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used instead of the demonstrative, since the protasis has hypothetical
force. Cf. B 393. us 88c otvos: symbolical actions were customary in
curses and conjurations. Cf. (fetialis) 'si prior defexit publico
consilio dolo malo, turn illo die, luppiter, populum Roma-
num sic ferito ut ego hunc porcum hie hodie feriam.' . . .
id ubi dixit, porcum saxo silice percussit Livy i. 24; (Han-
nibal) eaque ut rata scirent fore agnum laeva manu dextera
silicem retinens, si falleret, lovem ceterosque precatus deos,
ita se mactarent, quern ad modum ipse agnum mactasset,
secundum precationem caput pecudis saxo elisit, ib. xxi. 45;
< As sinks that blood stream- in the earth, | So may his heart's blood
drench his hearth,' Scott Lady of the Lake iii. 1.

301. avTwv Kal T6K&ov: the genitive depends on ey/<e<aAo?, although
(r<j>L (not (r^>0)v) has preceded. This clause forms an extension of the
original thought. oXXouri Safieuv : " may they be made the slaves of
others." This prayer contains four verses, like the prayers of 320 ft%
351 ff., 365 ff. See on 161. 302. Cf. B 419.

303. TOMTI : construe with //.era cetTrev, cf. 96. AapSavCSTjs : Priam was
in the fifth generation from Dardanus (Y 215 ff.). 304 = 86.

305. T|vji6<r<rav : the epithet is well deserved according to Dr. Schlie-
mann, who in his excavations at Hissarlik was much disturbed by the
constant winds, which drove the dust into the eyes of the workmen. He
thought that such continual windstorms were known nowhere else on


earth. Virchow wrote : The winds blew about us with such force that we
often felt as if our whole settlement might be hurled down the precipice.'
306. <u|/ : construe with i/u. ov iro> : /// no u-ni/. For TTW as TTU>S, see
30 /. T\T|<ro|iai : cf. TT\r)Ka<s A 228. iv 6<t>0a\|jLowriv : cf. A 587.
Priam fears his son's death, as in 259. Vergil imitates in non pugnam
aspicere hanc oculis, non foedera possum Aen. xii. 151.

308. Zcvs KT\. : " Zeus doubtless knows, but I do not."

309. Oavdroio T&.OS : " fatal end," a periphrasis for BOLVOLTOS. irirp&>-
IJLCVOV <TTIV : equivalent to TreTrptoTcu, cf. TeTA.(r/xevo? eoriv A 388.

310. apvas 9ro : sc. in order to take back with him the two slaugh-
tered lambs which he had brought. The flesh of the victim sacrificed in
confirmation of an oath was not eaten, since a curse rested upon it, but
was buried. Probably the Achaeans cast their victim into the sea, being
unable to bury it in their own land. Herodotus (ii. 39) says that the
Egyptians would not eat the flesh of a victim over which a curse had
been spoken, but were ready to sell it to the Greeks. If no foreigners
were at hand to buy it, they threw it into the Nile.

311 f . = 261 f. Ipaive : for the imperfect, cf. a<J>iu A 25.
313. a\|/oppoi: cf. iraAiVopcros 33. dirove'ovro : cf. B 113.

315. 8wjiTpov : ///'// measured off the ground for the combat, and the
distance at which they were to hurl their spears; cf. 344. Cf. campum
ad ce.rtamen magnae sub moenibus urbis | dimensi Rutu-
lique viri Teucrique parabant Verg. Aen. xii. 116 f.

316. K\T|povs irdXXov: "they arranged the casting of lots." This is
expressed more definitely in :>24. The K\fjpoi were bits of wood or stone,
marked with some sign so as to be recognized. The prayer was offered
while the lots were shaken.

317. irpo'<rev: before, first. Cf. 346, B 359, TT/OOTC/X* 351. d^fy:
optative in indirect discourse, representing the subjunctive of deliberation
in direct discourse. Cf. A 191. In the single combat of the Seventh
Book, Hector resents Ajax's offer to allow him to hurl his spear first.

318. x"P a s dv<rxov: equivalent to \upa.^ di/cur^oi/res, see 21 h. For
tli- attiludr, cf. A !')(). See Vocabulary s.r. ycip.

319 = 297. 320 = 276.

321. ToL8 cp-ya : these tronhle* here, i.e. this war. cOtjtccv : caused, as
A 2. Both armies seem united in \vislii n^ the death of Paris.

322. 8o's: for &k with th- infinitive in prayers, cf. 351 diro4>0i|xvov

SOvcu : equivalent to d7rd<$io'0eu /cut 8wu. For the fullness of expression,
cf. A 88,


325. cu|/ opo'wv: with averted face, in order to escape the suspicion of
favoring his brother. IK 6pov<rev : the lot was not drawn, but cast, thrown

326. ol [lev : i.e. Trojans and Achaeans, who had stood during the
sacrifice. Perhaps they had not been seated before (cf. 78, 84, 113 1, 231,
250, 267), although they long ago had dismounted from their chariots and
laid their armor upon the ground. Kara <rrfyas : according to ranks, in

327. KttTo : grammatically and in sense construed only with rev^a,
although Kei/xai often is the passive of TiOrjiu.. For the < zeugma,' cf. TT/OOS
8o>/xa A 533.

328. a\L$ nouriv : standing expression in the case of the principal
parts of the warrior's equipment, sword (as 334) and shield. iSvcrero :
Paris had entered the conflict as a light-armed warrior ; cf. 17.

330. The poet presents a picture of the preparations for battle. The
complete armament of the Homeric warrior consisted in the six pieces
here enumerated, which are always mentioned in the same order before an
important conflict, with the occasional exception of the cuirass.

331. KoXds : for the order of words, see 11 j.

333. olo Kcuri-yv^Toio : sc. since he himself had appeared without a
cuirass. AVKO.OVOS : Lycaon had been captured by Achilles and sold as a
slave to the king of Lemnos. Being ransomed thence, he returned to
Troy a week before the events narrated in this book ; but twelve days
after his return, he met Achilles again and was slain by him (3> 34 ff.).
T]P(LOO-C 8* avT : but he fitted it to himself; he changed the length of the
straps, buckling it to suit his own form. 334 = B 45.

335. x*^ KOV : prominence is given to an epithet of the whole sword,
after the decoration of the hilt has been mentioned in apyvporjXov.
O-O.KOS : the strap which aided the arm in supporting the heavy shield was
thrown over the left shoulder. Thus the shield was taken up before the
plumed helmet was donned.

336. KWT]v : originally a head covering of dogskin, then helmet.

337. bnrovpiv : cf. tTTTroScumr;?- 369, aere caput fulgens, cristaque
hirsutus equina Verg. Aen. x. 869. Sciv6v: cognate accusative, adverb
with evevev, cf. 342.

339. s 8' avTws : and thus in like manner. 42 k. Meve'Xaos : Mene-
iaus came forth to battle equipped with armor (29), but put it off as the
rest did at 114. ap^jios : a short form of d/o^^xAos. Cf. 21. Jfvrea :
equivalent to rcv^ca, chiefly of defensive armor.


340. Ko,Tp6v optXou i on citluT side of the throng, both Trojans and
Greeks. Each combatant was in the rear of his own force.

341 = 266. 344. 8iajuT P T|Tu> : rf. :J15.

345. KOTOVT : subordinate to o-etoire. 346. -npocrQi : as 317.

347. Cf. 356. irdvroo-' iitn\v : a standing formula at the close of the
verse. Probably it does not imply that the shield was actually circular, in
which case it must have been small, but rather that it was symmetrical,
irdl hd/anced.

348. ovSc : but not. eppT)ev : Jn-okf. through the shield. \a\K6s : the
point of the lance ; rf. \aXK<$, below. ot : refers to ^oA/cd?.

349. ttpwro \<*XKU: arose with his lance, "raised himself to hurl his
lance." Cf. di/acr^d/Aci/os 362, altior exurgens Verg. Aen. xi. 697,
corpore toto | alte sublatum consurgit Turnus in ensem.
. . . at perf idus ensis | frangitur U>. xii. 728 ff.

350. tire^dfuvos : " uttering a prayer as lie did so."

351. Zcv ava : the vocative form ava. is found in Homer only in this
phra>i- : -l>-\N here, ai/o, as B 284, 434. 86s TurcwrOat o KT\. : equivalent
to 809 fjioi Tio-ao-Oai TOVTOV 05 KT\. The relative clause o /AC KT\. represents
a iiDiin as the object of Ti(ra<r0cu. irporepos : cf. 299.

352. 8iov : a standing epithet, denoting nobility of descent and beauty.
It is hen- usi-d without any special reference to the circumstances of the case.
Cf. A 7. These 'ornamental epithets' are sometimes put into the
mouth of a foe. 'AXt'f-avSpov : is the object of rurao-Au. This makes the
preceding relative clause more parenthetical than if this proper name had
IHMMI attracted to the construction of the relative clause, as AaoSua^ 124.
Kal . . . 8a.|ifjvai : a more definite expression of the thought of Tierourftu.

353. rls : many a one; cf. B 271. K<X: as 287.

354. o KCV KT\. : explains ^avoSo/cov. <j>tXoTT]Ta : hos/iftaliti/ : cf. 207.

355. diiireiraXwv : i.e. drawing back for the throw. Cf. adducto con-
tortum liastile lacerto | immittit Verg. Aen. xi. 561 f.

356. Cf. 847.

357. 8ux : with long t at the beginning of the verse. cfxuivr^s : the
outer layer of the shield was a pipe of bronze.

359. AvriKpvs : construe closely with what follows.

360. Paris here st-mis to have had no breastplate.

362. dvcwrxo'fuvos : tc, in order to give a heavier blow; cf. 349. dn<j>l
avrw: construe with Starpv^e'v, alnnt itsvlf y i.e. about the <f>d\o<s.

363. rpix^d rt Kal KT\. : imitative; see 13 b. rt ica( : cf. A 128,
8iarpv4>'v : ;/'. Verg. At-n. xii. 7:50, (juoted on 349.


365. <rio oXoompos : Zeus ctvtos, the guardian of hospitality, had
avenged the privileges that Paris had abused. Such reproaches of the
divinity are uttered only in outbreaks of vexation. Cf. B 111.

366. tya.}ii\v KT\. : cf. B 37. KCIKO'TTJTOS : for the wrong which he did me ;
causal genitive.

367. vvv 8 : see on A 354. ayij : from ayvvfu. CK : with rji\0t].

368. ITWCTIOV: predicate nominative. ov8e Sdjiao-cra: marks the result
of both preceding clauses.

369. Ko'pvflos : for the genitive, cf. kavov 385, yowtoj/ A 500.

370. \K KT\. : " he seized Paris by the helmet, turned him about, and
strove to draw him into the midst of the Achaeans." Of course the
helmet-strap (c/*a?) under the chin of Paris choked the wearer.

372. This verse explains VTTO Beifnjv. WIT dvOepewvos : as A 501.
oxevs : as holder ; predicate with os.

375. -q : in the rapid narration, the relative construction is used here,
where a new sentence would be expected. Or this 77 may be called demon-
strative, with no conjunction to connect it with the preceding verse.
t<j>i KTa^e'voio : such leather would be stronger than that from a diseased
animal. For the aorist middle used as passive, see 50 d.

376. Tpv<J>d\ta: the following hiatus is justified, as falling at the
feminine caesura of the third foot; see 27 b. ftp cWcro KT\. : i.e. it
remained in his hand.

378. p|/ iri8ivTJ<ras : i.e. he swung the helmet before he threw it. Cf.
Tennyson's Morte d' Arthur, ' clutch'd the sword, | And strongly wheel'd
and threw it.' Kopurav : cf. B 875 ; sc. as spoil of the victory.

379. 6 cu|/ : for the hiatus, cf. A 333.

380. e-yx" KT\. : emphatic at the beginning of the verse and the close
of the sentence ; cf. ftdXXc. A 52. Construe with eTropowre. l^jpiro|i : the
poet recognizes no chance rescue ; cf. A 8.

381. peia KT\. : "easily, as only a god can." KaXv^ Sc' : "and made
him invisible." .

382. Kd8 l<re : cf. Ka.6icrov 68. Iv eaXdfjLw : in his chamber; cf. 391.

383. KoXe'ovo-a : future participle, expressing purpose.

384. Tpwcu: i.e. women who had come to view the combat, as 420; see
on 149.

386. fjtiv : construe with Trpocre'enrev, cf. 389. For the quantity, before
a lost consonant, see 59 j. iroXai-yevt'i : the adjective strengthens the
noun. irpoo-atirev : always used of words that follow immediately, or
separated from them only by a parenthetical clause.


387. clpoKo'fjLw : explained by the following clause.

388. TJo-Ktiv : contracted from ^cr/cecv. ndXicrra KT\. : the relative con-
struction is abandoned ; cf. A 79, 162. This shows why Aphrodite took
the form of this old woman. 4>iXcWicv : .sr. 'EAeVr;.

389. TTJ juv KT\. : cf. B 22, 795. 390. 8vp I0i : cf. 130.

391. Kivos : used much like a demonstrative adverb, there. o -y* : is he.

392. ovSt K 4>a(ris : nor would you think. Not as 220.

393. dvSpl fjtaxii<rajivov : equivalent to tK /Aa^T/s. xP' v S* : a ^ the close
of the verse in contrast with fjuax^dfjicvov.

394. pxo-6ai : " ready to go to the dance," so beautiful and vigorous
is !,(.. vc'ov KT\. : i.e. he is in as merry a humor as if he had just enjoyed
a dance. The participle has the principal thought.

395. Cf. B 142. 0u|i6v opivcv : aroused her anger by the suggestion.
396 f . KCU pa : and so. This pa is resumed by the apa of the apodosis

(398). SupTjv <rr#j0a KT\. : these parts were unchanged by the transfor-
mation (:',.M'I-:;.S!)J ; the divinities retained their characteristics even under
a disguise, except when they desired to make themselves entirely unrecog-
nizable by mortals. All but Helen saw in Aphrodite only the old

398. 0afipT]<rv : cf. A 199. Wonder mingled with dread came over
Helen, fearing some new device of Aphrodite, who had already led her far
from her Spartan home. She does not believe that Paris has been carried
home in safety. tiros KT\. : as A 361.

399. ScujioviT) : mid i/h-inity. Cf.B 190. ravra : cognate accusative
with i/TrtpoTreiW, which takes /xe as direct object. " To trick me with these

-." Cf. TOVTO v/Mas fa.7ra.Trj(T(U Xen. An. v. 7. 6.

400. rj : >///> /// : with mocking irony. irporf'pw : still further from Lace-
<la<'iiion. iroXCwv: construe with Try, " into any one of these cities,"
or in a loose local sense. See H. 7"7; G. 1092.

401. i>pvy(T]s: construe with TroA/cov.

402. Kal Ki6i: th'-i-e (d*. .Iu-t as Paris in Ilios.

403. ovvtKa 5t] vvv: this introduces sarcastically the reason for the con-
jecture of 400 f. " Since now, as it seems, I cannot remain longer with
your favorite Paris." 404. <rrvYp^v: see on 173.

405. TOVVCKCI 5r] KT\. : again a sarcastic tone. For the repetition of the
caudal particle, cf. A 1 1<>. Tins clause is closely connected with the causal
relative srntfiicf. as i< shown by the repetition of the particles 817 vvv.
Thus the thought returns to 399. 8o\o<|>pov'ov<ra : i.e. in pretending that
Paris summons her (390).


406. irap' avro'v : by himself; contrasted with Sevpo 405. " Leave me
alone." The ' asyndeton ' marks Helen's excitement. 0v KT\. : abandon
the path of the gods, " give up thine immortality." The expression is sug-
gested by the following verse, which was already before her mind.

407. "OXvfi/irov : the limit of motion.'

408. irepl Kivov : about him, at his side. 6v : endure ivoe, " bear all
the troubles of human life." 4 <J>t>Xa<r<re : watch him; sc. that he does not
escape thee or prove unfaithful to thee.

409. Troi^o-erai : aorist subjunctive with is o K, cf. B 332. o -y : cf.
A 97. For its position in the second member of the sentence, as B 664, cf.
TToAAo. 8* o y v TTovro) TTtiOfv aAyea a 4, nunc dextra ingeminans
ictus, nunc ille sinistra Verg. Aen. v. 457.

410. veneo-o-TjTov KrA.. : parenthetical. vcpe<nn)Tov : cf. 156, B 223.

411. KVOV: indicates contempt or abhorrence. Sc': the clause is
causal in effect.

412. nctfUTJcrovrtu : sc. if I give myself to this frivolous coward after
the decision by the duel. The future is used (more definite than the
potential optative) although the supposition at the basis of this expecta-
tion is negatived (OVK et/u 410). \w KT\. : "and yet I have already," etc.

413. x^ a)tra H L ' v1 l : falling into a rage: cf. o;(0i/cras A 517. The middle
does not differ greatly from the passive. Cf. xaA.ci>0c& A 9 ; see 50 d.

414. <rxT\t] : disyllabic ; 25 a. juOeuo : for the subjunctive, cf. A 28.

415. vvv: till now, opposed to the future. eWa-yXa: cf. cuvais 158.

<fuXi]<ra: came to love you, "bestowed my love upon you."

416. d(x(j>oTpwv : explained by Tpcowi/ KOLL Aai/awv. (jLT]Turop.ai : aorist

subjunctive, still dependent on py e\Qeo. Xtrypa: grievous hates, which

would be destructive to Helen. Cf. ilia (i.e. Helen) sibi infestos
eversa ob Pergama Teucros | et poenas Danaum, et deserti
coniugis iras, | praemetuens Verg. Aen. ii. 571 ff.

417. or\ S<; . . . 6\T]ai : an independent addition, as is shown by *cV,
in order to explain the effect of %x6ea Xvypd. For the subjunctive with
KCV, cf. A 137. olrov : cognate accusative.

418. e'Sewrev : cf. A 33. Helen yields only after the sternest threat.

420. Tpwas: see on 384. Xadcv: sc. j3a<ra, as she departed with her
two maids (cf. 143, 422). Helen, in her shame, veiled herself silently,
and followed the goddess without attracting attention. r\p\t : as A 495.

Sa|i(i>v : nowhere else in Homer of a definite divinity.

421. 8o|iov : on the citadel, near the dwellings of Priam and Hector.

422. d|A<f>iro\oi : i.e. the two who had accompanied her (143).


423. KU : sc. following Aphrodite ; cf. 420.

424. rj] : for her. IXov<ra : prior in time to KartOrjKC. <e'pov<ra. Observe
the distinction between the aorist and present parrticiples.

425. dvrC 'AXtfjovSpoio : according to 391, Alexander was on the bed,
but this is disregarded in the following narration ; cf. ap^e Xe^oo-Se KLWV
447. Oca : this is added to give prominence to her condescension in per-
forming a maid's duties. <f>pov<ra : for the participle, see on iwv A 138.

426. Kovpij Aio's : generally of Athena. Cf. Kovprjv Bpio-iyos A 392.

427. irdX.iv: back, away from Paris, here as a sign of displeasure.
Cf. talia dicentem iamdudum aversa tuetur Verg. Aen. iv. 362.

428. Tj\v0es : an exclamation. She reproaches him for his return; cf.
B -J:J.

429. Sajuis : with dative of the agent, as 301. irportpos : cf. 140.

430. rj fiv 6t] KT\. : truly thou wast wont to boast ; with mocking disdain.

431. <rfj: added with emphasis, as B 164.

432. dXX' t0i vvv : an ironical exhortation. The following < asyndeton '
is usual. irpoKoXco-o-ai : chnffcnge, call forth to meet thee ; middle, as in 19.
MevtXaov : observe the emphatic repetition of the name with the same
epithet, in the same position in the verse as in 430. Cf. 223.

433. dXXd KrA. : Helen now speaks in earnest. fy Y : c f' A 173.
" But 7 advise you."

434. irav<r0cu: cease forever. Present infinitives are used also to
explain this injunction. av0w: cf. 284.

435. dvripiov : for the construction, cf. B 121, 452. iroXepov : for the
cognate accusative, cf. B 788.

436. HT| -rrws r<L\a. : As/ in *<>,> >ray, soon. vir avrou 8ovp : by the spear
i* /' /// man. For the dative with vrro, cf. B 860.

437. jjLv6oi<riv : c< mst ni with TrpocreciTrev.

438. Ovjio'v: iu partitive apposition with /^,c, "my heart." Cf. 35, 442,
A 802.

439. \t*v 'yap: always in this order; never yap /xe'v. <rvv 'AOrjvfl : by
the di'l <>f Atl,. an. This diminishes the personal credit of Menelaus for his

440. awns : as A 140. -yw : xr. VIKT/CTW. iropd cUri : more frequent
in this sense is Trapta-rao-Oat.. TJJIIV: i.e. \\itli Paris and his countrymen.

441. uvri0'vT : in tin- Kii^lisli idimu this would be in the same con-
struction as TpaTrcio/LUv. Cf. B 113; see 21 /.

442. 8: so completely, 9C. as now (446). Cf. B 802. 2 P os <}>p'vas
d(jL<|>cKaXv|;cv : rf. A !<:;.


443. ovS* ore : not even then when.

444. eirXeov v vcWo-i : " was on the voyage."

445. KpavaT) : perhaps this name was invented for the situation ; cf.
201 ; at least the ancients were completely at a loss concerning it. Strabo
thought that this was the small island Helena which lies between Attica
and Ceos; others thought it to be Cythera (the modern Cerigo), south
of Sparta, from which Aphrodite received her epithet Cytherean. In the
second century of our era, with reference to this passage, the name Kpavdr)
was given to a small island in the Laconian gulf.

446. s : refers to w8e 442.

447. ap\ : made the beginning, began ; with a supplementary participle,
Ktwv, as B 378. eiireTo: the fear of Aphrodite's anger had its effect, in
spite of 428 if. The whole scene, from 382, characterizes the sensual
frivolity of Paris.

448. TO) nv apa : so these two.

449. The story returns to the point where Aphrodite interposed (380) .
dv* ofiiXov : sc. Tpwcov. 6t)pl COIKWS : like to a wild beast in fury.

450. t irov o-a9pT|o-iv : if he but might catch sight of him somewhere.
For the optative, see H. 907 ; G. 1420. OcoeiSEa : for the ' synizesis,'
cf. 27.

451. ov TIS Svvaro 8eicu : the logical proof of this statement is given
below. " They would have pointed him out, if they could."

452. Tore : i.e. when he sought him.

453. " They did not conceal him through love (cf. 321 ff.), nor would
they have concealed him if any one had seen him."

454. Ktjpt : dative of likeness with tow, which is a cognate accusative
far on its way to become an adverb. For the comparison, cf. A 228.

jieXcuvT] : cf. morti atrae Hor. Carm. i. 28. 13, post equitem sedet
atra cura ib. iii. 1. 40.

455. teat : also ; a standing expression, referring to previous speakers.

456. Cf. 86.

457. 8^j : as you see, surely. <j>aCvcrai : belongs evidently.

458. 'Ap-yeiTjv: as B 161. Cf. ornatus Argivae Helenae Verg.
A en. i. 650.

459. TI^V KT\. : cf. 286.
460 = 287.

461. eirl -gveov: cf. 7rv<f>^fjir}(rav A 22. The poet does not tell how
Hector and the other Trojans received this demand, but implies that they
allowed it to be just For the conclusion of the episode, see 6 d.



The Fourth Book opens with a Council of the Gods in the great hall of
Zeus on Olympus. These have watched what 1ms been done on the Trojan
plain, and n-cogni/*' tin- fact that Menelaus has won the victory. Zeus
proposes that the provisions of the treaty be carried into effect, that the
Adiacans withdraw to their homes, taking with them Helen and her
treasures. But Hera and Athena cannot consent to any peace which
would leave unsacked the hated city of Troy, and they instigate a Lycian
archer, a Trojan ally, to break the truce by wounding Menelaus. Then
the strife begins anew. Curiously enough, the promise which was made to
Thetis on the preceding evening is not mentioned.

I. Qtoi : in apposition with 01. Tpyopo'wvro : xr. during the events nar-
rated in F. 2. xpv<r&>> : see on A 426. 3. cuvoxo'ei: see on A 598.

5. avrUa: sc. after T 456-460. 4peii#iv : c. by the proposal of 18 f.
6 f . Zeus teasingly compares Aphrodite's constant care of Paris with
the neglect of Menelaus by Hera and Athena.

7. [u'v: correlative with avrc 10. 9. v6<r<Ju : sc. MeveAaov.

II. avrov: ablatival; 19 a.

12. teal vvv: cf. A 109. bioptvov : i.e. expecting.

14. oirus KT\. : <f. B 252. Zeus knows what answer to expect.

15 f. iro'\|jLov KT\. : 12 'I. 6p<ro^v : aorist subjunctive.

1811. olKt'oiTo: cf. F 71. Poteutiaroptative without av. 18 b.
a-yoiro: cf. F 72. 4<>1. 4ire'fivav : >v. at his words.

21 f. ir\T]<rCai: tc. to each other. T| TOI: correlative with 8e 24.

23 f. \6\os KT\. : parenthetical ; 21 <1. \6\os : see on A 81. "Hpo :
19 h. 25 = A -Vi'J. 26. iro'vov : explained by the following verses.
27. ov: .">!) j. KaiuTTiv KT\. i parenthetical.

28 f. Xoov : Mililirry. Kcucd : on Trrjfjju. F 50. cpSc : on /8oAA A 52.

30 = A .~>17. 31. <r^ KaKci p^$oxHriv: II. 72"); G. 1073. npiajios
KT\. : cf. A 265. 32. o T : M A L'l 1 . 33. Cf. A 129, B 188.

35. wfiov: "afore." Cf. /*>//// xxvii. 2, Joftxxxi. :U. XtMi.^n. iv. 8. 14.

37 f. ' Asyndeton '; 15. <rol Kal IJJLOI : emphatic Ty/xtV. 39 = A 297.

41 f. -rf\v: in apposition with TTO\LV. See 11 j. TOV : cf. A 185.

43 f. 8Ka: of an act just preceding. eu : its antrrrdnit is TCUOV 46.

49. Xoipt]s KT\. : explains &JUTOS. r6: attracted to the number of

50 = A 551.


51. Tfxts : explained by 52. JMV: correlative with dAAa 57.

53. Siairepcrai : infinitive as imperative.

54 ft. irpo'o-0' to-Tajjiai : cf. A 37. el' irep : with subjunctive; cf. A 81.

OVK : cf. T 289. dvv : probably future. (fre'prcpos : cf. A 281, 545 ff.
57. |io'v: made emphatic by the following pause; 11 h. ir6vov: cf.

26 ff. 58. Cf. et mi genus ab love summo Verg. Aen. vi. 123.
They had the same lineage.

60 f. d[i<|>oT6pov : cf. T 179. Cf. Verg. Aen. i. 46 f . K&Xtjuai : cf.
F 138. 62. jw'v: correlative with Se 64. viroeigopev : aorist subjunctive.

63 f. <rol |iv KT\. : 'chiasmus'; 16 a. 'AOTjvaCg : see on 77730 T/ K
A 195. 67. ir P 6T P oi KT\. : cf. T 299.

68 f . ox>8' &irC8ii<rc : see on B 807. ira-rip KT\. : cf. A 503. avriKa : as

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