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Xowv: /.>. Agamemnon, as 213. 86. o-KTvrrrovxoi : see on A 1">.

87. T|VT : introduces a detailed comparison, as -I."). F 3. See 14.

ktOvca : sir-arm*. The following hiatus is probably > weak ' ; 27^7. cl<ri :
retains its force as a present, especially in comparisons; cf. T 61. See
48 g. pcXuro-dutfv : i.e. wild l>ees which live in hollow trees and in holes
in the rock. For the comparison of bees, cf. ac veluti in pratis ubi






60 COMMENTARY TO THE






apes aestate serena | floribus insidunt variis, et Candida cir-
cum | lilia funduntur; strepit omnis murmure campus Verg.
Aen. vi. 707 if., ' as bees | In spring-time when the sun with Taurus
rides, | Pour forth their populous youth about the hive | In clusters ; they
among fresh de\vs and flowers | Fly to and fro ... So thick the airy crowd
swarm'd,' Milton Par. Lost i. 768 ff.

88. aUl vov : ever anew. Cf. illae (bees) continue saltus sil-
vasque peragrant Verg. Georg. iv. 53.

89. (BorpuSov : in clusters, like bunches of grapes. Cf. lentis uvam
demittere ramis Verg. Georg. iv. 558. err' avOeo-tv: to the flowers.

90. ev9a a\is : for the hiatus, see 27 N.B., 32 a.

91. s : the point of comparison lies in the coming forth and approach
in separate crowds (swarms). fiorpvSov 89 and tAaSov 93 have the same
position in the verse.

92. irpoirdpoiOc : before, i.e. along. (BaOeiTjs : deep bayed, extended.

93. otro-a: rumor, whose source is unknown, and which is therefore
ascribed to the gods (Atos ayyeAos). SeS^civ: had blazed forth as a fire.

94. orpvvovo-' U'vcu : they conjectured that Agamemnon would propose
some important measure. d-ye'povro : they came together. The aorist after
the descriptive imperfects marks the conclusion of the movement. Cf. 99,
A 592, T 78. 95. viro : adverb, beneath.

96. Xaoiv I^OVTWV : genitive absolute. See 19 g (3.

97. ep^rvov : imperfect of < attempted action.' " They were trying to
bring them to order." Cf. 75. tt iron KT\. : a wish, on the part of the her-
alds. " If ever they would stop their clamor." dvrns : ablatival genitive
with cr^otaro, might cease from; cf. 275, A 210, F 84.

99. p^rv0v : for the aorist, see on 94 ; for the plural with the collec-
tive Aaos, cf. 278. K<x0' e'Spas : along the roivs of seats, on the seats, as 211.
For the use of Kara, cf. 47, T 326.

100. dvd : adverbial with ea-r-rj. Cf. dvcon; 76.

101. TO jie'v : this, as A 234. Kd|xe rtv\ti>v : wrought with toil. The prin-
cipal idea is in the participle, as A 168 and frequently.

102 ff. 8K : for the repetition, cf. e* A 436.

104. 'Epneias KT\. : Hermes, the messenger of the gods, bore the
(TiaJTrrpov from Zeus to Pelops, as a symbol of empire. The kingdom
descended with the scepter. trX^itrtrta : cf. iTnrora, t7r7ro8a/xo?. Pelops
gained his kingdom by a chariot race.

105. 6 avT : for the hiatus, cf. A 333. IlcXotJ/ : in apposition with 6.
See 42 I.



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 61

106. \iirv : cf. moriens dat habere nepoti Verg. Aen. ix. 362.

107. 0W<rra : vc'o-n^. For the form, see 34 b. Thyestes \vas brother
of Atreus. Homer evidently does not know the (later) story of the mutual
hatred of the brothers that was the subject of tragedies by Sophocles and
Euripides. The feud became proverbial as a chapter of unrivaled hor-
rors. Xeiire 4>op7]vai : for the infinitive, cf. avaxr<ra.v\ below.

108. iro\Xfj<ri, iravrt : according to the poet's view of the situation at
the time of the Trojan War (cf. A 78 f.) the Pelopidae had the hegemony
in Peloponnesus. Agamemnon ruled over Achaea, Corinth, Sicyon, and
part of Argolis ; see 569 ff. dvdo-o-eiv : to rule over them. For the infini-
tive, rf. fjui^crOai A 8, ayew A 338.

109. TU>: local; cf. upouriv A 45. ^icrdjuvos : not an attributive par-
ticiple with o ye, but a predicate participle of manner. Cf. KotpaveW 207.

110. Cf. 79. Oepdirovrts "Aprjos : see on A 176. Cf. oos "Aprps 540.
For this feigned exhortation, cf. the speeches of Clearchus and his

Xen. An. i. 3. 9 f. Agamemnon does not desire his argu-
to be convincing. He reminds his men covertly of the promise of
Zeus that they should capture Troy, and that nine years of the ten are
already past ; he calls that man Svo-jcAety? who returns to Argos with his
end unattained, especially since they had remained so long before Ilios ;
he exaggerates the disparity of numbers of Achaeans and Trojans.

111. jJL-ya IWStjo-e : fast entangled. Agamemnon in testing the temper
of his army complains of his infatuation only as a pretense; in 114 he
utters unconsciously the unpleasant truth, while in the Ninth Book he
uses the same words in bitter earnest.

112. <TXT\IOS : terrible, cruel god. See on 38. \nrrxTo KT\. : cf.

A :.l 1.

113. Ktrp<ravTa : for the accusative, cf. A 541. The participle here
contains the leading thought ; they were to sack Troy before their return.
Cf. 101. dirov&o-Ocu : always stands at the close of the verse, with length-
ened initial syllable ( 59 e).

114. vvv KT\. : "but now I see that he planned," etc. dirdrr]v : the
poet's hearer thought especially of the deceitful Dream, but this was not
in Agamemnon's mind here. KCU : introduces a specification of the
general statement, as 74. KcXcvci : the speaker infers this direction from
their lack of success.

115. 8vo-K\a : emphatic position. The hiatus may be explained as
' weak ' ( i>7 '/), d losing half its quantity. iroXvv KT\. : sc. in battle and
in the plague.



62 COMMENTARY TO THE






II



116. [icXXci : is about to be, doubtless is ; cf. A 564.

117. Srj : rjor), as 134 f., A 40. Ko/reXwrc icapTjva : overthrew the heads, i.e.
the citadels. Cf. Kaprjvwv A 44.

118. TI KCU : hereafter also; cf. A 96. TOV KT\. : cf. rerum cui
prima potestas Verg. Aen. x. 100.

119. yctp : refers to Sw/cAea 115. roSe -ye : " if anything is a disgrace,
this is." Kal KT\. : even for future generations to learn.

120. roiovSe Too-6v8 : (an army} so brave and so many as we here; cf. 799,
qualis quantusque Verg. Aen. iii. 641.

121. airprjKTov : predicate; cf. 452. iroXenov: cognate accusative.

122. iravpOTpowri : cf. Tpaies 8' avO' erep<o0ev dva TrroAtv w7rAiovro
Tra.vporf.poL, fjiffjjacrav Of KO! a>s vcr/xij/t /xa^a^ai | ^octot avayKaLrj, Trpo re

/cat Trpo ywaiKwj/ 55 if. but the Trojans armed themselves throughout the city ;
fewer in number, but even thus they were eager to fight, of stern necessity, for
their children and their ivives. T&OS KT\. : no end has yet appeared. A fuller
expression for a.7rpr)KTov, instead of " without attaining our end," " without
gaining decisive victory."

123. d ircp -yap KT\. : in case we should wish. A concessive clause with
potential optative and KC, of what is conditionally conceivable. The
thought is completed in 127, " if we should take only one Trojan as cup-
bearer for a squad of Achaeans." -yap : refers to Travporepoto-t.

124. opKia Ta|xo'vTs : the victim's throat was cut (T 292), hence
op/oa Ta.fjLf.lv was to make a solemn treaty, like foedus ice re, ferire
foedus. Cf. T73, 94, 105, A 155. aH> : dual with reference to the
two nations.

125. Tpwcs fwv : sc - K ' 0eAoiev. X'cur0at : collect themselves. <J>TTIOI
KT\. : equivalent to 01 Woven Kara TrroAti/ 130. 8<r<roi : the relative pro-
noun follows the emphatic word, as A 32.

126. SiaKO(r}jLT]9ei|xev : should be divided and arranged; cf. disponere.
For the transition to the finite construction, see on A 401. For Kocr/xew of
marshaling troops, cf. A 16.

127. avSpa : cf. 198. C'KCUTTOI : i.e. each squad of ten; in apposition
with 'A^aioi'. The plural is used because of the number in each company ;

cf. r i.

129. roWov irXc'as : according to 562 f., there were 50,000 Trojans
and allies. For the numbers of the Achaeans, see on 494 if.

130. lirtKovpoi : predicate, as allies. Observe the contrast with Tpww.

131. iroXXewv IK iroXuov : construe with avSpes. For the similarity of
sound of the two words, see 13 a. frcuriv : are therein ; cf. 803.



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 63



132. jJ^V 1 T^d^owri : drive me far <t"-<tt/. i.< . hinder my attaining my end.
Cf. A 59. For the adverbial use of /xeya, see on A 78. OVK cluo-i : do not
alloir, i.e. prevent. 0\ovra : concessive, /// spile <>/'///// desire.

134. STJ f&pdaa-i. : alnady have passed. Aios eviavroi : see on Aios 140.

135. Sovpa : timbers. For the form, see 23 d. o-irdpra : ropes, cables,
of reeds or rushes. The ship's ropes in general were of oxhide ; a ship's
cable at the home of Odysseus was made of papyrus. Xe'Xvvrai : plural
verb with neuter subject, as 30, although Sovpa o-wnyTre has preceded.

136. al 8c : but those others, explained by aXo^ot KT\. rt : correlative
with KO.L, in free position, since ^ucre/xu aAo^ot are closely connected in
thought with vrjiruj. rotm.

137. ciarou [ijirai] iroTi8\fuvai : see on A 134. iroTiS^yjwvcu : feminine
to agree with oAo^ot, who were more prominent before their minds than

TtKVOL.

138. avrws : Attic axraurcDs, i.e. simply, wholly (with aKpaavrov). See
42 e.

139. etirw : for the subjunctive, cf. A 137. 140. <j>VYWfwv : cf. 74.

141. ov TI : belongs to the idea of expectation implied in the future.
" We can no longer hope," " to capture Troy is no longer a possibility."

142. TOUTI : dative of interest. This undesired impulse was called
forth by the longing for home awakened by 134 if.

143. irewri jurd ir\T)0vv : in apposition with rourt, in contrast with the
who had been present at the council. The dative with p*rd

would be regular. ir\T]6vv : " the rank and file " ; cf. 278, 488.

144. KiW|6ti : cf. 05. <J>yj : as, an obsolescent particle, distinguished by
its accent from <j>rj [tyrf]. Kvjiara paxpd : long-stretching billows; cf.
longi fluctus Verg. fi'eorg. iii. 200.

145. iro'vrov 'iKapioio : in apposition with OaXdo-a-rjs, as the part with the
whole; cf. <rKO7reAu> 3!iO ; see 12 /. The rrovros is a particular tract of

I the flaAaomi (see on A 350). The Icarian high sea received its name from
learia, a small island off Samos ; it \\as notorious for its frequent storms.
rd \itv : cf. 101, A 234. Evpo's T NO'TOS T : thought of as united, as is
shown by cVat^as. "A southeast wind." A single wind never raises a
storm in Homer. Cf. o>s 8' avc/xot Svo TTOVTOV optvtrov l\9vofvra. \ Bopp^?
Kac Ze'<vpos, rd> TC prjKrjOtv drjrov I 1 f. as t/ro wi/ids muse the Jishy sea,
Boreas and Zf/>h>/rus, which blow f ram Thrace.

1146. wpop [a/3(re] : gnomic aorist, frequent in comparisons. 14 f.
iratas : rushing upon it. Cf. (venti) incubuere mari ... una
Curusque Notusque ruunt Verg. A> n. i. 84. Aio's: he is vc<







64 COMMENTARY TO THE

A 511. Zeus sends rain, thunder and lightning, wind and storm, snow,
hail, meteors, and the rainbow. Cf. AIDS ewavroi 134.

147. Z<j>vpos : this was a cold and stormy wind to the people of Aeolis
and Ionia, for it came over the mountains of Thrace. It is called SvcraTjs,
fierce-blowing, and KcXaSetvos, loud roaring. It is never a gentle < zephyr ' in
Homer, unless perhaps in the fairyland Phaeacia and in Elysium pa0v :
literally, deep, i.e. high. cX0cov : see on liov A 138.

148. Xd(3pos iraiyta>v : violently dashing upon it. Xdfipos is predicate;
see 56 a. ciri re : and thereupon, i.e. as Zephyrus descends. rjiivei : sc.
\yiov, an independent addition to the picture, without direct relation to
the comparison ; cf. 210 ; see 14 a. The construction of the dependent
sentence is abandoned. Cf. < With ported spears, as thick as when a
field | Of Ceres ripe for harvest waving bends | Her bearded grove of
ears, which way the wind | Sways them,' Milton Par. Lost iv. 980 if.

149. irdo-' d-yopTj KivrjOt] : a return to 144. Both comparisons are meant
to depict the whole scene. The first (144-146) describes the sudden con-
fusion with which the assembly dispersed; the second (147-149), the
uninterrupted rush in one direction, toward the ships. dXaXrjTw : dative
of manner, in which sense a participle is often used.

150. vijas cV : i.e. rt vfjas. 55 c /?. r<rvov-ro, Vo-Taro, K*Xcvov KT\. :
descriptive imperfects, much like the historical present (which is not
Homeric) iro8<Sv 8' virmpOe : from under their feet.

151. 'io-Tar' oipo|x^vrj : literally, was placing itself as it arose.

152. e\Kep.v KT\. : cf. Ipva-crofjicv KT\. A 141.

153. ovpous : the trenches, the later oA/coi, by which the ships were
drawn from the sea upon the land, and from the land into the sea ; cf.
A 308. |K<x0aipov : some of the trenches had not been used for a long
time and had become filled with sand.

154. Up-c'vwv : subjective genitive with dvTTy, not genitive absolute. 19</.
viro 8' rjpeov : they took out from under. This is the opposite of A 486.

155 . The leaders were so dazed by the sudden and disorderly breaking
up of the assembly and by the rush to the boats of the shouting mass of
men, that they were unable to carry out the plan of Agamemnon. The
intervention of a friendly god became necessary in order to cut the knot
of difficulty. 156 f. Cf. A 195.

158. OVTW 8r) KT\. : thus as it seems, etc. An expression of vexation or
surprise, in interrogative form. Cf. A 202.

159. 'Ap-ycioi : emphatic. 4ir evpta vwra KT\. : over the broad back of
the sea. The water at rest seems to be the top of an arch.



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 65

160. Ko8 Si KT\. : virtually a conclusion to the condition implied in
158 f. "If they should thus flee, then they would," etc. vxXVjv : as a
triumph, a boast ; predicate with 'EAenji/. For the construction, cf. T 50.

161. 'Ap-ythiv : standing epithet of Helen; cf. ornatus Argivae
Helen ae Verg. Aen. i. 650. The word here has considerable emphasis,
placed at the head of the verse like 'Apyetbt, above.

162. Tpotfl (sc. 777) : the Troad, as 237, T 74. diro' : cf. A 562.

164. <rots <ryavois KT\. : with thy winning words. For the short form of
the dative, see 35 d For the asyndeton,' cf. 10. tp^rvc : cf. 75.

165. ea : sc. 'A^oicus, from the preceding verses.

166. oi8* faCOiprc : cf. A 220.

167. Cf. A 44. dt|a<ra : starting up, with a rush." 168 = 17.

169. 'OSvo-ija : Odysseus was the special favorite of Athena whose care
alone secured his return to his home after his long wanderings.

170. rTWTa [co-nora] : Odysseus was not carried along by the rout,
and the agora was nearest his own ships (see on A 54). vtjo's : i.e. his
own ship. n\cuvT]s : cf. A 300. The ships of Odysseus are called
(uX.T07rdpr)Oi (vermilion-cheeked) in 637.

171. Odysseus with this feeling was the right man for Athena's work.
jttv : limit of motion ' with iKavev, cf. A 254. KpaS(r)v : accusative of

the part, in apposition with fuv, cf. A 362. 172. irpo<re'<J>T] : .sc. piv.

173. This verse is found seven times in the Iliad, fifteen times in the
Odyssey. It is the only conventional verse in which no caesura occurs in
the third foot ( 58 c). Sioycves : Arceisias, father of Laertes and grand-
father of Odysseus, was son of Zeus, according to a later myth. But this
epithet is applied in a general way to princes. See on A 176.

1174-181. Cf. 158-165.
175. *v W|<ro-t ir<ro'vTs : marking the disorderly flight. This is a
standing combination of expressions for motion and rest. See on A 245.
179 . JITJ& T> ^p*ki : and draw not back, do not rest.
181 . vfjas : for the length of the last syllable, see 59 /.
182. &ra : object of wer)K, while 0cas is a limiting genitive. This
indicates that Odysseus did not see Athena.

183. pfj Si e&iv : he set out to run ; cf. A 34. diri KT\. : sc. in his haste,
since it hindered him in running.

184. EvpvpdTijs : described (T 244-248) as slightly older than Odysseus
himself, with round shoulders, dark complexion, and curly hair. The
herald here, as usual, serves as the prince's personal attendant.

185. dvrfos : for the construction, cf. A 535.






66 COMMENTARY TO THE



X7-.



186 f . Cf. 45 f . 8e'aTo ol : literally, look for him, received from him,
as a sign that he acted in the name of Agamemnon. irarpwiov : see
103 ff.

188. ov nva ju'v : correlative with oj> 8* av 198. fBcuriXfja KT\. : prince
or noble who had not been present at the council of the ' Gerontes.'
Ki\iT] : iterative optative, with ov TWO., cf. 215.

189. TOV 8 KT\. : apodosis to the hypothetical ov riva. For Se in apod-
osis, cf. 322 ; see 21 a. d^avots : cf. 164, 180.

190. Saipo'vic : the connection decides whether this is used in a respect-
ful, a pitying, or a reproving tone ; cf. 200. KO.KOV us : for the length of
the ultima of KO.KOV, cf. opviOds ws 764, T 2, 60, 230. See 14 e, 59 j.
When this ws follows the word to which it belongs, it is accented. For
the comparative o>s, cf. 209, 289, 326. KCUCOV : coward. KO.KO? and ayaOos
have no moral quality in Homer. They are useless and useful, according
to the circumstances of the case ; here, KO.KOV is useless in war.

191. oXXous Xaovs : Axxovs is virtually in apposition with aAAovs. See
12/. The others, namely the soldiers.

192. For the < sigmatism,' cf. A 179 f. <rd<j>a: Attic cra<a>s, which is
not found in Homer. See 56 b, c. v6os : mind, purpose.

193. irciparai: cf. 73. fo|/T<u : ' cf. A 454.

194. 4v povXfl : construe with otov c.tnrcv. ov irdvres dKovorafwv : the
speaker politely includes himself with the persons addressed, as in 342.
The first person is used in a different tone in 203.

195. jj^l TI: lest perchance. Cf. A 28. xo\ft>ord>vos : cf. A 387, T 413.
KCUCOV vlas: for the two accusatives after pfy, cf. T 351, 354.

196. 0v|ios 8e |x-yas : terrible is the anger. For the length of the oe, see
59 h.

197. TI|IT] KT\. : "he is king del gratia; the rest must obey." Cf. 205;
see on A 176.

198. STJJJLOV avSpa : the common people are contrasted with the nobles of
188. The ultima of Svy/xov remains long ; see 59 k.

199. o-ierjirTpw : Odysseus uses the staff in a similar way at 265 f.

200. aKov : give ear. Present as a general injunction, " be obedient."

201. o-c'o: not enclitic, since there is a contrast in the comparison.
4>pTpoi: cf. A 281. <rv Sc: closely connected with the relative clause,
since o~v repeats crco. The English idiom prefers the subordinate construc-
tion, " while thou art." com is to be supplied.

202. ivapCOfiios : counted, not a mere cipher. Cf. in numero nullo
Cic. de Or. iii. 56. 213. povX-g : as A 258; not in its technical meaning



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 67

of council. Here again appears the frequent contrast of strength of body
and of mind ; cf. A 258.

203. ov fiv irws KT\. : a drastic form of expression, suited to the com-
mon soldier. Agamemnon commands here, the rest of us must obey."

204. For the 'asyndeton.' cf. A 117. OVK <rya6o'v : as a predicate sub-
stantive (not a yood thing). Cf. triste lupus stabulis Verg. Eel. iii. 80.
ets KT\. : 'asyndeton ' of contrast. See 15 c.

205. 8a)K : (/ranted; sc. fia<n\tvtLv, implied in j&uriAevs (unless 206 is
read).

206. <r<J>uri : for them. 'A^atoi from 203 is before the mind.

208. Cf. *>, 91.

209. foil' ws: for the hiatus justified by the pause, cf. 211 ; see 27 &;
for the hiatus allowed after the first foot, see on A 333. Cf. 0oAao-<ra
^TJco-cra A 157. The second 'hemistich ' as A 31.

210. al-yioXu) ppt'fitTai : roars on the shore. a-papa-yei KT\. : ' chiastic '
with the previous clause ( 16 a); ' paratactically ' (21 a) expressing
result. " So that the high sea resounds from the noise of the breakers."

211. a;ovro. tp^rv0v : for the hiatus, cf. 216, 315. K<x0' 8pa S : as 99.

212. 0po-m]s : from Qipcros, the Aeolic form of $apo-os, dariny, rashness.
Observe that the poet does not say from what country of Greece Thersites
came, and thus offends no one by the episode. Thersites makes his cause
odious by his advocaqy of it. The vulgar demagogue was intended by the
poet to awaken antipathy, and thus is represented to be just as disagree-
able and deformed in body as in character. The Greeks always associated
a beautiful soul with a beautiful person. ' In Thersites we have realism.
He was the incarnate spirit of criticism in the army before Troy.'
fjioOvos : made emphatic by its position before the caesura. For the form,
see 23 d. d|iTpoirijs : predicate. Cf. 246; contrast F 215.
equivalent to KO\UOV vjAauvc, cf. A 57."..

213. Ss pa KT\. : a more explicit statement of d/xcr/307nj?.
flSt] : literally. ///<.'// tfixordi //// t/iint/s, had <i tlisun/cr/y mind.

1214. ^pi^t'fievai : the result of aKoa-fja. KT\. ; cf. fjui^crOai A 8.
215. aXX' on KT\. : contrasted with Kara KOO-^JLOV, while epte/xvui sup-
plies the idea of mii/int/. lie was an insolent clown. cto-airo : equiva-
lent to 8oe. For the optative in a conditional relative sentence, cf.
188, 198, A 610. See II. 914 B; G. 1431.

216. a&rxrTos : predicate. "lie was the ugliest man who came,"efc. ;
';/'. U73. A 'JCi''). - - vnro "IXiov : nji under I lias, i.e. und( r the trails of I lias.
Jl!', 1!I2, 675,






68 COMMENTARY TO THE

217. TW & ol fiw : " those two shoulders of his."

218. Kvprw, <rvvoxKOT : in contrast with a broad-shouldered, heroic
form. <ruvoxwKOT6 cuiTcxp : the hiatus is justified by the bucolic diaeresis ;
27 b, 58 h. vjrep0v : as contrasted with <J>O\KO<; KT\.

219. \|/e8vt] KT\. : i.e. his misshapen, sugar-loaf head was not concealed
by the thick locks of the Kapr) KO//O<JOVT? 'A^atoi, but was covered only by
sparse hair.

220. x0rTos : cf. A 176. 'AxiXfy 'OSvo-Tji : Achilles and Odysseus
represented the two cardinal virtues of the heroes, bravery and prudence,
in which qualities Thersites was lacking. pdXicrra : potissimum. Con-
strue with x#rros, cf. 57.

221. viKfeo-K : was wont to upbraid, contrasted with TOT avrc. 'A-yajic-
Hvovt : against Agamemnon; dative of interest.

222. 6|x KK\Tvy<os : with discordant cry. Xe-y' oveiSea : rehearsed (enu-
merated) reproaches, \iytw in Homer is never strictly equivalent to eiTreiV.
Thersites accused the king of covetousness, sensuality, cowardice, injus-
tice. T$ : i.e. Agamemnon, at whom the Achaeans were then angry, so
that Thersites felt sure of the applause of his audience.

223. KOT*OVTO: imperfect to express a continued state of feeling, while
vepecrcrrjOev refers to the occasion of their anger. Cf. A 331.

225-242. Speech of Thersites. This assumes a knowledge of Aga-
memnon's real intention to continue the war. Such knowledge might
have been gained from the words of Odysseus.

225. 'ATpeCSti : Thersites gives him no title of honor, but this was not
necessary; see 284, A 17. re'o [TO/OS, rov] : for ivhat. For the genitive,
see on A 65. 8rj avre : cf. A 340. Instead of inquiring the purpose of
Agamemnon, Thersites attributes to the king the most selfish motives
(implying that he continues the war only for his own private advantage),
and alludes maliciously to the quarrel with Achilles. "What dost thou
lack? Hast thou not enough?" These are l rhetorical questions.'

227. Ivl K\urfrj|s : in your quarters. c|a(pcroi : explained by the follow-
ing relative clause. Cf. ovAo/xeViyi/ A 2, KaKrjv A 10.

228. 88o|iv : are wont to give, with a conditional relative sentence; cf.
A 554. For the thought, see on A 124. Thersites reckons himself
among the brave warriors. -rrroXieOpov : as A 164.

229. rj CTI KT\. : surely, etc. Thersites answers ironically the question
which he himself had put. Cf. A 203. en ical xpvo-ov : gold also as well
as copper and slaves. Gold was rare in Greece before the Persian wars,
but was abundant in Asia Minor. Schliemann, however, has found






SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 69

treasures of gold ornaments not only at Hissarlik (which seems to be the
site of the ancient Ilios) but also at Mycenae. KC ofcrei : see 18 b.

230. airoiva : <is rnn^tin. in apposition with ov.

231. ov KT\. : whom I shall take captive and lead, etc.; boasting, as 238.

232. Awaited WTJV : i.e. such as Chryseis or Briseis. The accusative
seems to be caused by attraction to the construction of the preceding rela-
tive clause ; or Trofleeis may be in the speaker's mind, a thought carried
on from eTriSevcai.

233. r\v T KaTwrxeai : relative clause with the subjunctive in final sense ;
cf. T 287. avrros dirovoo-4>i : for thyself alone.

234. dpxov tovra KT\. : that one who is a leader, etc., i.e. that thou ivho art
their leader. KO.KWV empao-Kc'iicv : briny into misfortune. Thersites here
refers to the pestilence and the alienation of Achilles.

235. imrovcs : "my good fellows." This word is generally used by
an elder or superior, either in an affectionate tone, or (seldom) in a
tone of contemptuous superiority, as here. KOX IXe'-yxea : in concrete



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