Homer.

The first six books of Homer's Iliad online

. (page 27 of 48)
Online LibraryHomerThe first six books of Homer's Iliad → online text (page 27 of 48)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


in comparisons, cf. 10, 23, 33.

5. KXayytj: contains the real point of the comparison; 6 f. are. added
simply to complete the picture. See 14 a. rat -y : repeats the subject,
at re 4. See on A 97. irl KT\. : toward the currents, etc., i.e. toward the
south. See on A 42:5.

6. avSpdcri : made prominent in contrast with the cranes, avrfp often
stands in attributive connection with nouns. See on B 474. IliryncUouri :
these pygmies, Lilliputians (literally, Fistlings), on the southern shore of the
Mediterranean, were attacked yearly by the cranes, according to the com-
mon story. Cf. 'that small infantry | Warr'd on by cranes,' Milton Par.
Lost i. 575. <|>ovov KT\.: cf. B 3r>L'.

7. T|picu : cf. A 497. On the day after their arrival in the land.
KoxT|v: destructive, as A 10; c. to the pygmies. epiSa KT\. : offer
(literally, bring forward) strife.

Q. ol 8* opa: i.e. the Achaeans ; correlative with Tpoie? //,/ 2. fcrav
o-i-yfi : cf. ov yap Kpavyfj aAAa <riyrj . . . /cat ^o~v)(rj . . . Trpotrfjcrav Xt-ii. An.
i. 8. 11. jUvca irveCovrcs: cf. B 536. Cf. 'Thus they | Breathing united
force with ti\-l thought. | Gloved on in sil.-nct',' Milton Par. Lost i. 559 ff.

9. 4v Ovjiw: m heart, though they <li<l not shout; emphatic. Cf.
B 22:J.

10. vT : generally A temporal particle; here a comparative conjunction,
ax, like rjvrf 3. ' 4 Asth^ South wind vrils tin- nioiinlain tops \vith mist."

11. ov TI 4>^iv KT\. : 9C. sine.- thf shfpln-nl on tin- mountains in a
thick mist cannot easily \\atch and -nanl his tlock. WKTOS oifuivw : pT-
hajK l.t'caus.- the sheep were usually shut up in their fold at night.

12. T6<rorov, Ixrov : only sn fur <i* : accusative of e\t-!it, ^ith 7ri', cf.
B G1U. rL *i- tliese mark the correlation of the clauses; cf. A 82.



HO COMMENTARY TO THE



, or of a



Distances are thus measured in Homer: as the cast of a spear,
discus, or of a shepherd's crook, or a bowshot, or a furrow's length, or
the reach of the voice. Cf. St. Luke xxii. 41, 'And he was withdrawn
from them about a stone's cast.'

13. os apa KxA. : as B 784. 14 = B 785.

15. A formula which, in close connection with what has preceded,
introduces the single combat of two warriors. <rxe86v rj<rav : were near
each other. For the use of the adverb, see on A 41 6. &ir' a\\TJ\ouriv :
construed with lovres. For CTTI in hostile sense, cf. A 382.

16. Tpowriv : for the Trojans. OeoeiSTjs : this epithet is given to Paris
because of his personal beauty. Cf. 39, 44 ff., 55, 64.

17. irapSoXc'iiv : adjective as substantive. See on A 54. As a light-
armed warrior (he was eminently a bowman), he wore no armor, and thus
had a panther's skin on his shoulders. See on B 43.

18. avrap: on the other hand. This gives prominence to Sov/oe, since
the spears do not belong properly to the archer's equipment, which has
just been described. Sovpc 8v : for Sixo with the dual, cf. A 16. KCKopvO-
|Uva KT\. : for the plural in agreement with the dual, cf. A 200. Cf.
bina manu lato crispans hastilia ferro Verg. Ae.n. i. 313, laeva
duo forte gerebat | praefixa hastilia ferro ib. xii. 488 f.

19 ff. For the single combat^ cf. ' And there went out a champion out
of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was
six cubits and a span. And he had an helmet of brass upon his head,
and he was armed with a coat of mail ; and the weight of the coat was
five thousand shekels of brass. And he had greaves of brass upon his
legs, and a target of brass between his slioulders. And the staff of his
spear was like a weaver's beam, and his spear's head weighed six hundred
shekels of iron ; and one bearing a shield went before him. And he
stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them, " Why are
ye come out to set your battle in array? Am not I a Philistine, and ye
servants to Saul ? Choose you a man for you, and let him come down to
me. If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your
servants : but if I prevail against him and kill him, then shall ye be our
servants, and serve us." And the Philistine said, "I defy the armies of
Israel this day ; give me a man, that we may fight together," ' 1 Sam. xvii.
4-10; cum trigeminis (sc. Horatii and Curiatii) agunt reges,
ut pro sua quisque patria dimicent ferro: ibi imperium fore,
unde victoria fuerit Livy i. 24; 'Then said the doughty Douglas |
Unto the Lord Percy : I " To kill all these guiltless men, | Alas ! it were









THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD HI

great pitie. | But, Percy, thou art a lord of land, | I am an earl called
within my country; | Let all our men upon a parti stand, | And do the
battle of thee and me," ' Chevy Chase.

19. irdXXwv: parallel with l^oui/ 17. irpoKaXi^ro : by his mien rather
than ly \\onls; cf. 21. TrpOKaAi^o/xevo? would make a smoother con-
struction here, but the finite verb is used in order to give the thought
more prominence ; cf. tfiaXXov 80. Thus I^o>v and TroAAwi/ seem to be
related to both imperfects. irdvras apwrrovs : in marked contrast with the
yielding of Paris before Menelaus, who was not distinguished in battle.
Here the period returns to line 16, since this verse explains Trpo/xa^t^ev.
Paris and Menelaus are introduced first in the action, since the two are
the prime cause of the war. Their feud is private as well as public. The
description of the two foes is made specially effective by the contrast of
their characters.

20. dvripiov : cf. dvri/?6iyi/ A 278 ; used only of a hand-to-hand, man-
against-nian conflict.

21. Be: correlative with ^cV 1C. s : for its position, cf. A 32.
dprjufuXos : this epithet is generally applied, as here, to Menelaus. The
epithet and the name form a convenient close to the verse. See on A 7.

22. irpo-irdpoiBtv ojuXou : sc. as TrpofMi^;. p.o.Kpd f3if3dvra : this gives the
manner of cp^o/xcvov. It is here a sign of courage, for Paris was no coward.
Cf. longe gradientem Verg. A en. \. .~>TL J , ' Satan with vast and haughty
strides advann-d.' Milton I'm: Lout vi. 109.

23. ws T Xt'wv KT\. : a comparison instead of the apodosis, which (with
o<j>6a\fji<H(riv iSojj/ as a repetition of ws Ivorprev) follows at 27. The gnomic
aoii>t c^apr; contains the point of comparison; but TTUVOUW also receives
emphasis from its position and corresponds to <<XTO yap Ti<Ta<r6ai 28, i.e.
joy at the promised satisfaction of a passionate desire. ^irl o-w^art Kvp-
<ras : ax lc /if>pened upon the carcass of a beast just slain in the chase
(>/'. -M'.). <ru>/xa is used in Homer only of a dead body; see 17. In
A 17-") IT. is another instance in a comparison of a lion coming up and eat-
ing a deer which a hunter had killed. Cf. impastus stabula alta
leo ceu saep<> j-era-rans, | suadet enim vesana fames; si forte

em | conspexit capream aut surgentem in coruua cer-
vum | gaudet \'.TU. .!>//. x. TL':') ff. The aorist is gnomic, like
below, which explains Ki'/jfrus. and is in apposition with it.

25. ^dXa KaT<r0ui : <n;/t rly tit murji. -yap re KT\. : explains

tt irp dv : ' /'. B ">!'7. avr6v : himself, in contrast with the goat or deer.

26. Kvvcs KT/\. : "hounds and hunter.-," who had killed the beast.




112 COMMENTARY TO THE

27. 6oei8e'a : with < synizesis ' of the last two vowels, as 237, 450.

28. rto-cwrOai : for the aorist infinitive after a verb of expecting, cf. 112,
366 ; see G. 1286.

29. Paris was on foot; see 22. If- 6xv: equivalent to e ITTTTWV 265.
31. KaTeirXTJyn : " was filled with dismay " ; not from natural cowardice

(Z 521 ff.), but his guilty conscience robbed him of courage at sight of
Menelaus. < Conscience does make cowards of us all.' r\rop : cf. A 44.

33. ws 8' ore : introduces a comparison, with the gnomic aorist. See
14 e. ri, ri : as 12. For the c remaining short before Bp, see 59 g.
iroXivopo-os cwrfcrnj : stepped back again, sc. in terror; in this lies the
point of the comparison. For the predicate adjective used as an adverb,
cf. ffcpuai 7, O.VTLOL A 535. Cf. improvisum aspris veluti qui sen-
tibus anguem | pressit humi nitens, trepidusque repente
ref ugit | ... hand secus Androgeus visu tremefactus abibat
Verg. Aen. ii. 379 ff., 'False Sextus saw and trembled, | And turned and
fled away; | As turns, as flies the woodman In the Calabrian brake | When
thro' the reeds gleams the round eye | Ot that fell speckled snake, | So
turned, so fled false Sextus | And hid him in the rear,' Macaulay Lays,
Battle of Regillus xv.

34. vir6 : below, referring to the weakness of his knees. Construe with



35. irapeids : in apposition with piv, as a part ' with the < whole '
438,442.

36. K<x0' opaXov: into the throng. d-ypx wv: a ^ so B 654.

37. 'AXc'av8pos : in apposition with the subject of <$v, expressed
for the sake of the contrast with 'Arpe'os viov.

39. etSos apio-T : as 124 ; in contrast with AwrTrapi, cf. 45. Thus
excellence that is granted is made a reproach.

40. al'9* o<}>\s KT\. : closely connected with the reproaches of the pre-
ceding verse. amoves, a-yajios : unborn, unmarried. Elsewhere, also, Hector
uses strong language to Paris and about him. Cf. 454, Z 284 f.

41. Kal r6 : even this, referring to the preceding verse. KC povXoCfniv :
potential, 7 should prefer; cf. A 112. KCV r^ev: as contrary to fact in
present time. iroXv : cf. A 91, 112.

42. r\ : follows the comparative idea in ySo^Aoi/x^v, as A 117, KCU KCV
TroXv KT\r being parenthetical.

44. 4><xvTes (imperfect participle): they who believed; of an incorrect
view, as B 37 and frequently. KoXdv: seldom is an adjective at the close
of one verse in close connection with a noun at the beginning of the next.



:






THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 113

1 1 j. Many apparent exceptions to this rule can be explained, as A 78,
156, 283. This arrangement of words may have been chosen here in
order to give increased prominence to eT8os. Perhaps KoAoV and eT8os should
change places, having been transposed to avoid an < apparent hiatus.'

45. em (for ITTCO-TI, as A 515) : attends thee. d\X' OVK KT\. : the con-
trast with <avres calls strictly for a participle denoting the Achaeans'
recognition of the truth. Instead of this, Hector states the fact from his
own standpoint. <J>ptcriv : local ; cf. A 24.

46. " Can such a coward have dared to meet the dangers involved in
the rape of Helen ?" TOIOO-& : with deictic -&, cf. 157, B 120.

47. ci-ytipas : subordinate to eTriirAwcras [Attic eTriTrAcucras].

48. aXXoSaTrouri : masculine adjective as substantive ; cf. Aa/o&xv.,W
B 819. Cf. on A 54, 539. dvifrcs : didst lead (tiring) home to Troy.

49. dirt]s: cf. A 270. vuov: sister-in-late of Agamemnon, who i<
implied in the more general av&pwv KT\. alxp-Tp-cuov : cf. A 290. Impor-
tant for the thought here. For the plural, cf. 106, B 250.

50. iri^a : as a bane. This accusative and the two following are in
apposition with the whole of the preceding sentence, marking the result
of the action. Cf. B 160 ; see H. 626 ; G. 915. 8^p.w : country, as B 547.

For the (probably accidental) alliteration of ir, see 13 a.

51. 8ixr(jiv<riv KrA.. : for the <chiastic ' order of words, cf. 103 f., 179,
A 443. Kcm]4>T)v : humiliation, shame. Cf. 6 Kt/cepun/ <j>rj . . . yeXwra p.tv
rots exfyxHs, Cuervo? 8 TOIS ot/cetbt? Trape^ovra Dio Cass. xxxviii. 23. 1.

52. OVK av Stj KT\. : a question in the sense of an energetic but sarcastic
exhortation. Couldst thou not then withstand, etc. ? Stand to meet, etc. The
way for this question has been prepared by 50 f. "If thou hadst the
courage to bring Helen to Troy, thus bringing war upon thy native land,
then have the courage," etc.

53. -YVOIT|S KC : (fun iruufd.it thou learn. The condition ct /xetVeux? is
easily supplied; cf. A 232, B 242. x l : h<**t to ivife, as 123.

54. OVK av TOI xpato-HT) : " will not help thee (A 28)." This is more
definite than the optative with av, to be expected after yvoirf: KC. See
18 b. OTC fjuyeirfi is stated as a mere conception of the mind. K(6apis:
without the article, although the other nouns here have it. Achilles, also,
had a citluira (I 189), but he sang not love songs but K\GJ. dvSpwi/, glorious
d'-uls of men. rd : these, thy ; deictic, like the following 17 and TO.

55. f\ TC KT\. : among the gifts of the goddess of love, two are made
prominent. Observe the explanatory apposition. fti-yetris iv : cf. 209'
generally the simple dative is used with



114



COMMENTARY TO THE






56. 8i8^fjLovs : sc. since Paris belonged to the royal family. T| re KCV
&TCTO : the conditional idea (English else) is implied as in 53.

57. Xdivov KT\. : put on a stone tunic. A grim expression of popular
speech for death by stoning, the customary method of capital punishment
in heroic times (as in the laws of Moses). A recent American story has
the sentence, 'You would return in a wooden overcoat,' and from an
English story is quoted ' put on the green waistcoat ' in the sense of ' lie
under the graveyard sod.' Possibly, then, Hector referred to a sarcopha-
gus ; but the Homeric heroes are burned, not buried in stone coffins.
2<r<ro : from ei/vv/xt (eori/iyxi) .

59. "EKxop: construe with 64, where the principal thought begins.
fireC : follows the vocative, as A 352. This clause has no grammatical con-
clusion. The virtual conclusion is 67 f.

60. aU TOI: this thought is resumed in 63 with an accented <nw,
because of the contrast. dreip^s : predicate of KpaSirj.

61. t<riv : goes, i.e. is driven. It is always used as present in Homeric
comparisons; cf. B 87. 8id Sovpo's : through the trunk of a tree. xnr
dvc'pos: driven by a man. For the passive sense in eTcnv, see H. 820. 0-5
pd TC KT\. : hypothetical, "when he hews out" of the felled tree, etc.
Tfyvrj : ivith skill. For the dative, cf. KXayyfj 2, crtyij 8.

62. 6<j>'X\t KT\. : the axe by its weight increases the force of the man'.i
blow. 6<f>t\\u has the same subject as elo-iv, which shows the intervening
clause to be parenthetical.

63. drdppT]Tos: attributive adjective with voo?.

64. fiT| n 01 - : 'adversative asyndeton.' irpo<|>pc : cf. B 251. XP^'V
equivalent to xpv<ro<f>6pov, adorned with gold. Cf. B 872, Venus aurea
Verg. Aen. x. 16. Similarly, Ares is ^aX/ceos, because of his bronze armor.
"I acknowledge my lack of thine unyielding courage, but do not cast in
my teeth the gifts of Aphrodite."

65. 'Causal asyndeton,' i.e. if a particle were used here, it would be
causal. diro'pXTrra: abiecta, to be cast off, as B 361. Cf. TTO.V KTiby*a
(creature) Otov KaAov, /cat ovSev airojSXrjTov 1 Tim. iv. 4.

66. oo-o-a . . . 8<riv: for the conditional relative sentence, cf. A 554.
Explanatory of Soipa, adding the essential mark of the gods' gifts, i.e.
that they are of free choice. avroC : i.e. without act and thus without
responsibility of the receiver. KWV eXoiro : this forms an independent
contrast to the preceding relative clause.

67. vvv avTc : transition from the preceding general considerations to
the work before them.



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 115

68. oXXovs : the. others. Ka0rov : hid to xit <loum.

69. avnrdp : see on B 708. v fir<ra> : between the two armies; cf. 77,
266, in medium inter duas acies procedunt Livy i. 25. 1, tytipf. KOA.
a-rrjOt, eis TO fjJaov St. Luke vi. 8. For the neuter adjective as a substantive
(not very I'mim-nt in II<mier), cf. -A. 54, 539.

70. <rvjjLpd\T : cf. wet)K A 8. The plural is used, since the consent
of the Achaeans also was necessary for the single combat. tcrfjiicuri, irdo-i :
i.e. those which Paris carried away with Helen from the house of Mene-
laus ; cf. 282. 'Helen and her treasures ' are often united in thought.
H<iXeo-9ai : as A 8.

71. vucfyjTj: tsJmll (/din the rirtory ; as future perfect, shall be victorious.

72. cv: seems to strengthen iravra. d-yt'o-Ow: middle, lake as his own.

73. ol 8* oXXoi: but you, the rest. Elsewhere, when at the beginning
of the verse, but they, the others; as 94, 256. ot 8' oAAot includes both
Trojans and Achaeans, and a division into ot /xe'v, ot 8e might be expected ;
hut instead of this, the second person (VOUKTC) appears in the first mem-
ber, and rot 8 vecafltov in the second. Cf. 256 ff. <f>iX6rrrra: 'zeugmatic-
ally ' (cf. A .">:}:>, jj 16 e) connected with ra/xovres, which is construed
strictly only with op/aa. rajiovres: see on B 124.

74. vaioire: may ye continue to dwell. Note the optative between two
imperatives. This is a mere incident to the proposition. pip\aKa:
epithet of Phthia, A 1 ">">, and of Larisa, B 841. rol &: but those, the
Achaeans.

75. "Ap-yos, 'AxaiCSa: i.e. Peloponnesus (as A 30) and Northern Greece,
i.e. all II. -lias. See on B 5:50.

76. dKov<ras : gives the cause of e'xapry.

78. p.6r<rov Soupos (partitive genitive) : i.e. holding the spear horizon-
tally with both hands, crowding the Trojans back and showing that he
did not intend to fight. I5pvv67]<rav : /rere brought to a halt. This gives
the result of ave'epyc, see on B !' 1.

79. 4irToaovro : m n niinin;/, imperfect of attempted action.

80. cpoXXov: transition from t lie participial to the finite construction,
in order not to sulxinlinatr this idea to 7reToooKro, although the re ...
re would make ^ciXAorrt? natural here. See 11 //, 21 h.

82. t<rx<r0, pi] p<iXXT: note the 'asyndeton,' where the second impera-
tive explains th- first; and the double address, 'Apyttot, Kovpot 'A^atoiv.

83. (TTivrcu: cf. B 597. iros : for the long ultima, see 59 j.

84. fidx^s: for the genitive, cf. 112, dvr/js B 97. avew re KT\. : cf.
B 323. Sc. in order to hear Ilt-etor's speech.










116 COMMENTARY TO THE

85. e<r<rv(jtva)s : made emphatic by its position. JUT
between both armies.

86. KK\VT (lev: hear from me. The genitive is ablatival.

89. KoX': for the accent of the ultima (/coXa) thrown back upon the
preceding syllable, cf. 192, A 105. 28 d. diro0eo-0ai : i.e. they were to
be mere spectators. l-irl x^ v ^ : for the dative of rest, cf. A 593.

90-94 = 69-73, with necessary changes. avrov: intensive, himself.
avros /fovAerai would be natural here, but the accusative is used, correlative
with aAAovs /xo/, above.

92 = 71. Transition to direct discourse ; see 11 e. Cf. 89.

95. CIKVJV: equivalent to d/ceW A 34. Originally a cognate accusative
with eye'vovro, cf. 56 b. o-iwirfj: dative of manner, equivalent to o-ico-
7roivTs. Cf. dixerat Aeneas, illi obstupuere silentes Verg.
Aen. xi. 120.

98. Ovjiov: accusative of 'limit of motion.' l(j.6v: made emphatic by
its position before the caesural pause. <f>povc'o> KT\. : "My mind is that
we now (rjS?;) are to separate in peace." <j>povu) is nearly equivalent to
SOKCI pot. For the aorist infinitive, cf. 28.

99. 'Ap-yeiovs ical Tpwas : has more feeling than fytas KO.L ^/xas. See en
A 240. iriro<r0 : the speaker returns to the address begun with KcA.vre.

100. H.T]S epiSos : my strife with Paris. dpx-ns : the beginning ; cf. 8 7,
B 377 f. A inild expression for the guilt of the first breach of the peace.

101. 6iriroTpw : the antecedent is the subject of reOvcu^. Odvaros Kal
|ioipa : cf. <(>6vov KO.L Krjpa 6, Odvarov KOL Trorfjiov B 359.

102. T0vair] : let him lie dead. 8ia,Kpiv0eiT : repeats Sia/c/otv^/xcvat.

103. oto-6T6 : aorist imperative, as a^ere 105, o/oo-eo 250 ; but oto-o/xev 104

is future. See 48 i apve : cf. a/ovas 117. \CVKOV, (UXaivav : the white

male lamb was to be sacrificed to the gleaming Helios, while the dark CAVC
lanab was for Tata fte'Aatva (B 699). The sex of the victim was generally
that of the divinity; thus a cow is sacrificed to Athena, but a bull to
Poseidon. The order of words is < chiastic ' with the following verse.
For the divinities to whom this sacrifice is to be offered, see on 276.

105. npidp.oio pup : for the periphrasis, see 16 d. opKta Tdpvn : i.e.
may conclude the treaty, as 73, 94. The victims are slain by Agamemnon,
not by Priam.

106. avr6s : in person; the old king being contrasted with his sons.
The poet forgets the periphrasis and proceeds as if he had said Hpta/xov.
liret: this introduces the first reason; the second follows with cuei Sc
108. ol : for him, his. ircu&s : especially Paris. For the plural, cf. 49.



THIRD BOOK OF TIIK ILIAD 117

107. n^j TIS KrX. : let no one, etc. Expression of anxiety connected
immediately with his opinion of the sons of Priam. Aios opKia: Zeus
watches over solemn treaties and punishes whoever breaks them ; cf. 280,
A 160, 166, 01 Owv o>*ot Xen. An. ii. 5. 7.

108. T|p0ovT<u : are flighty, unsteady, untrustworthy. For the literal use
of this verb, see B 448.

109. ols : neuter ; cf. A 70. It has no corresponding rois in the apodosis.

6 -ye'pwv: the old man (generic article), in contrast with oTrXorcpw 108.

fxTTi<ri : for the subjunctive, cf. A 554. irp6<r<r&> KT\. : cf. A 343.

110. o-irws: how; indirect question. ox* apurra: cf. A 69. JWT
dn4><m'poi<ri : " for both sides."

111. *Ax<uol KT\. : in apposition with ot.

112. irav<rao-0cu : to free themselves from, to be freed from, with ablatival
genitive. For the aorist infinitive after eXTrd/xcvoi, cf. 28.

113. ica( a: and so. kr\ a-r^as : cf. B 687. IK 8' pav [2/fyrav] :
sc. from their war chariots.

114. KareOevro : sc. 'A^cuot T Tpaie's re. Cf. [email protected]<rOa.i 89.

115. ir\Tj<rCov dXX^Xwv : refers to TO. /xey. This thought is stated in
different form by the rest of the verse : little ground was round about each
suit of armor.

116. 8vo>: this numeral is construed with the plural where the two
persons are not necessarily and closely connected. tcfjpuicas : the heralds
were the only official members of the king's household; cf. A 320 if.,
B 183 f. Thus the service of the heralds at 268 ff. is because of their
relations to the king's person.

120. oUrc'iuvoi : cf. 103. opa : thru, so; the immediate result of the
commission. OVK diri0T]<r : with a dative of the person.

121-144. Tin rictr fnnn the imllx. This episode has been criticised as
interrupting the progress of the action, but it has been much admired
also. Cf. the scene in Scott's Ivanhoe where Rebecca describes the leaders
of the assailing party. The' Achaean army seems to have come nearer
tin- city wall than we should expect from the use of his chariot by Priam
at I'.".!) ff.

121. Iris, elsewhere the messenger of the gods, here of her own accord
brings into the action Helen, the cause of the war and the prize of the
expected single combat. The following scene (Tci^oo-KOTrta), which occu-

I pies the tinu- nt'crssiry fur tin- ]>ri']>arations for the principal action (see
on A 318), introduces the hearer to the Trojans and their relations to
each other. X<VKW\^V<I : cf. A 55.







118 COMMENTARY TO THE

122. -yoXoto : husband's sister. Cf. 80.77/3 180, e/cvpe 172, etvarepwv Z 378.

124. AaoSiKtjv : attracted to the case of the relative TTJV. Cf. B 764.
t8os dpiomiv : literally, most excellent in appearance, most beautiful. Cf. 39.

125. cv p,-ydpu> : cf. 142. UTTOV : web. Weaving was the most honor-
able employment of Homeric women ; it occupied queens and goddesses.
So Hector, on parting from Andromache, says : oAA' d<s OIKOV lovcra TOL tr'
avTrjs epya Ko//.ie (care for}, | ICTTOV r (loom} rjXaKaiTrjv re (spindle} Z 490 f.

126. SiirXaica : feminine adjective as substantive ; see on A 54. Sc.
xAcuvcu/ (cf. xAcuvav SurXrjv}, a double cloak (cf. 'doublet'), so large that it
could be thrown twice (or double) about the body. irop^uptTjv : of purple,
while the interwoven scenes were of some other color. This art may have
been in part dependent on oriental patterns, but evidently had advanced to
the representation of persons. de'OXovs : i.e. battles, fought on the plain of
Troy, before the action of the Iliad. Other allusions to these conflicts are
found ; cf. 132 f., A 520 f., B 29 f. But most of the earlier fighting seems
to have been done at a distance.

128. 5(0v: not enclitic, since it is reflexive, referring to the subject of
the principal sentence. tnr' "Aprjos KT\.: by the hands of Ares. Cf. 61.

130. 86vp* tOt: cf. POLCTK WL B 8. 6<rKc\a ep-ya: an indefinite expres-
sion, exciting Helen's curiosity. 131 = 127.

132. ot irpiv: ivho before, i.e. until now. The antecedent of the rela-
tive follows, 01 ST) vvv 134. eirl KT\. : cf. 15. iroX.vSa.Kpuv: i.e. causing
many tears. Cf. 165, lacrimabile bellum Verg. Aen. vii. 604.

133. For the rhyme between the two halves of the verse, cf. B 484.

134. 8t] vvv: already now. &XTCU oryfi : with the collateral notion of



Online LibraryHomerThe first six books of Homer's Iliad → online text (page 27 of 48)