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when hollow rocks retain I The sound of blust'ring winds, which all night



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD



79



long | Had roused the sea,' etc. Milton Par. Lost ii. 284 ff. ; < He ended,
and the heavenly audience loud | Sung Hallelujah as the sound of seas,'
/'/;. x. (511 f.; 'He said, and as the sound of waters deep, | Hoarse murmur
echoed to his words applause,' ib. v. 872 f.

395. KivTjo-n : for the subjunctive, cf. A. 80. Sc. KVIJUJ. as object.

396. <TKoircXu>: locative, in partitive apposition with O.KTTJ. Cf. 145.

: i.e. waves roused by the winds. Cf. t\Ktl vBpov 723,
707, vova-ov Atos i 411 disease sent by Zeus.

397. or av Y'VVTCU : tc. avc/xot. This explains TravrotW, but the whole
sentence is a picturesque decoration of the comparison. See 14 a.
v6* TJ ?v6a : in this direction or in that; cf. 90, 462, 476, 812.

398. opt'ovro : they hastened away. Kara vfjas : cf. 47.




A SACRIFICE

400. cfxjt : for thi imperfect, cf. d<i'a A 25. Oewv KT\. : cf. A 290.
;h of thr trilx-s offered sacrifices to its national god.
402. U'fKwtv: sc. as he prepared a feast for tin- ( i.Ti.ut.-s.'
m-rally sarritic.-d t<> X-us, as th-ir patron. See on A 176. '
apposition with 6. See 42 /.



Kings




80 COMMENTARY TO THE

403. irevracTtipov : i.e. full-grown. This age was approved for beef and
pork. An ox was the most honored victim. Kpovfom : dative of inter-
est, in his honor, with lepcva-tv.

404. "yc'povras: see on yepoi/rwv 21. The following seem to be the
members of the (3ovXrj of 53".

405. irpwTKTTa : Nestor has the first place in the regard of Agamemnon.
See 20, 371 ff. Idomeneus has a high place ; cf. A 145. Idomeneus is
also a great friend of Menelaus ; cf. T 232.

406. Tv8'o$ vlo'v : i.e. Diomed, king of Argos. See on 567.

408. avTojiaros : Menelaus needed no invitation, holding a special rela-
tion. POTJV d-yaflos : this epithet is applied often to Menelaus. 12 b.

409. d8\<f>o'v : the subject of the subordinate clause is taken by antici-
pation (H. 878) as the object of the principal clause ; cf. 348, < I know
thee who thou art,' St. Luke iv. 34. ws eiroveiro : hoic busy he was in pre-
paring for the feast and the battle.

410. irepurrqo-av : second aorist ; cf. A 448. ovXoxvras KT\. : as A 449.

412. Zev KT\. : equivalent to Jupiter Optimus Maximus The

different attributes are given without conjunctions ; see 15 a. The
elated tone of the prayer results from the king's infatuation by the dream ;
cf. 37 ff. K6\<Hve4>s : since the god appears in the dark thundercloud.
al0'pi: cf. A 44, 195.

413. r( : construe with Swat, sc. upon the battle. &rrl Kv6J>as IXOciv :
cf. A 475. The infinitives depend on 805 implied in the invocation. The
optative follows in 418. For the wish, cf. Joshua's words: 'Sun, stand
thou still upon Gibeon ; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And
the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged
themselves upon their enemies,' Joshua x. 12 f .

414. irpTjWs : proleptic predicate after Kara /3aAeeiv. Cf. ptoyaAeov 417,
aA/aoTov 420.

415 . alOaXo'ev : the ceiling timbers were blackened by the smoke from
the fires and torches, for which no adequate outlet was provided. irp^o-ai :
construe with the genitive. Ovptrpa: i.e. the double door which with its
decorations formed a principal ornament of the palace.

416. 'EKTo'peov: equivalent to "EKTO/JOS. See on 20.

417. x^**? 1 bronze, i.e. sword; cf. 578, A 236. d|i.<j>' avro'v : about him-
self, as the chief personage.

418. 68d KT\. : bite the dust, in the last convulsive agony of death ; cf.
humum semel ore momordit Verg. Aen. xi. 418. 68dg: equivalent
to TOIS oSovorv. Cf. TTVJ; T 237 with the fist, Ao Z 65 with the foot.



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 81

419. irKpcucuv : cf. A 455. Coincident in time with <aro.

420. &KTO : second aorist ; cf. S^Oai A 23. Zeus gave no sign of dis-
pleasure, hence it was inferred that he accepted the sacrifice. &j>tX\v :
i.e. he gave them greater labor of war instead of giving them peace ; cf.
39 f.

421-424 = A 458-461. 425. Cf. A 462.

426. c H<t>ato-Toio : i.e. blazing fire. The god is put for his element.
Cf. "A/07^ for TrdAc/Mos 381 ; 'A/x^iTpu-T; for flaAacnra /A 97 ; 'A<po&ri7 for
e/xus x 444 ; Vulcanum spargere tectis Verg. Aen. vii. 77.

427-432 = A 464-469. 433. TOIS : cf. A 58.

435. IITJKC'TI KT\. : no longer now let us talk here for a long time. Nestor
wished to prevent the conversation that generally followed a feast. He
agreed with Agamemnon (381 if.) in calling for action.

436. dfipoXXcifuea : cf. avd(3\rj<n<; 380. 8Vj : now. Oeo's : i.e. Zeus.
yYuaXiti : </i ''<''* into our hands, sc. in so far as the Dream directed the
immediate preparation for battle.

437. fryc : here only in Homer with third person imperative, but this is
equivalent to " bid the heralds," etc. KTJPVKCS : i.e. Agamemnon's, as 50,
442. 'A\aiaiv : construe with Aaov, as 163.

439. TIJMIS : i.e. the princes who are named in 405 ff. aOpo'oi &S< : assem-
bled as we are.

440. 9do-<rov: the quicker. lycCpopcv KT\. : cf. 381. Cf. 'awake our
sleeping sword of war,' Shakspere Henri/ (he Fifth, i. 2. 22.

442-444. Cf. 50-52. 442. avrtica : ' asyndetic'; see 15 d.

445. ol 8' djwj)' 'Arpctwva: "the son of Atreus and the other princes."

cf. r in;. S,M- ii. 7!i, 3; G. 1202, s.

446. Kptvovrcs : following Nestor's advice (362). pcra & : but among
them, as 477. Athena is unseen. So Apollo leads the Trojans forward,
ei/xei/o? GJ/AOUV vt<j>eXr]v O 308 with a cloud wrapped about his shoulders. See
on A 198 *A0T|VT] : xr. Orvc, which is taken up by SuWvro 450.

447. al-ytSa : as goddess of war (see on A 206), Athena wears the aegis of
Zeus, apparently as a light shield. The aegis was a symbol of the thunder-
cloud, just as the Gorgon's head upon it (E 741) represented the thunder-
storm. Tliis is worn by Athena regularly in works of art d-y^paov KT\. :

explanatory of cpm/&ov. dy^puos is always associated by Homer with
aOdvaros, and elsewhere in the poems is used only of persons, excepting the
gold and silver dogs that guard the palace of the king of the Phaeacians.

448. -His: from which. Construe with ytpiOovraj.. The present is used
of a di\ inc and unchanging quality.






82 COMMENTARY TO THE



449. IvirXeKe'es : evidently the art of drawing gold into thin threads was
known in the Homeric period - iKaro'upoios : cattle formed the standard
of value in those times. Coined money was unknown.

451. 4v: construe with wpo-cv.

452. Kap8(r| : cf. OvfjuZ A 24. KapBir) is found in Homer only in this
verse, elsewhere /cpaSir/, as 171 ; see 31.

455-483. See 14 c.

455. T|VT : as 87. curircTov : sc. in extent. This is essential for the
comparison, since the extent of the fire is a condition of its brightness as
seen at a distance.

456. 'Ka0v : from afar, where the poet chooses his station with the men
who are looking on'.

457. TWV : of these ; limits ^aX/cov. lpx.op.va>v : as they were going forth.
06<rir<roio : sc. because of the throng.

458. 8t alOe'pos : i.e. reaches through the aether to the home of the
gods. See on A 44.

459. TWV : prepares the way for -the leading clause. It is taken up by
TWV 464, as TOVS 474 is taken up by TOVS 476. eOvea: cf. 87.

460. x T l vwv : the specializing of opviQwv forms a concrete picture, of
which the definite local designation forms a part. 12 f. Cranes were
only birds of passage in Greece. Cf. T 4. KVKVWV : cf. ceu quondam
nivei liquida inter nubila cycni Verg. Aen. vii. 699.

461. *A<r<*> : for the use of the adjective, cf. Iv Xci/xwVi ^KafjuavSpiv
467, Asia prata Verg. Georg. i. 883, quales sub nubibus atris |
Strymoniae dant signa grues Verg Aen. x. 264 f. From this plain
of Lydia south of Mt. Tmolus, the name of Asia spread to the Persian
Empire and finally over the whole continent ; just as < Europe ' at first was
only the Boeotian plain.

462. v6a /crX. : to this side or to that ; cf. 397. d-yaXXofuva KT\. : literally,
delighting with their wings, i.e. with joyous play of their wings.

463. KXa-y-y^Sov irpoKa9io'vra>v : settling (forward ) with loud cries, referring
to opviOw 459. The flocks with incessant noise fly on again and again to
settle in another spot, and the last birds to reach the ground take their
places in front of the rest. o-jiapa-yei 8e : for the < parataxis,' see on
210. 464 = 91.

465. ireSCov : i.e. the plain between the camp and the city. irpoxtovro :
cf. l Saw what numbers numberless | The city gates outpour'd, light-arm'd
troops,' etc., Milton Par. Regained iii. 310 f. viro: adverb, explained by
the following ablatival genitive






SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 83

466. avrwv *rA. : of both thcinm-lri x and tlnir Imw* : cf. 762. This limits
iro&ov.

467 f. The third comparison is closely connected with the preceding.
<rrav : halted, stn/t^edj us they came to the field of battle. For the
aorist, cf. 94.

468. cip-r] : in the season, i.e. in spring.

469. T|VT KT\. : protasis to rovvoi KT\. 472. The verb is here omitted
in the first member of a comparison. fividwv : the fly lias elsewhere also
the character of an impudent, eager insect. dSivdwv 0va : cf. 87. Cf.
' Or as a swarm of flies in vintage time, | About the wine press where
sweet must is pour'd, | Beat off, returns as oft with humming sound,'
Milton Par. Regained iv. 15.

470. iroinW)iov : the Homeric Greeks did not use the milk of cows.
T|Xdo-Kov<riv : ahrai/s hocer about.

471. ore KT\. : explains <oprj Iv elaptvfj. Clearly the Homeric Greeks
did not expect to have milk through the entire year. re : marks the close
connection of the clauses. See 21 b.

472. lirl Tpweo-o-i : to battle against the Trojans, ri is here used with
the dative, implying hostility. Cf. A 382.

473. urravro : //v/v tnkiny their position*. Siappaurai : sc. Tpwa?.

474. irXart'a : standing epithet, broad, wide feeding, i.e. scattered as
they feed ; in contrast with huddling ' sheep. aliroXot avBpcs : cf.

avftpi F 170, (3ov\7)<j>opov av&pa B 24, &pvya<; dve/xi? F 185, avSpts
av8pcs orpaTicorat, ai/8/ac? aBf.\<f>OL A cts xxiii. 1.

475. 8iaKp(vw<riv : subjunctive of a general supposition; cf. A 554.
vojiw : dative of place. pvyfovur: sc. aliroXua. aiytuj/ as subject. This
comparison implies common pastures, not held in severalty.

476. 8iKo'o-)iOv : //. &iaKO<Tfj.r)6eifj.tv 120, 8ia rpiya. Koo-fjirjOtvTes 655.

477. U'vai : for the infinitive, cf. /xa^co-^ttt A 8. \ur6. : adverb, as 446.

478. Ail KT\. : Agamemnon combines the majesty of Zeus with the
grace of Ares. These characteristics of the gods seem known to the
hran-rs from works of art. Cf. F 167 ff. Homeric comparisons of men
with gods do not generally specify a particular iVatmv. Cf. 'See what

was seated on this brow ; | Hyperion's curls ; the front of Jove
himself; | An eye lib- Mars, to threaten and command; | A station like
the herald Mercury | . . . A combination and a form indeed, | Where
every god did seem to set his seal,' Shaksju-re Ilamht iii. 4. 55 ff.

479. For the 'chiasmus/ cf. A 443, 558 f. See 16 a.
waist.




84 COMMENTARY TO THE

480. POVS : made more definite by its appositive rav/oos. Cf. 460

far', cf. A 78. eirXero: gnomic aorist, frequent in comparisons; cf. A 418.

481. -yo-P T : always connected, like namque.

482. TOIOV: such a one; sums up the characteristics which have been
mentioned. In spite of 419, Zeus sustains the royal honor which he him-
self had granted (see on A 176).

483. Kirpira : in apposition with TOIOV. efjoxov : elsewhere followed
by the genitive.

THE CATALOGUE OF THE SHIPS.

484. Solemn invocation of the Muses where a faithful memory is
needed for telling the story, or where the theme taxes the poet's powers.
Cf. aeiSe Otd A 1, avSpa JJLOI evvcTre yaovo-a a 1, pandite nunc Helicona,
deae, cantusque movete, | . . . et meministis enim, diva'e, et
memorare potestis; | ad nos vix tenuis famae perlabitur
aura Verg. Aen. vii. 641, 645 f. For the repetition of the invocation,
cf. < Descend from Heaven, Urania,' Milton Par. Lost vii. 1 . vvv : now,
closely connecting what follows with the advance of the Achaeans that has
been described (455-483). [lovo-cu : plural, as 594. Homer does not know
the name of any Muse, and has their number as nine only in to 60. The
earlier number seems to have been three, the same as of the Fates,
Graces, Hours, etc. The Muses could not be assigned to different arts and
sciences before the arts and sciences existed. 'O\v(i/iria : the earliest
home of the Muses seems to have been on the slopes of Mt. Olympus ; they
were thence called Pierian (Verg. Eel. viii. 63) ; Hesiod transferred them
to Boeotia, and calls them Heliconian. For the rhyme between the words
before the caesura and the close of the verse, see 13 a. For this Cata-
logue of forces, cf. Joshua xv-xix, Numbers xxvi, Hesiod's Theogony*
Vergil's Aeneid vii. 641-817, and Milton's list of fallen angels (Par.
Lost i. 392-521).

485. irdp<rT : sc. Trcwrtv from Trai/ra. This verse and the next follow-
ing are parenthetical. Cf. ' Say first, for Heav'n hides nothing from thy
view, | Nor the deep tract of Hell,' etc. Milton Par. Lost i. 27.

486. tifiis: we bards. K\og : report, "what people say," in contrast
with tfyiev. aKovofwv: we hear, i.e. we have heard, as in English.

487. Cf. 760.

488. ir\T]0vv: as 143. av nv6r|<rojxat : for the mode, cf. A 139.

489. ovS* el: not even if. Cf. non ego cuncta meis amplecti
versibus opto, | non, mihi si linguae centum sint, oraque









SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 85

centum, | ferrea vox Verg. Georg. ii. 42 f., Aen. vi. 625, si vox
infragilis, pectus mihi f irmius aere, | pluraque cum linguis
pluribus ora forent Ovid Trist. i. 5. 53 f.

490. x^ Ktov: *-pit lint of strength and firmness. TJrop: i.e. lungs.

491 f. This thought is hard to reconcile with the preceding, which
notes the physical impossibility of rehearsing the names of so great a mul-
titude. 'OXvfAmd&s : not a true patronymic here, but a mere adjective of
connection ; cf. Oiyj-mWc? A 570. The Muses are 'OA.v/A7ria Sw/iar' ;(ov-
o-cu 484. See :J a. Aios KT\. : cf. 598, 0ea [/urixra] Ovyartp Aid? a 10.
The mother, according to the later myth, was Mnemosyne (Memory).

492. v-n-6 TXiov: see on 216.

493. This verse promises something different from 487. dpxovs avi :
in contrast with ir\i)0vv 488. irpo-^curas : all together; as the poet adds
a statement of the number of the ships to the names of the leaders of
each people.

494 ff. The Catalogue seems to have been prepared for an account of
the mustering of the Greeks at Aulis and the embarkation thence (cf.
509 f.), and to have been inserted here with divers alterations. We expect
here an account of the forces, not of the ships.

The nations, their leaders, and the number of their ships are enu-
merated in a definite geographical order, in three principal divisions : I.
(a) The mainland of Greece south of Thermopylae ; (6) middle and
southern Greece with the islands immediately adjoining. Sixteen con-
tingents. (494-644.) II. Insular Greece, from Crete to Calydnae. Four
contingents. (645-680.) III. Thessalian Greece, from Mt. Oeta and
Mt. Othrys on the south, to Olympus on the north. Nine contingents.
(681-759.) See 7 >f.

The Achaean ships number in all 1186. The number of men on each
ship is stated for only two contingents : each Boeotian ship carried 120
men (510); each of the ships of Philoctetes brought 50 men (719).
The ships of Achilles also brought each 50 men (II 170). From the
average of the two numbers given for the Boeotians and the ships of
Philoctetes, the ancients reckoned the whole number of Achaeans before
Troy as 100,000. Others reckoned the ships roundly as 1200, assigned
100 men to each ship, and estimated the whole number of Achaeans as
120,000.

. The Greeks valued this list highly, because of its geographical and
statistical informal i<>n. They looked upon it as a part of history, a
versified geography and gazetteer. They appealed to it to settle disputed



86 COMMENTARY TO THE

questions, and the charge of interpolating verses in it was like a charge of
falsifying public records.

The poet evidently desires to represent this expedition as a great
national undertaking. He enumerates even those nations which from
their inland position were not likely to have had anything to do with such
a war, e.g. the Arcadians (603-614), who are not mentioned in the rest of
the Iliad as taking part in the battles on the plain of Troy. The poet
does not seem to exalt one nation at the expense of another, either here
or in the other parts of the Iliad. A bard wandering from country
to country would acquire a wealth of geographical information, but would
form no strong local attachments.

'EAAas and the "'EAAT/ves in this Catalogue are restricted to a part of
Thessaly (683 f.). The Dorians and lonians are not mentioned. No Greek
colonies are known, whether in Asia Minor, in Sicily and the West, or
elsewhere. The names Peloponnesus, Attica, Eleusis, Megara, Delphi,
Olympia, and Pisa do not appear. Thus this Catalogue seems to have
been composed before the Dorian migration into Peloponnesus, and the
sending forth of colonies to Asia Minor and the West.

494-558. Boeotia, Phocis, Locris, Euboea, Athens, Salamis. The enu-
meration proceeds northerly from Boeotia, then to the east, then south-
ward, and so to the west, around Boeotia. Seven contingents ; 262
ships.

The poet begins with Boeotia, probably because the fleet collected
at Aulis (303). Because of this beginning, the ancients gave the name
Boiwrta or Botooreta to the Catalogue of the ships.

494-510. Boeotia. This document presents a distribution of the Greeks
such as existed after the Trojan War. According to Thucydides (i. 12),
the Boeotians lived in Thessaly until sixty years after the fall of Troy.
See on 507. More towns are mentioned in Boeotia than elsewhere, which
seems to indicate a Boeotian poet. The Thebans are not prominent in
the action of the Iliad, and Thebes is not mentioned ; see on 505.

494 f. |Av: correlative with 8e 511. The five leaders are all men-
tioned elsewhere.

496. 01 re : refers to Botomov, resumed in ran/ 509. 'Ypujv : not far

from Tanagra and Aulis Av\i8a : where the Achaean forces gathered

before setting sail for Troy ; see on 339.

498. 0e'<rireiav [ fa-Trias] : without a conjunction to connect it with the
preceding, in order to mark the beginning of a new series, as 501 f., 560 f.,
647, 739. For the singular, see 37 d. Thespiae and Platea were the



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 87

only Boeotian cities to refuse tribute of earth and water ' to Xerxes __
: generally of cities (////// lr<xi<l sijtHin* fur tin choral dance), as
Even now in Greece tin? villagers assemble on the public square for
their dances. Frequently in this Catalogue are three substantives so
]. laced in a verse that but our has an adjective, and this adjective with its
noun fills the second half of the verse. Cf. 497, 502, 532, 561, 582, 606,
647, 739, etc. MvKo\T]o-<ro'v : on the road from Thebes to Chalcis.

499. djKjA HK'IAOV : <hr.lt ahont. Inhabit' d. Cf. .VJl. :>74, 585, 634, etc.
"Apfta: here Amphiaraus (the chief hero of the expedition against
Seven-gated Thebes) and his chariot sank into the earth.

502. Kwiras : this town gave its name to the lake on which it lay.
urpTiv : Shakspere's ' Thishe ' was named for the nymph of this place.

503. iroiT|VTa: here feminine, an adjective of two endings. Cf. 77.

504. FXio-avra: at the foot of Mt. Hypatus, where the decisive battle
between the Epigoni and the Thebans was said to have been fought.

505. 'Yiro0T|pas : I.on-ir Thebes, which lay on the plain; in distinction
from Seven-gated Thebes with the Cadmean citadel which was destroyed
in the second Argive invasion by Diomed and his associates, and does not
seem to have been rebuilt in the Homeric time.

506. 0X0-05: in apposition with 'Oy^T^ri-ov, c f. 592, 696.



507. "Apvriv: to be distinguished from the Thessalian town of the






same name, which was the old home of the Boeotians and gave to this
town its name.

509. ve'es KOV : cf. vrjos tovViys A 482. tv 8e IKOOTTT] (Scuvov : in each were
Mi'lini/, tc. from Aulis. See on 494 ff.

510. paivov: cf. 351, 611, 619. IKCM-OV KT\. : probably an unusually
large numbtT.

511. 'Opxofuvo'v : the rich capital of the famous empire of the Minyae ;
called Mivvciov in distinction from the Arcadian city (605). It was
renowned for its worship of the Graces, who were said to have been first
worshiped there. Both Orchomenus and Aspledon (a small town) lay
near Lak- Copa'is. on the left bank of the Boeotian Cephisus (see on .Vj-j).
on the fertile jlain of Boeotia. The realm of the Minyae did not become
Boeotian until later.

512. TJPX : singular, although two personal subjects follow. Cf. 563,
650, 8:i. .si-_>, Ml, 868, 862, 876. See II. 607. The second subject in
many OM60 seems to be added as an afterthought.

513. 8o'fiu>: l<>eal. in tin house. "AKropos : /'.' . Astyoche's father.

514. virpwiov : this served as the sleeping chamber for the women.



88 COMMENTARY TO THE

515. "Apiji: she bore to Ares, the national god of the warlike Minyae.
For the dative, cf. 658. For the long first syllable of "Aprji, cf. 767,
'ATroAAwos A 14. The second half-verse is equivalent to a relative clause.

516. TOIS: construe with the verb. TWI/ might have been used with
ve'es, 19 A.

517-526. The PJiocians. These also may be supposed to have fitted
out their fleet on the Euripus.

518. 'Icjurov : for this traditional form, the meter indicates the truer
form to be 'I^i'roo, with ultima lengthened before the //, ( 59 A). 35 b.

519. IlvOwva : the epithet Trtrp-rjeo-crav is well deserved.

520. Kpwrav : on the plain, near the gulf of the same name. It seems
in early times to have controlled the Pythian sanctuary. Ao.uX.i8a : east
of Delphi, on a hill; cf. Daulis quia in tumulo excelso sita est,
nee scalis nee operibus capi poterat (sc. by the Romans) Livy
xxxii. 18. Ilavoirna : burnt, like Daulis, by the Persians under Xerxes.

522. apa: further; uniting the following to form a series with the
preceding. Ktj<|>urov : the Cephisus takes its rise near Lilaea, on the
north slope of Mt. Parnassus. It flows with many windings through
Phocis into Boeotia, and empties into Lake Copais.

524. afia CITOVTO: accompanied.

525. olfjLc'v: i.e. the two leaders mentioned in 517. d^ie'irovres : for
the use of the participle, see on itav A 138.

526. BOUOTWV 8* jjiir\T]v: next the Boeotians. ir dpio-rcpd : to the left of
the Boeotians, in the line of the ships. Cf. eTriS^ia 353.

527-535. The Locrians.

527. 'OiXfjos: genitive of connection, with Atas. See H. 729 a, 730 a;
G. 1085, 1. Cf. TeAa/Atovios "Atas, where the adjective is equivalent to a
genitive. raxvs : cf. celerem sequi AiacemHor. Carm. i. 15. 18i In
the funeral games in honor of Patroclus, this Ajax runs a race with
Odysseus and would have won the prize, but Athena caused him to slip.

529. oXfyos : small, like Attic /xiKpos, which is rare in Homer. Xivo-
0c6pT| : ivith linen doublet, i.e. in a closely woven, thick linen jacket. Linen
armor later became more common (see Xen. An. iv. 7. 15 of the Chalybes,
TOV Xwovv OupaKa os eVixojpios ^i/ avrols Xen. Cyr. vi. 4. 2). Such a cuirass
of cocoanut fiber was the usual armor of some of the South Sea Islanders,
and would repel a ball from a revolver or a cut from a saber.

530. Ilavc'XXTivas : the Pan-Hellenes (cf. Hava^atwj/ 404), only here.
This unites under one name the peoples of northern Greece, as 'A^aiovs
is used of the peoples of Peloponnesus and the adjacent islands. Cf.



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 89

KaO* 'EAAo&x Koi pto-ov "Apyos a 344 through Hellas and thr midst of Argos, as
including all Greece. Cf. ' from Dan even to Beersheba,' Judge's xx. 1, < from
John O'Groat's to Land's End.' 531. <rf: refers to AOK/OWV 527.

535. AoKpdiv: for its position at the beginning of the verse, see on
oi>\ofj.vrjv A 2. UpTjs : as A 366. The cult of Apollo and Artemis was
especially prominent in Euboea. 536-545. The Euboeans.

536. The second half-verse is in apposition with the first. fievta
irvcovTs: breathing courage, i.e. inspired with courage and fury. pc'vca:
plural because of the number of men; cf. Shakespere's 'Wherein hath
Caesar thus deserved your loves,' Julius Caesar iii. 2. 241. Cf. 588.
"Apavres : pre-Hellenic Thracians who from the Phocian town Abac migrated
to Euboea and gave to the island its earlier name.



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