Homer.

The first six books of Homer's Iliad online

. (page 23 of 48)
Online LibraryHomerThe first six books of Homer's Iliad → online text (page 23 of 48)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


personal sense, coward caitiffs. 'AxcuCScs KT\. : cf. o vere Phrygiae,
neque enim Phryges Verg. Aen. ix. 617. For the 'patronymic,' see
39^.

236. ol'KaSe irp : homeward, at all events. <rvv vrjvo-C : as A 179. T6v8< :
cf. 08' avrjp A 287. topcv: i.e. leave behind.

237. avrov : right here, explained as usual by the following words. It
often stands, as here, at the beginning of a verse ; cf. 332. -y'pa ireo-o-e'^v :
i.e. learn and suffer the consequences of his greed.

238. r\ teal T)(jiis KT\. : whether we, too(ihe rank and file of the Achaeans),
are of use to him or not. As if Agamemnon in his pride trusted to his own
might and to that of the other leaders, despising the rest, without whose

help he can do nothing. For the 'crasis' (X^/ACIS), see 26 rje Kal

OVK(: rj\ :>((), :>!'.). Tin; speaker presents the alternatives as open, but
still implies a choice between them.

239. os : exclamatory, he who. Kal vvv : see on A 109. This intro-
duces an example of Agamemnon's failure to recogni/e others' services.
lo: for the length of the last syllable before /A, see 59 h.

240 = A 356, 507. Thersites, who was wont to speak injuriously of
Achilles (221), now plays the part of his advocate (and uses his very
words) in order to attack . \-amcmnon in a sensitive spot; but he intro-
duces a Him; at Arliilles into the next verse.

241. jidX' OVK x^s : *'' ffrTL, i/<> iinijt-r at all. \uQ-f\\Luv : predicate with
Achilles as subject. Cf. fjxO^tv xoAov A 283. 242 = A 232.




70 COMMENTARY TO THE

244. cpo-tTTjs : strongly contrasted with 'OSwrorcvs by its position.
TW: for the dative of rest with Traptb-raro, cf. 175.

245. tiiro'Spa: as A 148. \a\tTru fiv0o> : the opposite of dyavois 164.

246. dKpiTo'p.v06 : thou endless babbler; cf. 212, 796. For the opposite,
cf. r 214. Xi-yvs irep 4v : cf. A 248. Sarcastic recognition of his ability.
Plutarch calls attention to the fact that Odysseus does not refer to Thersites'
physical ugliness.

247. t<rx.o : as A 214. p-TjS' 0eXc : cf. A 277.

248. ov : construe with <fnjfu.

249. oo-o-oi: i.e. of all who. The relative clause represents a genitive.

250. TW OVK av KT\. : therefore (since thou art the basest of all) shall
(shouldsfy thou not. See on A 301. The speaker returns to the admo-
nition of 247. pcuriXfjas: for the plural, cf. T 49. dvd <rTo'|Aa: i.e. on
your lips.

251. KaC: as in 74. <r<j>v : for the dative, cf. 'Aya/xe/xvon 221.
VO'OTTOV <f>vXd<r<rois : guard the return, which now threatened (as it were) to
escape them.

252. ov8 T irw KT\. : but not at all clearly yet. SITUS KT\. : how these
matters here (of which they are speaking) shall end. This verse is explained
by the following. ep-ya: cf. A 518.

253. vo<rrf|<ro|jLv : we shall return. A brief expression for " shall enter
upon our return, with good or evil fortune." 254. TU> : as 250.

255. TJO-CU : rjaOai with a participle often has no thought of contrast of
position (as sitting to standing), but denotes a continuance in the action
of the participle ; cf. A 134. The verb is the more noteworthy here since
Thersites is not sitting (cf. 268).

256. Tiptoes : observe the contrast with av. Kcprofxecdv : cf. A 539.

257. Cf. A 204, 212. Formula to introduce a sharp threat.

258. en : again. s vv ip a>8 : as / did just now. Construe irep
with w?.

259. |XTjKTi KT\. : apodosis in the form of an imprecation. " May
destruction come upon me and my house." - 'O8x)<rf)i : more impressive
than the personal pronoun e/xot'. Cf. A 240.

260. K6icXT]|xvos dr\v: being is included in being called; cf. A 293. Thus
this prayer includes the ruin of Telemachus.

261. l (jtti KT\. : this sentence contains two clauses, connected by /xeV,
8e, preceded by at Aa/?<ov, which is common to both clauses and which
gives to avTov 263 its personal reference. Xaf&v: see on iwv A 138.
dird 8v<ra> : strip off, followed by two accusatives.






SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 71

262. rd T : combines the objects. Whatsoever covers thy n<tk<'<lness.
This would be the most bitter disgrace.

263. avro'v : thyself; the man in contrast with his clothing ; cf. A 47.

264. -ireirXiryws KT\. : Jloaijiny thcc. away from the place of assembly.
7T7rA.rpyok like /ctKXr/yw? 22:2, rerptytoras 314, does not imply past time.
See II. 849. OCIKCO-O-I : a standing epithet of blows.

265. o-KT|irTpu) . . . irXijgcv: i.e. he gave him a heavy blow over the kirk
from one shoulder to the other, as a foretaste of the harder beating which
would follow if he continued his insolence.

266. Kiro- : escaped him, against his will.

268. <rKT|irTpov inro : repeats VTTO of ifraoycirnf. fl^cro : evidently Ther-
sites was not seated at 255 ; cf. 211 f.

269. dX-yTjo-as : ttelznl //// pain : cf. tSturtv A 33.

270. Kal dxvvfuvoi irep : they still sympathized with Thersites; they had

not entirely recovered from their homesickness f]6vi -y&oferav: burst into

a hearty laugh, which quieted their excitement; cf. A 599.

271. rfe: represents public opinion. I8v: not of an action prior to
that of the principal verb, but coincident with it. Casting a glance.
ir\T]<rCov: as substantive. oXXov: as 191.

272. w iro'irot: the interjection which expressed sorrow in A 254 here
expresses pleased surprise. Its meaning in each case is determined by the
connection. TJ 8rj : verily before now, contrasted with vvv Se 274. cop-yev :
the perfect marks the character of Odysseus as shown in the past, while
pcev 274 refers to the single act ; just as in English, " he has done, etc.,
but he never did a better thing."

273. <ipxwv: ///>/ *u </</>.<>!/<</. ftrupo.int/.

274. p.'y apio-Tov: predicate to roSf. the object. "This is far the best
thing that," etc. ; cf. 216. The difference between this and ox* apurrov (cf.
A 69) is simply metrical ; see 22 e. ep^v : for the single p after the
augment, see -\-\ e.

275. 6s KT\. : relative clause with causal force, since he. TOV Xtt^-Hipa
4iro-poXov : for the order of words, 'cf. A 340. rxc : checked, equivalent
to 7ravo-cv. .Coincident with Ipe^cv 274; cf. the explanation of raSc tpya
252 by the following v-i\sc. d-yopawv : speeches before the people; cf. 788.
For the genitive, /;/'. urrj/s !7.

276. If a. conjunction had been used here, it would have had the force
of so, therefore. oti fa\v : Ian////. 1 tJiink. Orjv is ironical here, like Attic
SiyTTov. irdXiv auris : literally. 1nn-k n(/nin. af/ain. an n-. TroAtv marks a
return to the same point ; cf. A 110. Cf. Stvrtpov avris A 51:1.




72 COMMENTARY TO THE

278. TI ir\T]9vs: the crowd there; with plural as collective. Cf. 99.-^
dvd rni : shows that Odysseus resumed his seat after chastising Thersites.
Cf. 76. irroXirop0os : a general title of honor. The same epithet is
applied to Achilles. In the Odyssey, it is given only to Odysseus.

279. irapd: adverb, by his side.

281. &na T: the position of re is free; cf. A 417. It seems to be
intended here to unite the two verbs, and properly has its place after the
first of the ideas which it connects. It is the more remarkable here since
a combination with TC /cat follows. ol irpwroi KT\. : i.e. the most remote as
well as the nearest. 283. Cf. A 73.

284. 'ArpetSt] : Odysseus turns first to the king whose authority has
been challenged. He now defends the king's purpose directly, as he had
defended it indirectly in his address to Thersites. He then opposes the
motives for return which had been advanced.

285. irouTiv^Pporouriv : literally, for all mortals, in the eyes of all men.
IXfyxicrrov : most disgraced. For its formation from tXcy^ ?? c f- fyOurros
(from Ix00 A 176. MIUWU : make. Cf. 319, e^/ccv A 2.

286. ovSe TOI KT\. : "since they do not." ijv irep vir6rrav: which they
surely promised (see 339) or the very promise that they made; see on 318.

287. IvOdSc KT\. : as they were still coming, " as they were on their way
to Troy." "Ap-yeos: i.e. Peloponnesus; cf. A 30. For the epithet, cf.
aptum dicet equis Argos ditesque Mycenas Hor. Carm. i. 7. 9.

288 = 113. Kirp<ravra : <re is subject, supplied from rot, above.
d-iroveWOat : in apposition with VTroo^ecrtv.

289. : in truth, as 229, 242, 272.

290. dXX-fjXoKTiv : with each other, to each other. oSvpovrai : mournfully
they long; with pregnant force, followed by the infinitive. Cf. A 22.

291. TJ jiriv Kal KT\. : concessive and excusing. " Our trouble has been
enough to make a man return to his home." The other side of the pic-
ture is introduced in 297 by dAAa KCU IJu-Tnys. As a wise orator, Odysseus
concedes that their longing for home is natural (many a man is home-
sick after a single month away from his family), but he emphasizes
the motives for continuing the struggle. dvujOlvra: agrees with rtva
implied as the subject of the infinitive. v&<r0<u: for the infinitive, cf.
fui^ea-Oai A 8.

292. Kal Jlva: even a single. This introduces an inference a minori
ad maius. TS T : many a one diro : cf. 162, A 562.

293. 8v irep : refers to rts re.

294. clMwcriv : for the mode, cf. A 554. opivojj^vrj : when it is excited,



:



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 78

295. Tjfuv (u(ivo'vre<r<ri [/x///vovo - i] : for us remaining here. " We have
been here nearly nine years." For the case, cf. A 250. irepiTpoirtwv : cf.
551, volventibus annis Verg. Aen. i. 234, volvendis mensibus ib.
269. Nine years seem to have passed at 134.

297. But even in spite of all that, it is a shame to return unsuccessful.

298. 8t]pov KT\. : equivalent to Srypov /u-eiVavra Kf.vf.ov vceo-Oai. Keveo'v :
empty, i.e. empty-handed, without the booty gained from sacked Troy. Cf.
the words of Agamemnon, when after Menelaus has been wounded he
supposes some Trojan to say: KOL 8rj ffirj oi/covSc <f>L\rjv es Trarpi'&x yaiav \ <rvv
Ktivrjtnv (empty) vrjvvi A 180.

299 ff. Cf. Cicero's translation: Ferte viri, et duros animo tole-
rate labores, | auguris ut nostri Calchantis fata queamus|
scire ratosne habeant an vanos pectoris orsus, etc., de Div. ii. 30.

299. For the asyndeton,' cf. 276. lirl xpo'vov : for a time.

300. r\ mo'v : whether in truth. For r), fa cf. 238; see 20 b.

301. TO&: refers to 303 ff., and thus to 308 ff.

302. jjrfj: as hypothetical. This is the only instance in Homer of py
with the indicative in a conditional relative clause. Cf. 143. epa
<f>lpovcrcu : see on A 391 .

303 . \Qitai T teal irpwi^d : proverbial of an event still well remembered.
For T KCU, see 21 g. AvXCSa : a Boeotian harbor on the Euripus, oppo-
site Chalcis in Euboea, where the Achaean forces gathered, in order to set
sail together for Troy. See 5 a. This place and the muster of the
troops there received greater prominence in the later stories of this Trojan
expedition.

304. T|-yp'6ovTo : descriptive imperfect. Cf. A 25.

305. Tjfuis & : independent sentence, explaining ore KT\. 303 a\L$\

irp( : on both sides around, round about. Such a spring is still shown at
Aulis. Kara pwjiovs : see on A 318. The numerous altars of the differ-
ent tribes occupied considerable space. Evidently the Greeks had no
temple there, or it would have been mentioned. As in the earliest times
of their religion, the woods were their temples. See on A 39.

307. irXaravUrrw : the plane tree was highly valued by the orientals.
It often shades springs and streams. A fragment of this tree was shown

a holy relic in the temple of Artemis, in the time of Hadrian.

308. IvGa : then ; repeats the idea of \6ia, TC KT\. 303. Spdicwv : apposi-
ve asyndeton.' Cf. 145. 8o4>oiv<>s : all blnnd red,

310. pwpov \nratas : darting from under the altar. d : points back t<J
yap 8q TO



74 COMMENTARY TO THE



311. v^jiria TKva : tender brood (fledglings) ; cf. f^rjrr^p 313 of tl
bird. The terms of human relationship are used of birds and beasts.

312. viroireirrriwTes : crouched under.

313. OKTW : part of the wonder, since sparrows generally lay only four
or five eggs. The numbers receive prominence, since the interpretation of
the omen rests only on the equal number of sparrows and years of war.
Cf. Pharaoh's dream with its seven fat kine for seven years of plenty, and
seven lean kine for seven years of famine, Gen. xli. \L-I\TT\P, TJ T^K : for
the 'epexegesis,' see 12 e.

314. IXeeivd : cognate accusative, adverbial with rer/Dtycoras. TTpi-ywTas :
for the tense, see on 264.

315. ap,<j>6iroTa.To oSvpojic'ini : for the hiatus, cf. 211. T&CVO. : object
of the finite verb.

316. 4\Xid[uvos : coiling itself, in order thus to strike the bird with
greater force. irre'pvyos : for the genitive, cf. yowwv A 407. d|i<fuaxviav :
repeats concisely the verb and participle of 315.

317. Kara e^crye : Kara is used as in /car^cr&e 314, Kara/cai'to.

318. dpttftXov : neuter adjective as substantive. Cf. 204. The adjective
is in the predicate after OfJKtv. Made this (serpent) to be something very
clear, i.e. a sign from the gods. <Ss irep : the same god who. C<)>T)VV :
equivalent to J}KC </>oowrSe 309.

319. Xaav -yap n iv ^ KC : mac ^ it a stone, turned it to stone. Cf. fit lapis
et servat serpentis imagine saxum Ovid Met. xii. 23.

320. olov Tux0Ti : what had happened; exclamation giving the con-
tents and reason of 0ai>/>iao/Aei'.

321. Seivd ire'Xwpa : dire portents, i.e. the serpent with its deeds and its
petrifaction. elo-fjX.06 : here followed by an accusative.

322. Cf. A 109. 323. avcw fyeWOe : became mute.

324. f||tiv : emphatic. ro'Se : object, with repa? /xe'ya as predicate.

325. 6\|/ip.ov 6\|HT\<rrov : for the repetition, see 12 d ; for the 'asynde-
ton,' see 15. oov K\&>S : because of the fulfillment of the prophecy.

327 = 313. This verse is repeated, since the numeral adjectives are
most important for the interpretation of the omen.

328. av0i : i.e. before Ilios, like avrov 237.

329. TwSeKdTw: on that tenth, " then, in the tenth year " ; the article calls
attention to this as the decisive year. Cf. ZvOa /xcv civaeres 7roA.c/xt^o/xev
vies 'A^aiaii/, | TO) 8e/caTa> Se iroX.iv Ilpia/xov Trepcravres c/J^/xev oucaSe trvv
vyecr<n 240 f. therefor nine years we sons of the Achaeans fought, but on the
tenth we sacked the city of Priam, and set out for home with our ships. *



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 75

331. a-ye : as interjection, with the plural ; see on A 62.

332. oo-ru : i.e.. the 7roA.iv of 329. The poet's choice between the two
words is often determined by the convenience of his verse; 22 e, f.

333. d^4>l 8 KT\. : so that tin' >//// resounded, etc. ; 'paratactic' clause
to express result; parenthetical, as A 10, T 134,M10. fTratvrja-avr^ 335
refers not to 'A^cuoiv 334 but to 'Apyeibi 333.

334. dvo-dvrwv KT\. : from the shout, etc. For the genitive, see 19/7 7-

335. ircuvT|<ravTs : adds the reason for the shout. 'O8v<r<rfjos Oeioto :
standing verse-close; see 12 b. Stos 'OSixnrcv? (244) serves as the
nominative.

336. KaC : /so, with reference to the preceding speakers. Fcp^vios : so
called from the Messenian town where Nestor was bred and which was his
place of refuge when Heracles sacked Pylos.

337. d-yopdcurOc : with lengthened initial vowel; see 59 e. This
reproach, though addressed to all the Greeks, is directed only against
those who sympathize with Thersites in his longing to return. Nestor
speaks more vehemently than Odysseus, who had prepared the way with
arguments. For the brief comparison, see 14 d.

338. iroXejjurjia tp-ya : 'periphrasis' for TroAc/xo?. 16 d.

339. irf) 8^1 pT|<rTcu : a rhetorical question. " What will become of
mpacts if no one thinks of keeping them?" <rvv0e<rtcu ^re K<xl opKia : i.e.

compacts sworn at sacrifices, here referring to the solemn sacrifice at Aulis.
Hence Dido says: non ego cum Danais Troianam exscindere
geiitem | Aulide iuravi Verg. Aen. iv. 425 f. Odysseus called it only
an vTrocr^em? (286). TJHIV : ethical dative. "Our agreements."

340. iv irvpl KT\. : ironical wish in his indignation. " Let all be
tin-own into the flames, as worthless." *v irvpi : cf. E 215, where the
archer I'andarus, in vexation, vows to break his bow and throw it into

fire, as useless.

341. <rirov6al aKpiyroi : ////////o//x to the gods with unmixed wine (see on
i'7'i), although no wine was drunk unmixed with water. Scia( : i.e.

ledges given by the right hand. See on Senary A 54.

342. CLVTWS : n'if/nmf rhnn<j> . minlii: cf. 138. It is explained by what
Hows. |if]xos : inin of relit f, xr. from this contest of words to come to

eeds and the conquest of Troy.

344. 'ArpttSii. on> 8 : as A 282. In: construe with a/a^eue. "In the
future as in the j>a>t." t\tav KrX. : folding firmly to ///// tl> t< rminalion, sc. to
capture Troy. Here begins the direct exhortation to Agamemnon to seize
again with decision the reins of his authority.



//M




76 COMMENTARY TO THE

346. ca <|>0ivv0tv : let them perish! eVa ical 8vo : for the idiomatic

of KO.I, cf. 303, A 128, r 363. Nestor depreciates the number of the rene-
gades and mentions no names. 'Axcuwv : partitive genitive with TOL.

347. vo<r<fuv f3ouXcva><ri : "plan apart from us, separating their cause
from ours, like Thersites." awo-is . . . avmSv : parenthetical, connected
with the preceding by the contrast between (3ov\tviDo-i and ai/vcris.
avrwv : neuter, of the plans (/3ovXev/u,ara) implied in /fovAevaxri.

348. irplv U'vai : depends on /JovAevawri. Aios : by ' prolepsis ' (cf.
dSeA</>eoi/ 409) connected with yi/w/xevai and supplied in thought for



349. et re, C TC : indirect questions, as A 65. K<xl OVK : cf. 238.

350. <J>Tj(i, : maintain, assert. ovv : at all events. This particle is not
frequent in Homer. It occurs about sixty times in the Iliad and Odyssey.

Karavcvo-cu : intransitive, gave a promise. See on A 514.

351. TJixan TW OT : closely connected, as a standing formula, as 743.
VT)v<rlv v efScuvov : cf. 510, 619, e? Tpofyv di/a/3??/zerai a 210 embark and set
sail^/br Troy.

352. 'Ap-yeioi : for the position, see 11 j. <j>cpovres : cf. 304.

353. do-Tpairrtov : as if on Karcvevcre Kpovitov had preceded. This change
of construction is caused by the intervening 351 f. A more violent
t anacoluthon ' is T 211. liri&gut : on our right, i.e. on the propitious side.

<j>cuvuv : interpretation of do-T/aaTrrcov. For the < chiastic ' order of words,
cf. A 443, 558 f.

355. irplv KT\. : i.e. before the capture of Troy, but with special
reference to the booty. The women and children of a captured city
were treated as slaves, the men were killed - rivd : in a collective
sense, referring to each individual, as is also Tpwwv dAo;(<j>.

356. rfo-ao-Oai : chiastic ' with KaTaKOi/jirjOvjvai, with which it is coin-
cident. The Trojans shall be repaid, like for like. 'EXe'vTjs opuTJjjLara
KT\. : the longings and sighs of Helen, i.e. those which she felt and uttered.
The poet attributes to Nestor a knowledge of Helen's repentance (see on
r 173) and earnest longing to return to Greece (see T 139 f.). Paris is
everywhere in Homer held chiefly responsible for Helen's fault, although
she followed him willingly. She is always attractive in Homer. Vergil
(Aen. vi. 511 ff.) represents her in a much more unpleasant light.

358. airreVOw -qs vr)6s : cf. 171. In a threatening tone. "Only let him
prepare to depart ! Instead of returning as he wishes, before the rest, he
will find death here, before the rest." For the imperative, cf. A 302,

4w<r'X|j.oio KT\. : as 170.



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 77

359. ctypa : in order that. This was the natural consequence to be
expected. Gdvarov : sc. as punishment. iro'rfiov : cf. //,#' "EKropa TTOT/AOS
eror/Aos i !Hi aft i / tin m /nist killed Hector, death is ready for thee.

360. ava| : Xestor turns to Agamemnon. ircCOco r oXXw : this is the
leading thought, as is shown by what follows, while cv /a^Sco recapitulates
344 f. " As thou must plan wisely thyself, so also follow another's advice."

361. diro'pXiiTov : for the final syllable, long by position before a lost
consonant, see 59/.

362. Kpive : separate, i.e. place in position separately, as 446. Kara
<j>v\a : distributive, hi/ tribes, the principal division of each Greek people;
cf. 668. For this use of Kara, cf. A 487. Kara 4>pt|Tpas : hy clans, to
which the separate families belonged. Cf. 'According to your tribes,
. . . according to the families thereof ; and the family which the Lord
shall take shall come by households,' Joshua vii. 14. This verse sug-
gests such a catalogue as follows (484 ff.). This separation of the army
into divisions might have been expected early in the war. But this time
is the beginning of the war, so far as the hearer is concerned.

363. 4>pT|Tpt] /crA. : equivalent to dAA.7JA.ois.

365. os re Xowv : .sv. 070-1. The clause is relative, not interrogative.

366. Kara <r<J>tas : hi/ ///>///>-, /rrx separately. Cf. A 271.

367. r\ Kal 9c<nrc<rCfl: whether thou hast failed not simply because of
the inefficiency of the army, but also by decree of the gods. This refers
to 111 if. dXaird|is: future, since the success of this measure will not
appear until in the future.

368. rj : or only, as t lit- English idiom requires, to correspond to KOI, above.

370. T| fidv : strong asseveration, in eery truth. avr< : at/ain, "as often
before." Agamemnon's praise is for Nestor's whole speech.

371. This appeal to the three chief divinities is made in the case of
ardent wishes, (imerally, as here, fulfillment of the wish is not expected.
Cf. dux ille Graeciae nusquam optat ut Aiacis similes
habcat decem, sed ut Nestoris; quod si sibi acciderit, non
dubitat <|iiin brevi sit Troia peritura Cicero de Sen. 31.

374. xP^ v wo ' f r VTTO with tin- dative, in its transition from local to
instrumental sense, see 19 /. oXovo-a : aorist, to mark tin- capture of
the city as tin? decisive moment, \vhile Trc^o/xcn; refers to the duration
of the work of destruction ; <-f. \ 881,

375. KpoviSiis Ztvs : closely connected ; cf. A 502. The verses which
immediately follow seem inconsistent with the confident expectation

xpresse.l in 412 ft'. For the complaint, cf. 111.




78 COMMENTARY TO THE



376. 8s : as 275. jwra : into the midst of; cf. A 222, 423. air
cf. 121. pdXXci : casts, is wont to entangle in.

377. (jLaxTio-djji0a : cf. epiSi ^iW^/ce /xa;(<70ai A 8. ei'veita KovpTjs : hero
marks the insignificant occasion of the quarrel.

378. ^p\ov : construe with the participle. \a.\etra.ivwv : i.e. the
quarrel.

379. ts -ye fuav KT\. : sc. (3ov\rjv, cf. $euu 341. Agree in counsel, the
opposite of d/A</>ts <paecr0at, cf. 14.

381. Setirvov : the principal meal of the day, no matter when it is
taken. See 17. The warriors would have no more food until night.
A considerable part of the day had passed during the events narrated since
48. f-wd-ywH^v "Aprja : i.e. begin the sharp contest; see on 426. Cf. 440,
A 8, F 70, committere proelium.

382. ris : collective. ev : the repetition is rhetorical; cf. IK A 436 if.
Cf. ' Arm, warriors, arm for fight ! ... let each | His adamantine coat
gird well, and each | Fit well his helm, gripe fast his orbed shield,' Milton
Par. Lost vi. 537 ff.

384. apjiaros dfx<|>is : construe with i8a>v, looking carefully about hit
chariot, to see that all was in good condition. The principal idea is in the
participle, not in the finite verb. See 21 i.

385. iravTijieptoi : as A 472. ws KpivwjwGa : that we may measure ou.'
strength. o-rvycpw "Apt]i : dative of interest, i.e. in dread battle.

386. jjL6T6<ro-Tat : shall be between, sc. the conflicts.

387. ftvos dv8pv : for the periphrasis, cf. 851, F 105. See 16 d.

388. rev [TIVOS, TOV] : many a one's. The strap of the shield ran over
the left shoulder and under the right arm. The shield was so heavy that
it needed support from the body as well as from the arm.

389. x ^P a ' arm > accusative of specification. KOJICITCU : sc. TL<S from
rev.

391. Cf. A 549. 0c X.OVTO, : inclined, ready. VOTJO-IO : perceive.

392. jjLifjLvd^iv : object of e^tAovra. A collateral form of /xej/co, /AI/AI/O),
37 a. ofl : by no means; emphatic at the head of the clause, to contrast
the following thought with the coward's expectation. ot : personal pro-
noun instead of a demonstrative after the conditional relative sentence.
Cf. A 218.

393. Kvivas KT\. : see on A 4. " Nothing shall save him from death."

394. &>s ore : introduces a comparison, as A 462. 14 e. Sc. layr).
Cf. l He scarce had finished when such murmur filled | Th' assembly, as



Online LibraryHomerThe first six books of Homer's Iliad → online text (page 23 of 48)