Homer.

The first six books of Homer's Iliad online

. (page 26 of 48)
Online LibraryHomerThe first six books of Homer's Iliad → online text (page 26 of 48)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


the help of the arrows of Heracles which Philoctetes had in his possession.
According to Sophocles in his tragedy Philoctetes, the hero was brought
from Lemnos to Troy by Odysseus and Neoptolemus (son of Achilles).
No other allusion to this story is found in the Homeric poems. Philoctetes
reached home in safety at the close of the war.

725. 'Ap^ioi irapd vqwC : parenthetical, in a kind of apposition with
the subject oi ' c/xeAAoi/. ^iXoKTTrroo : construe with /xirycrccr&u.

726 = 703. 727. 'OiXrios : father of the lesser Ajax (527).

728. pd: points back to the preceding verse. Cf. 650, 742.

9-733. 7-o/vvx of the Asclepiads.

29. TpiKK-rjv KrX. : cities in western Thessaly, in Hestiaeotis. At
Tricca was om- of the oldest sanctuaries of Asclepius, and the home of
the kinjj. KXwjiaKoto-o-av : Ithome lay on the steep slopes of Mt. Pindus.
731. 'A<rK\T^iriov : better written as 'Acr/cArp-ioo. See on 518.

4-737. Force* of Ewrypybt*. 735. XCVKCL Kdpriva : (/learning heiylit* :

literally, //////< lead*; rf. 789, Cf. 117.

738-747. Tin- fr<; s <>f I'nli/jtiH t< 9.

t . "Apyi<r<rav KT\. : cities of the Lapithae (see on A 263), in the
part of \\hat fTM I'errhai-bia in later times.
739. 'OXooo-o-ova : the most important city in Perrhaebia. irdXiv
\tvK-t\v : 9C. becans,. of its chalk cliffs. ( '/. '. 17.

742. KXvros : as feminine. Cf. 77. 743. ijfiaTi TU> ore : cf. 351.

45. OVK otos: construe \vith ^yc/xoVcvc 710. &jta TW yt KT\. : no



s







loo COMMENTARY TO THE

conjunction connects this with OVK olos, since it is in a kind of apposition
with it ( 15 &), expressing more fully the thought of the first words of
the verse (see on ovXofAtvrjv A 2).

746. vircp6v|ioio : in a laudatory sense. KcuvcCSao : cf. A 264.

748-755. Aenianians and Perrhaebians. 750. olicf 0vro : built their homes.

751. d(jw|)C: on the banks of. ep-ya: tilled fields.

753. dp-yvpoSivrj : because of the white waves and eddies of the turbid
Pencils, where the clear Titaresius empties its stream into it. The swift
current makes it possible to distinguish for a time the waters of the two
streams.

754. dXXd T: cf. A. 82. r\vr e'Xcuov : refers to the water of the one
stream flowing above the other.

755. opKou ScivoO : explained by its appositive Sruyos. This introduces
a mythical explanation that gives a miraculous quality to the water.
S-nryos: limits V&XTOS. diropp<&: branch of the water of the Styx, as the
Cocytus also was said to be. This mysterious connection with the Styx
(a stream with a high fall, in Arcadia) was imagined probably because of
its violent current.

756-759. The Magnesians.

758. np60oos 0o6s : the poet puns upon the name. 13 c.

760-785. Conclusion of the Catalogue of the Achaean forces.

760. Cf. 487.

761. T(S T apa: cf. A 8. 6' X ' apurros: cf. A 69. cweire: cf. 484.

762. avrcov KT\. : cf. 466. &[ia frrovro : cf. A 158.

763. jifya: adverb; see on A 78. *T]pT]Tid8ao : Admetus. Cf. 713 ff.
Or this name may be given to Pheres' grandson Eumelus ; see on 621. In
the funeral games in honor of Patroclus, these mares of Eumelus would
have won the race but for an accident. This statement is subject to
qualification below, o<f>p' 'A^tXevs /zrji/iev769, 764-707 being parenthetical.

764. 'EvjiT]\os : cf. 714. iroSwKeas : this and the following epithets are
attracted to the construction of the relative clause. opviOas : for the
length of the last syllable, see on KCLK.OV ws 190.

765. o-Teuf>v\T| cCoras : like to a plumb line, "straight as an arrow. "-
lirl VWTOV: over the back (cf. 308), i.e. of the same height.

766. 4v n^peCr) : probably the region of Pherae, where Apollo served
Admetus as herdsman. Angry at the death of Asclepius, Apollo had
killed the Cyclopes of Zeus and as a punishment was sent to serve a
mortal. See Euripides' Alcestis, init. Apollo retained his interest in
these mares.






SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 101

767. 4>6{3ov KT\. : the flight of Ares attends them. For the ablatival
genitive, see on 396.

768. av : marks the contrast with ITTTTOL /xeV 763 ; cf. avre A 237.

770. IViroi : these were immortal steeds, sired by Zephyrus and given
by Poseidon to Peleus. <j>op<rKov : drew. The Homeric heroes did not
ride on horseback. Thus TTTTTOI often stands for horses and chariots. Cf.
554.

771. ojj^v: contrasted with LTTTTOI 775, as is shown by 769 f. *v
Wjr<ri : cf. 688 f.

774. al-yavtgo-iv : dative of means with IO/TCS.

775. irop' app.euriv : i.e. where they had been tied when released from
the yoke ; in contrast with v<' op/xao-i, where the horses are under the yoke
before the chariot. IKCUTTOS : appositive, as A 606.

776. The Homeric horses were fed on Aomn/ (clover}, <rcA.ii/ov (a kind
of parsley}, Kvrrupov (a fragrant marsh plant), and on Kpi XCVKOV (white
barley}, Trupos (wheat), and oXvpai or u (spelt).

777. xi ireiruKcur^va : i.e. away from the dust. KITO : stood. AVO.K-
TWV: of the masters (construe with apfuiTa.), i.e. Achilles and his lieu-
tenants (see on 685). The Aooi did not fight d<' ITTTT^V.

778. ol & : i.e. the Aaot and avaKTts. iroOt'ovres : cf. 703.

780. Return to the narrative which was interrupted by the Catalogue
(484). But while, at 476, the leaders are busy in arranging their troops,
here they are represented as already moving forward for the attack. ol
81 : i.e. the Achaeans. o>s cC TC KT\. : (u< if the earth were devoured (liter-
ally, pastured off) by fire. The optative is used to express a mere concep-
tion of the mind. The comparison relates to the gleam of the armor and
weapons ; cf. 455 ff.

781. " The earth trembled as from an earthquake." Ail ws : sc. crrei/a-
\L&I, groaned as it groans under Zeus, under the power of Zem. VTTO Trovcri
784 corresponds to this. Ai( : for the length of the ultima, cf. opvi6a<s
764, and At? 636.

782. x" * 1 "'^ 1 " ' ll l^ 8 wrath." An instance of the exhibition of this
anger follows. 8re re : with hypothetical subjunctive. 4ft<j>l Tv<f>& : a
mighty giant, symbol of volcanic power. He opposed Zeus, but was over-
come by the thunderbolt, and was buried under a mountain. From this
he belches forth fire. When he attempts to rise, he causes earthquakes;
then Zeus smitr> \\ith his lightning the earth about Typhoeus, i.e. the
earth which cover.-* him. Pindar, in his first Pythian ode, represents
the monster as lying under Mt. Etna, and extending to Mt. Vesuvius.










102 COMMENTARY TO THE



Cf. ' In bulk as huge | As whom the fables name of monstrous size, | . . .
Briareos [A 403] or Typhon, whom the den | By ancient Tarsus held,'
Milton Par. Lost i. 196 if.

783. ctv 'Apifiois : in the land of the Arimi, in Cilicia. This belongs to
the so-called 'earthquake belt.' Cf. durumque cubile | Inarime
lovis imperiis imposta Typhoeo Verg. Aen. ix. 715 f.

784. Cf. scuta sonant pulsuque pedum conterrita tellus
Verg. Aen. vii. 722.

785. treSCoio : on the plain ; local genitive; cf. 801. Only the archaic
form in -oto is so used in Homer. The accusative is used with no essential
difference of meaning ; cf. A 483.

786. iro8Vjvnos : Iris is deAAoTro? storm-footed 409. Cf. Tennyson's
' light-foot Iris.' WK&I [WKCUX] : for the inflection, see 38 b.

787. imp Aios : construe with rj\Qe.

788. d-yopds crydpcuov : were holding an assembly ; cf. TroAe/xov TroAe/x^civ
F 435. lirl npidpoio Ovprjo-iv : at the gates of Priam, i.e. before the palace,
where by oriental custom the king sat in judgment. Cf. 'Judges and
officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates,' Deut. xvi. 18.

789. irdvres : i.e. all the nobles. It is limited by the circumstances of
the case. No special fiovXrj (cf. 53) of the Trojans is mentioned.

790. irpo<r<j>T] : sc. piv (referring to Priam), as 172. Cf. 795.

791. <j>0oYY^jv : at first only the similarity of voice receives prominence,
in close connection of thought with 7rp<xre<f>r). But here, as in the other
cases, a transformation of the whole person is to be assumed; hence
eeio-a/>iv?7 795 without the addition of (fr&oyytjv. The contents of the
speech, however, cause Hector to recognize the goddess (807).

792. iro8KT)<n KT\. : equivalent to TTOO-I Kpanrvola-i TreTroi^ok. For the
plural, cf. TrpoOvfitrjcri 588.

793. rvjjipu) KT\. : on the top of the mound.

794. Sy|icvos oirnxm : exspectans dum, generally followed by the
aorist optative. vav<|>iv : ablatival genitive with afop/jujOdtv. This serv-
ice was to be expected rather at the beginning of the war. Cf. 362 ff.

795. TW niv ccuraiic'vT] : cf. 22. plv: i.e. Priam. Construe with TT/OOO -
<iy. This verse repeats the sum of 790 f., because of the interposed
clauses.

796. aUt TOI: cf. A 107, 177, 541. <t\oi: predicate. Cf. A 107.
oxpiroi : cf. 246. Iris blames Priam's untimely unconcern.

797. irdXtjios 8e KT\. : contrast (paratactic ; 21 d) with or' cip^n/s, in
time of peace. dXiao-ros: cf. 420.



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 103

798. 8rj : equivalent to 77877. -iroXXd: cognate accusative with tlcrrjXvOov.
It does not differ greatly from TroAAaKi?. 799. Cf. 120.

800. HKOTS: sc. in number. Cf. 468. Cf. 'I will multiply thy
seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea-
shore/ Genesis xxii. 17. Ij: in a comparison where the poet leaves the
choice open. 801. Trporl oo-rv : construe with tp^ovrai.

802. "EKTOP : Iris turns to address Hector as the commander-in-chief,
on whom above all others depends the weal of the state. &: for the
order of words, cf. A 28*2. o>& -ye : construe with pe^cu. It refers to what
follows.

803. iroXXol *rA. : explanatory preparation for 805. For the thought,
rf. 130 f.

805. Touriv : to these; antecedent of the following relative. No con-
junction is used to connect this with what has preceded, since this is in a
kind of apposition with o>8e ye peat. For the dative, cf. Tpoxrt 816.
Each is to give orders to his countrymen, as usual. This indicates the
separation into tribes (accomplished in 815) corresponding to that of the
Greeks in 362 f.

806. TWV 5' ^ycwrOo) : amJ let him lead these forth : sc. from the city to
the field of battle. iro\iT|Tas : the men of 7//x city. This measure is
intended especially for the great number of Trojan allies.

807. ov TI KT\. : by no means failed to recognize (i.e. he recognized clearly)
the speech of the goddess; he recognized the goddess herself. For the
'litotes,' see on A 22 o.

808. tirl Ttvxta, : to fetch their arms. Cf. Attic yuera rcv^ea.

809. irdo-ai irvXai : tin 1 ir/tole gate, i.e. the gate was opened wide, the
Scaean or Dardanian .n'ut<>, leading from the city to the plain. Homer
does not mention any other gates of the city.

811. rri 5< TIS: a favorite epic beginning of a description; cf. urbs
antiqua f uit Verg. Aen. i. 12. ir6\ios : disyllabic by < synizesis.' The
ultima, is loni^ before the caesural pause.

812. <xira.vcu6 : n.<i<!> : sc. from the principal road. irepCSpofios : i.e.
fiv* lyinu r . I.viiiLj in an op-n place. ev6a KT\. : see on 397.

814. dOdvaroi KrA. : for the language of the gods, see on A 403.
crf)|Aa : such a t<>nil> as that of 604. iroX.vo-Kap6p.oko: agile; sc. in battle.

815. Bu'icpifcv: cf. *<>:,. IT-', f.

816-877. 77/r Trujuns and tln'-ir tillies. The force opposed to the
Adiacans is composed of sixteen contingents: I. five contingents from
Trojan peoples (816-839), and II. eleven contingents of allies (onxovpot,




104 COMMENTARY TO THE

840-877). Of the allies, three divisions come from Europe, and eight
from Asia. I. Trojans from () Ilios, (6) Dardania, under command
of Aeneas, (c) Zelea, under Pandarus, (</) Adrastea, (e) Percote, etc.
II. Allies (from Europe), (a) Thracians, under Rhesus, (b) Ciconians,
(c) Paeonians; (from Asia), (a) Pelasgians, (b) Paphlagonians, under
Pylaemenes, (c) Halizonians, (d) Mysians, (e) Phrygians, (/) Maeonians,
(<7) Carians, (h) Lycians, under Sarpedon and Glaucus. See on 844 ff.

The Catalogue of the Trojans is far less exact, detailed, and symmet-
rical than that of the Achaeans ; it contains no definite statements of
number. The total number of Trojans and allies was 50,000, according
to 562 f. : 'A thousand fires were kindled on the plain, and by each sat
fifty men.' Of these about 10,000 were Trojans, if 123-130 are to be
interpreted literally.

816-839. The Trojans. 816. Tpwo-C: in the narrower sense, the
inhabitants of the city *IAtos. |xeyas : of stature. The Greeks were
prone to believe that no man could be physically small while mentally
great. Cf. 653. Kopv0cuo\os : a mark of martial activity ; c/etcristam
adverse curru quatit aura volantem Verg. Aen. xii. 370.

817. ir\ioTTot KT\. : i.e. as the flower of the whole army.

818. |Mji,a6Ts : striving forward with the lance, eager for the fray.

819. AapSaviuv : the name is preserved in the modern < Dardanelles.'
avre: correlative with piv 816 ; cf. 768. 'A-yxfo" 010 : Anchises is nowhere
referred to by Homer as alive at the time of this war.

820. 'A^poSfrnj : for the short first syllable, see 59 g a.

821. iv KVTjfiowri: i.e. where Anchises had charge of the herds and
herdsmen. It was one of the patriarchal customs of those times that
kings and kings' sons tended their flocks on the slopes of the mount*

6cd (3poro>: note the 'antithesis.' 822. fyiarw-ye: cf. 745.

823. jxax-qs ird<nis: every kind of battle, on foot or in the chariot, witl
lance or sword. For the genitive, cf. 718.

824. 8c: for the short vowel before following , cf. o before

in 465. Ze'Xciav: on the frontier of Mysia. iro'8a veCarov: i.e. the
northern slope. For the accusative, cf. 603.

825. d<j>vioC: sc. because of the well-tilled farms. irtvovres KT\. : this
expression was often imitated. Cf. exsul | aut Ararim Parthus
bibet, aut Germania Tigrim Verg. Eel. i. 62 f. |iAav: this epithet
is applied to springs and rivers, as well as to the sea, when the surface
is disturbed by breezes in such a way as to prevent a clear reflection of the
sun's light.






SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 105

826. Tpwts: in the broader sense, the inhabitants of the country.

827. Kai: rf. A 24!). TO'OV KT\. : i.e.. Apollo gave him skill with the
bow; cf. laetus Apollo | augurium citharamque dabat, celeres-
que sagittas Verg. Aen. xii. 393 f. The ancients believed that the bow
of an excellent archer must be the gift of the god of the bow. The mak-
ing of the bow of Pandarus, from the horns of a wild goat shot by himself,
is described in A 105-111.

828. 'A8pt|o-Teiav : received its name from Adrestus (830). Like the
following cities, it lay in what was Mysia in later times. 8%ov : as 547.

829. Xlmjciav: received its name from the neighboring pine forests;
as the neighboring Lampsacus was called Hu-vovo-a. TijpcCiis : a moun-
tainous region near Cyzicus.

830. Xivo0u>pT]f; : perhaps as an archer. Cf. 529.

831. vlt 8vw: cf. A 16. IIcpKaxrCov : he seems to have lived formerly
in Percote (835) ; or Adrastea may have been a colony from Percote.

irtpl irdvrwv: cf. A 258.

832. fj8 KT\. : Homer knows of no professional soothsayers. Calchas
(A 69), Helenus (Z 76), Ennomus (858), Melampus, Halitherses, all
are introduced as busy in different ways, in war and in peace. ov& : for
the lengthened ultima before the possessive pronoun, see 32 c, i. ov8
urKv : < resistance to pressure ' is implied in the imperfect. He refused
his consent.

833. 4>8iorT|vopa : a standing epithet of the battle.

835. apa: us ."iL'2. ntpKwrqv : Percote, Abydus, and Arisbe were
towns on the south side of the Hellespont.

836. ZT)<TTO'V : on the Thracian Chersonese, opposite Abydus. Here
Xerxes bril.u'f<l tin- Hellespont.

838. "Ao-ios : for the repetition of the name, see on 671.

840-877. Th, fi///Ys nf the Trojans.

840. neXcurywv : a part settled in Greece proper, a part must have
remained in A>ia Minor. They gave to many of their towns the name
Larisa or Larissa (rock-i-itnil<l). More than a dozen towns of this name
are enumerated, beside the citadel of Argos.

844 ff. The following enumeration of allies has a radial arrangement,
proceeding from Troy as the center and starting point. Each radius ends
with a TrjkoOtv (810, 857, 877) or r^Ae (863) for the most distant point
from Troy. I. KuiojuMn line (844-850). II. Northeast of Troy, on
the southern shore of the Euxine Sea (851-857). III. Southeast of Troy
(858-863). IV. South of Troy (864-877).




106 COMMENTARY TO THE

844. pTJiKas : European Thracians, dwelling between the Hebrus and
the Hellespont. f^t : for the singular, see on 512.

845. 'EXXTJcrirovros : the Hellespont in Homer includes also the neigh-
boring waters. d-ydppoos : with strong stream. It is called a TroTa/xds.
No current of the Mediterranean compares with that of the Hellespont.

846. KIKOVCDV : Odysseus destroyed their city, after leaving Troy.
They are mentioned by Herodotus among the Thracian nations through
whose country Xerxes passed.

850. 'Au>ii: for the repetition, cf. 671. The Axius is one of the chief
rivers of Macedonia, west of the Strymon. Homer applies to it the epi-
thets tvpvpteOpos, ftaOvSLvrjs. KoXXio-rov : predicate ; " whose water is the
most beautiful that," etc. Cf. 216. The water of the Axius is now
muddy.

851. Here the poet returns to Asia. See on 844 ff. HuXcuneveos
KT\. : equivalent to " the shaggy-breasted Pylaemenes." For the periph-
rasis, cf. 387, T 105; see 16 d. Xourtov *f\p : see on A 189. Here
the epithet is transferred to the heart itself.

852. l 'EvcTwv: out of the midst of the Enetians, where he dwelt.
Equivalent to 'Evcrrjios. In later times these 'Everoi were called Veneti ;
they were said to have wandered to the coast of the Adriatic Sea. d-ypo-
repdcDv: the comparative ending is sometimes used in Homer with no
thought of greater or less degree, but simply of contrast. 40 c.

856. Cf. 517. 858. Mwwv : south of the Propontis, east of the

Aesepus, towards Bithynia.

859. OVK : placed emphatically before otcovoionv, with reference to the
preceding oiwncmjs. Cf. gratissimus augur ; | sed non augurio
potuit depellere pestem Verg. Aen. ix. 327 f. olwvowriv: by omens.
from the flight of birds.

860. vuro x P" : wro with the dative is frequently used by Homer where
the Attic used VTTO with the genitive. See 19 i. Atai<8ao : for the use
of the patronymic, cf. 621. Cf. Aeacidae telo iacet Hector Verg.
Aen. i. 99.

861. v iroTap.w : as 875. The story of the general slaughter by Achilles
in the bed of the Scamander is told in $ 17 ff., but Ennomus is not named
there. S0i irep : just where.

862. ^pv-yas : sc. on the river Sangarius. They were famed for their
chariots and their vineyards (T 184 if.). They had commercial relations
with the Trojans. Vergil calls the Trojans Phrygians, but this is not
Homeric; cf. alma Venus Phrygii genuit Simoentis ad undam






SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 107

Verg. Aen. i. 618. 'Ao-tcdvios : Homer knows of no son of Aeneas. The
boy Ascanius was invented later as a companion piece to Hector's son
Astyanax. For the name we may compare Askkenez in Gen. x. 3 for
the inhabitants of Central Asia Minor.

863. 'A<rKavT)s : in Bithynia, on a lake of the same name on which
lay also the later Xicaea. jt^oo-av &': instead of a participle or relative
clause ; see 21 d. vo-ptvi : local dative. Synonymous with /^ax 7 ?' TroAe/xos,
ST/IOTT/S.

864. Mrfoo-iv: later called Lydians. They inhabited an attractive
land and were equipped with chariots; they traded with the Trojans;
and their women were skilled in purple dyeing. TjYqo-do-OTjv : cf. 620.

865. TxryaiTi \(fivrj : i.e. the nymph of that lake; cf. vv/x<ry 1/171$ Z 21.
All of these nymphs belong to western Asia Minor, which was thought
to be their favorite abode.

866. teat: n/.w, marks the agreement with 864. Cf. 74.

867. pappapocjxivttv : rout/h-wircd, refers to the harshness of their dia-
lect. The word pdpfiapos for non-Greek, foreigner, is not found in Homer,
just as the poet has no one word for 'all Greece.' No one in Homer
has any difficulty in conversing with another of a diiferent country.
Greeks, Trojans, and Lycians all seem to speak the same language.

868. M&TTOV : this old Carian city became the largest Ionian city and
the mother of eighty colonies, but lost much of its importance in the
insurrection against the Persians, in 494 B.C.

869. MuKdXtjs : at the foot of this mountain the Persians were defeated,
in 479 B.C.

870. opa : .<>. us I miitj, refers back to 867.

871. Ndo-TT]s KT/V. : repeated from the preceding verse, in the reverse
order. < 'f. <>71 .

872. os : refers to the principal person, Ncio-nys 867. icaC: marks the
agreement with ayXaa TC'KVO. 871 ; cf. 866. xP Vflr v X WV : "''^ l 9ld orna-
ments, probably the gold spirals used in fastening his long hair. xpvcroi/
here cannot refer to gold armor such as that of Glaucus, Nestor, or
Achilles, since that was an honor and no reproach. Nastes was the
Trojan Nireus (671 ff.). r\vrt Kovpt] : like <i ruin girl.

873. W|irios : <-f. 38. 874 = 860.
876. SapirrjSwv: second only to Hector; the bravest leader of the

allies, regarded by the Trojans as Ipfjua. 77-0X7709 H 5l!) /<>/> of the city.
He was son of Zeus and Laoilamia. Bellerophon's daughter (Z 198 f.).
He led in the attack on the Achaean camp (M 101, 292 if., 397 ff.). He




108 COMMENTARY TO THE

was slain by Patroclus (II 480 if.). At the command of Zeus, Apollo
bathed his corpse, anointed it with ambrosia, and gave it to the twin

brothers, Sleep and Death, to convey to Lycia (II 667 if.) FXavKos :

Glaucus tells of his race in Z 145 if. He was first cousin of Sarpedon and
grandson of Bellerophon, descended from Sisyphus of Corinth. He is
associated with Sarpedon in the battles. He has a famous meeting with
Diomed (Z 119 if.). He was wounded by Teucer (M 387 if.). The honors
received by the two Lycian heroes at home are enumerated by Sarpedon at
M 310. The name 'Lycia' is given by the poet also to the district from
which Pandarus (827) comes ; cf. E 105. From those Trojan Lycians
the southern Lycians of Sarpedon are to be distinguished.

877. QdvOov: mentioned also in E 479, M 313; to be distinguished
from the Trojan river ov HdvOov KaXeovo-i 0coi', ai/Spes Se ^Ka/xavSpov Y 74.



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD

Instead of the general battle which was to be expected from the prepa-
rations of the Second Book, a duel is fought between Menelaus and Paris.
This duel is intended by the combatants to put an end to the entire war.

In the Third Book the poet gives to his hearers a view of the state
of affairs in Troy, as the preceding Books had taught of the relations
existing between the Achaeans, both leaders and men, and also gives
information with regard to events which preceded the action of the poem.

1. This verse refers to B 476, 815. IKCM-TOI : i.e. the separate divi-
sions of each army. Cf. B 127. The singular would have been used of
individuals. Cf. A 606.

2. Tpfos: i.e. the Trojans and their allies. As B 826, not as B 816.
K\ayyfj KT\. : with clamor and outcry ; one idea, expressed for emphasis
by two synonymous nouns. Cf. A 492, B 339. ftrav: advanced.
jfpviOcs s: cf.~B 764, and see on B 190. This comparison is made definite
by a special illustration. The Achaeans silent in the consciousness of
their power are contrasted with the noisy Trojans. Elsewhere also the
Trojans are represented as exercising less self-restraint, as less disciplined
than the Greeks. When the strife is renewed (A 429 if.) the Achaeans
advance in solemn silence, while the Trojans come to meet them with the
noise of a flock of sheep.

3. T|VT; cf. B 87, ypdvv: cf. B 460, ovpav60t irp6 : the adverb irpQ






THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 109

makes avpavoOi more definite. To the observer, the sky seems to be behind
the cranes in their lofty flight. Cf. B 456. Cf. quales sub nubibus
atris | Strymoniae dant signa grues, atque aethera tranant |
cum sonitu, fugiuntque notos clamore secundo Verg. Aen. x.
264 ff. ; ' As multitudinous on the ocean line | As cranes upon the cloud-
less Thracian wind,' Shelley Hellas; 'Loud were their clamoring tongues,
as when | The clanging sea-fowl leave the fen,' Scott Marmion v. 5.

4. firel ovv : as A .">7. x.ip.u>va : cf. yc/oavot 8c <J>cvyov<rai ^et/aoiva rov ei/
rrj 2/cv#t/c7 \^prf ytvo/xevov, fayriawn e? ^et/xatrnyv (winter quarters) ? rovs
TOTTOVS TOVTOVS (i.e. of the Nile) Hdt. ii. 22, quam multae glome-
rantur aves, ubi frigidus annus | trans pontum fugat, et terris
immittit apricis Verg. Aen. vi. 311 f. <J>vyov: for the gnomic aorist



Online LibraryHomerThe first six books of Homer's Iliad → online text (page 26 of 48)