where i has virtually been lost between
two vowels, see 23 f. iroSas WKVS KT\. : cf. 58.

490. For the 'asyndeton,' cf. 117, 255, 288, 363. ira>\o-KTo : for the
' iterative ' formation, see 54. KvSidveipav : elsewhere epithet of fjid^rjv-

The poet does not say that assemblies were held and battles fought

during these days, but perhaps he implies it.

491. iroXcfiov: for the long final syllable, cf. /xa^o-o/Aevo? 153. Kfjp :
object of <j>6ivvOe<TKe.

492. av0i: right there, in the same place, i.e. in his tent. iro0o-K6 Se:
the participle 7ro0eW might have been used in the same sense. See 21 h.
&vr/jv: battle cry. Always a trisyllable, and thus never to be con-
founded with cumjv, herself.

493. IK TOIO : the hearer easily recalled the words of Thetis (whicL
form the starting point of the //.i^n?) (421 f.) and the definite statement o1'
time (425) and referred CK TOIO to that interview between mother and son.

494. l'<rav : the stem of et/xt is here preserved, without augment.

495. tjpx* : led the way, as the highest in rank. Cf. F 420.

496. TJ "Y 6 resumes the subject; 6f. 97. dvtSvo-cTo KV|j.a: i.e. as she
sprang up she left the wave. Cf. 359.

497. TjepCTi : cf. 557, F 7 ; with emphasis in this position in the verse.
" While it was yet early morning." ovpavov OvXvjnrov rt : see on 44.

498. evpvoira : far sounding, far thundering. For the form, perhaps a
stereotyped nominative, see 34 b.

499. aKporaTTj Kopv(f>fj: from which Zeus looks out upon the world
again, after his long absence. Cf. sum mo sedetaltus Olympo Yerg.
Aen. xi. 726. iroXuStipdSos : epithets appropriate to men are often applied
to natural objects. Cf. Kaprjvw 44, ' crest/ < foothills,' ' shoulder of the
mountain,' arm of the sea,' ' mouth of the river.'

500. irdpoiOc Ka0'tTO : cf. F 162. -yoOvcov : cf. 323.

501 . a-Kaifj, 8|iTpT) : for the adjectives used as substantives, see on 54.
W dvOcpewvos : under the chin, as T 37 l z.






FIKST BOOK OF Till! ILIAD 47

502. Aia Kpovuova : closely connected ; cf. B 37. ~>.

503. Zevirdrep: this addivss. put into the mouths of gods and men,
marks his j.atriaivhal, royal dignity ; cf. 531, 544, hominum sator
atque deorum Ver^. .! < n. xi. ~-~>, divum pater atque hominum
rex ib. i. 65. cl irorc : cf. 394.

505. Ti|iT|<rov : l>y its position is strongly contrasted with rjTifj.r)<rtv
507; i-f. 353. 35>. wKv^opwraros : into this is condensed the thought of
11") ft'. aXXwv : of (ill ; literally, in comparison trith the rest; ablatival
genitive, as with the comparative (where it marks the starting point of
the comparison). This construction with oAAwv is distinctly Homeric.
Cf. B 674, Z 295, hi ceterorum Britannorum fugacissimi Tac.
Aijric. 34, solusque omnium ante se principum [Vespasianus]
in melius mutatus est Tac. Hint. i. 50, 'Adam the goodliest man
of men since born | His sons, the fairest of her daughters, Eve,' Milton
I'm: I.nst iv. :;_':> f. Cf. this construction with /xera TTOLO-LV dn/xorarr; 516.

506. tir\To : cf. 7rAeo 418. drdp /crX. : for the transition from the
relative to the demonstrative construction, cf. 79. 507 = 356.

508. <rv irep : in contrast with Agamemnon. Cf. the force of Wp in
353. '0\vfjLiri KT\. : as Thetis renews her request, she renews impress-
ively her appeal to the might and wisdom of Zeus.

509. tirl Ti0t : put >////. ,/rnnt to. Cf. B 39.

510. 6<|>XXw<riv KT\. : only here construed with a person Thetis as a

ppliant pre sen ts her n -quest in general terms, while Aqhilles had spoken

more definitely, 409-412. Cf. "E/cropi yap ol (Zeus) Ovpos e/3ovAero

cu | HpWLfJuBr), Ivo. vrjval Koptwun ^CT7ri8a? Trvp | e/x/?aAot aKafMLTOv,

8' l^aUaior apyv | Traaav iirLKpy]vf.(f. O 59(1 if. the heart of Zeus wished to

ijlnri/ t/> I I/rfur, snti of' 1* rili 111. t/mt //<' miijht throw fire into the ships, and
innjtli.*h all (/ dri-mlf nl prayer of Tluti*.

511. TJ]V 8i /crA.. : the reason of this silence appears from 518 ff.

513. ws : demonstrative corresponding to the relative <u? above Ipiirc-

4>uvia : literally, ijrmni into, rlintjing closely to; cf. the formula cv T apa ol
(j>v \upi Z 'J53. C'onstrne with ^cro, as TO) Trpocr^vs ^6jj.rjv ws vvKTtpis
fi. 13:1 rlini/iiif/ to (hi*. I h'ld on ///> n Imi . Cf. et geiiua amplexus
ge n i I. n s([ n e volu tans | haerebat Verg. Aen. iii. 607 f. For the

nn of c'/M7re<^iTiu. See $ l'. a, tlfxro : f/x/v //, as she demanded a d-'tinite
BT, 'yBS 1 or >no.' Scvrepov auris : ni/tn'n. n second time. Cf. 7raA.iv
Bi'75.

514. vTifupr^s : adverbial. \jir6<r\to Kal Karavtuo-ov : set expression.
only at the end of the ferae; </'. B 11-J, virtaryv KOL AcaTeVcvtra A 267.






X

acco



^ '
form

T"



48 COMMENTARY TO THE




is the contrary of dvavevw, nod up (Z 311). Thus even now in
Greece, negation is indicated by an upward motion of the head, and
affirmation by a downward nod (with an inclination toward the left).
Cf. quibus adnuis arcem Verg. Aen. i. 250.

515. diroeiire : speak out plainly ; refuse is implied in the context. em :
i.e. escort. 55 c. For the length of the ultima, see 59 h. "Thou
hast nothing to fear." 6<|>p' Iv 18 : cf. 185.

517. oxOfyras : inceptive; see on 33 ; but not so violent as "falling into
a passion " or "bursting into a rage." Cf. Sa/cptxras 349.

518. Xofyia ep-ya : sc. carat, as 573. There will be dreadful trouble __
5m : ivhen, not ei, if, since Zeus sees the inevitable consequences and
already has the situation before his mind's eye.

519. "Hptj : emphatic, since Hera desires the most speedy destruction
of Troy (A 31 if.).

520. Kal avTws : even as it is, without special occasion. See 42 i.
aUv : exaggerated ; cf. 541, 561.

521 . KcU T fie 4>T]<ri i and says, too, that I. KCU marks the agreement oi
this specification with the preceding general remark ; cf. F 235.

522 . vo"f\<rv\ : sc. that Thetis had been with Zeus. For the meaning, see 1 7.

523. "Hprj : emphatic, as 519 ; here so placed in contrast with e//,ot'.
J(j.ol p.eX.TJ<rTcu : shall be my care. For the future with KC, cf. 139 ; see 18 &

6<|>pa: cf. 82.

524. el 8' a-ye : as in 302 - Karaveva-ofiai : shall nod with my head,
Only here in the middle; see on 433.

525. TOVTO KT\. : this answers v^/uepTcs KT\. 514.

526. TK|iwp : surety, pledge. Ip6v : neuter adjective as substantive (see
on 54); literally, anything from me, i.e. a promise or purpose. This is
explained by on KT\. iraXivd-ypcrov : revocable, from dypo [ai/oea>], take.

527. Karavevo-ft) : aorist subjunctive. Cf. 514.

528. q : he spoke; see on 219. rl vevo-e : nodded thereto, annuit.
64>px)cri : with his brows. Zeus was represented in works of sculpture with
heavy, projecting brows. For the dative, cf. K<f>a\.fj 524.

529. dp.pp6<ruu xo-irai : cf. ambrosiaeque comae Verg. Aen. i. 403.

eireppwo-avro : rolled down at the nod, fell down on both sides of his head.
These locks are conceived as long and flowing. See on B 11.

530. Kpciros : distinguished from Kparos 509 by the accent and the
length of the first syllable. Cf. adnuit et to turn nutu tremefe-
cit Olympum Verg. Aen. ix. 106, x. 115 Phidias embodied in his
colossal chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia the expression of



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 49

exalted peace and power which lies in 528-530 Zeus' dread of Hera's
reproaches is in marked contrast to this majestic demeanor.

531. 8iT(jLa-yv [Ster/xayrycrav] : for the form, cf. rjyepOtv 57, dveorav 533.

532. aXa aXro : for the hiatus, see on 333. oXro: second aorist with-
out variable vowel, from oAAo/Aou, 53. For a, see 23 a.

533. irpos Sw^a: sc. 2/fy, a general word of motion, implied in aA.ro.

Cf. T 327; see 16 e The home of Zeus on the summit of Olympus

was not far from the peak on which he had been visited by Thetis

dWorav: dveo-Trprav.

534. l| cSluv: from their seats. Each god had his separate dwelling on
Olympus (see 607 f .) and his special seat in the hall in which they gath-
ered. I8os is strictly not < seat ' (eop?/), but place where the seat stands.
<r<j>oi> KT\. : proleptic, with avcorav, they rose and went to meet their father.
Motion is implied in the connection, as below* This mark of respect is
noted both negatively and affirmatively.

535. AvrCoi : predicate nominative after lo-rav, cf. B 185.

536. ciriepovov: makes ZvOa more definite. Cf. v^ov eVt if/ajjuiOois 486,
in apposition with CTT' rjirupoio. ov8 KT\. : i.e. nor did she fail to per-
ceive. |iv: 'proleptic' object; cf. B 409. See H. 878. The poet has
to inform his hearers whether the gods were acquainted with the /SovArJ of
Zeus, and what their feelings were concerning it.

537. ISouo-a: on seeing him, when she saw him. See on iwv 138.

538. aXfoio ^povros : see on 358.

539. avrrtKo.: nfmit/littray. Without 8e, as 386 KcpropCouri : see on 54.

540. rfe 8t] av 6ewv : what one of the gods now, this time. This is uttered
in a vexed tone ; cf. 202.

541. aU(: contrasted with ovSe TL TTCO, cf. 106 f. &vra : naturally
would agree with rot preceding, but is attracted to the usual case of the
subject of the infinitive, the poet having the infinitive construction already
in mind.

542. KpvirrdSia . . . 8iica({|icv : consider and decide upon secret plans. Cf.
the words of Ilcra, KCII/O? (Z.'iis) o ra a <fy>ovW en 0v/xu> | Tpoxrt re /cat
Aavaouri 8t/ca^T(o, a>? 7rtK9 430 f. let him, coiixHli rincj these hi* trn
ajf'uirs in hi* mind, deride f>ct/reen the Trojans and the Danal, as is seemly.

544. irar^p KT\. : cf. 503.

545. \ir\br\: rf. 131. fivOovs : i.e. thoughts, plans, the con tent of speech.

546. x a ^ ir0 ^ KT\. : tc. aSe'vai. Tlic personal construction is used as in
589, prjirepoi 7roA.e/Ai'i> rprav 'A^oiot 2 258 the Achaeans were easier to Jighi
with. II. 944.



50 COMMENTARY TO THE

547. ov: sc. pvOov. limits : sc. y. dKoWjwv : with indefinite subject,
TLVOL. cimTa: then, since the relative protasis is hypothetical.

550. Zeus, in his excitement, passes at once to apply his principle to
the present situation, instead of giving to the apodosis a general form cor-
responding to the protasis. ravra: refers to Hera's question, 540

Ka<rT<x: i.e. the details, exaggerated in the speaker's anger.

552. iroiov: predicate. Equivalent to TTOIO? 6 fjivOos ecrrtv ov cenres.
See H. 618, 1012 a. This is a mere exclamation, expecting no answer.



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