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A 539. 70. nerd KT\. : cf. A 222. This explains es O-T/XXTOV.

73. wsetirwv: " by these words," saying this.

74 = B 167. Athena's third descent during the action of the Iliad.

75. olov : predicate with dorcpa. " Like the star which Zeus sends." -
do-Tpa: i.e. a meteorite. fycc : gnomic aorist; 14 /.

76. Tpas : predicate, as a portent. 77. Xajiirpov: see on ouAo/zeVryv A 2.
78 f. TW: i.e. dcrrepi, cf. 75. Is jwWov: cf. T 69. Od|tpos KT\. : cf.

T 342 f. 81 = B 271. 82. Cf. 15 f. 83. rf^o-iv: </. t&y/cev A 2.
84. dv6pwirwv : limits rafuip TroXe/xoto.

87. AaoSoKw : in apposition with avftpi 86. atxp.T]TQ : in apposition
with AaoSoKw.

88. ct irov : cf. r 450. Athena searches like any mortal for the man.

Cf. Pandare, qui quondam iussus confundere foedus | in
medios telum torsisti primus Achivos Verg. Aen. v. 496 f.

89 ff. Cf. B 169 f. For evpc without conjunction, cf. 327, E 169, 355.

dfji<j) : sc. (TTa(rav. Xcuov : in apposition with dcrTrto-rawv. Pandarus
alone saw the goddess in human form ; see on F 396 f.

93. An independent introduction. Verse 94 repeats the thought clearly.

95. Tpw<r<ri : for the dative, see on B 285. (Or, it may be the agent.)

97 ff . TOV : construe with Trapa. 55 c {3. al KT\. : equivalent to
lav Meve'Aao? ySeAet S/jL-rjOfj. A picturesque paraphrase for death. <rw
p\i KrX. : is parenthetical ; SprjOcvra. precedes the action of eTn/Savra.

100 f. Mev\dov: for the genitive, see H. 739; G. 1099. 'AiroXXwvi :
patron god of Lycia, and god of the bow.

102. irpftmrydvcov : cf. Deut. xv. 19.

103. oi'KaSc : explained by the second ' hemistich.' CUTTV : see on B 824.
104 f. T : 19 h. avrUa : cf. 5. rv\a : sc. from its case.



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 139

106. d-ypiov : on Acuuv 91. Sv : object of /3c/3A.7JK. 107 is parenthetical.

108. virrios : predicate. 109. TOV : construe with Kt<j>a\fj<;. ir<|>v-
Kiv : h<i<l (/roirn, n-ere.

110 f. iipafx : $C. a\\-rj\ouv. irdv : i.e. TOOI/, cf. TO //./, below.

112 f. irorl ya,ij\: if. A 245. irpoo-0v KT\. : .sc. in order that the act
of Painlanis might !> unnoticed. Sc : while."

115. p\T)<r0<u: as passive. See 50 <L

116. (/. dixit et aurata volucrem sagittam | deprompsit
pharetra cornuque tetendit Verg. Aen. xi. 858 f.

123 f. Mark the 'chiasmus'; 16 a. The archer often knelt or
crouched to shoot. When the bowstring is drawn back to the breast,
the iron arrow point is brought near to the bow. Cf. et duxit longe,
donee curvata coirent | inter se capita et manibus iam tan-
geret aequis, | laeva aciem ferri, dextra nervoque papillam. |
extemplo teli stridorem Verg. Aen. xi. 860 if. Only one other
instance of the use of iron for arms is found in Homer; that is an iron
mace (H 141). KVK\<mp&: predicate.

125. Double 'chiasmus.' PLOS and vcvprj, ux^cv and oA.ro receive
prominence from the order. Xfy : cf. A 49. The verse is thought to
echo the sound of the bow. Cf. 504. oXro : see on A 53.

127. Apostrophe to Menelaus. 16 g. <rttcv : construe with XeXdOovro.

129. irp6<r0 : rf. ") [. <rTcura : tukinij 1 r xtntnl. ffe'Xos : cf. A 51.

130 if. r6<rov: explained by Io2 f., i.e. a little. ws &T : as T 33.
With subjunctive, as 141, B 147. See H. 914 B b; G. 1438. ircuSos :
from // cbilil. X^crai : aorist subjunctive; cf. A 80 ; sc. TTCUS. o0i :
cf. r 1 1:.

135 f. f'f. r 3.")7 f.

137. 2pKos AKOVTWV : see on A 284.

139. 4>ar6s: avrov. 140 f. f'f. Indum sanguineo veluti viola-
verit ostro | si quis ebur Verg. Aen. xii. 67. Cf. 'Here lay Duncan:
\cr skin lac'd with his golden blood,' Shakspere, Macbeth ii. 3. 118;
' Sohrab loos'd j His ln-lt, an<l in-ar the shoiildt-r l>ar'd his arm, | And shew'd
a>iunin faint \vrmilion points ' 1'rick'd : as a cunning workman, in Pekin, |
Pricks with vermilion some clear porcelain vase, | An emperor's gift at
early morn he paints | And all day long, and when night comes the lamp |
Lights up his studious forehead and thin hands: | So delicately prick'd
the sign appt'ar'd j On Sohrab's arm.' Matthew Arnold Snlmiband Rustum.

142. irapfj'iov: Attic <^>aAapa. tinrwv : equivalent to

145. dn4>QTpov: rf. F 17!). 'Chiasmus' h-re again.




140 COMMENTARY TO THE

147. vir6vp0v: contrasts (r<f>vpd with KVYJ/MU. The wound must have
been in front, not on the side, since both thighs are stained.

148. ptyio-v : c f m r 259.

151 f . vevpov : the thong which bound the arrow point to the shaft.
IKTO'S : sc. wretA^s. cu|/oppov : cf. F 313, but here adverbial.

153. rots : i.e. Menelaus and those about him. (3apv : see on ^aeya A 78.

154 ff. x l pos : on A 323. TccurfyviiT : for the length of the ultima,
see 59 /. Odvarov : predicate ; cf. KO.KO. 28. " The truce was death to thee."
C'TOHVOV : see on B 124. otov : agrees with <re, object of Trpoo-T-rjo-as.

157 f . Kara B iraTif]o-av : Attic /caTaTrar^crai/re?. iriord : a standing
epithet of opKta, even when broken. aXiov : predicate. 159 = B 341.

160 f. OVK : cf. OVK eioi) 55. IK: construe with rcXa. &: see on
A 58. tyl : "in the future." <rvv ^dXa) : explained by the following.
dire'Twrav: gnomic. "The breach of faith will surely be punished."
'The mills of the gods grind slowly.'

163 f . = Z 447 f. ro'Se: refers to the following sentence. oXwXrj :
18 b (3.

165 = 47. 166. <r<j>C : for the dative after CTTI, cf. MeveXaw 94.

167. imo-o-efrnouv : for the mode, cf. i8a>//m A 262 atytf>a : on B 447.

168 f . aird-riis : see on ev^wX^s A 65. a\os <r$ev : grief for thee.

170. For the fullness of expression, see on A 88. 171. Cf. B 115.

173 f. Cf. B 160. Xfiroifwv 'E\VT]v : this really gives the cause for
eAey^WTTos tKOi/u-r/v 171.

177 f. ri0p<o<rKv : sc. in mockery. \6\ov KT\. : cf. 24.

179 f . &Xiov : cf. 158. K<xl Srfj : cf. A 161. olKo'vSe : see on 103.

181 f. <rvv Kivfj<riv /crX. : i.e. without Helen and the spoils of war, and
with heavy loss. Cf. B 298. ws : cf. o><$ 176. x dvoi : i.e. swallow me.
Cf. mihi tellus prius ima dehiscat Verg. Aen. iv. 24.

184 f. irw [TTWS] : at all, as T 306. irdpoi0v : local.

189. Note the spondees.

191. irav<rr|(ri : sc. <r. 68vvdwv : cf. B 97, 595.

192. TJ : he spoke. See on A 219. Oeiov : see on A 334.

196. 6io-Tv<ras : nearly equivalent to oio-rw. r6go>v : cf. B 718.

197. AvKCcov: i.e. the principal Trojan allies. T$: sc. ftaXavri.
199. PTI KT\. : cf. B 47. Kara Xadv : cf. 126, 209, /cara vrparov A 318.
201-203. Cf. 90-92. 204. Cf. T 250. 205-207 = 195-197.
208. Cf. B 142, T 395. 209. dvd KT\. : cf. A 484.
210 f . ixavov KT\. : cf. T 145. " Where was the wounded Menelaus.'
212. 6: i.e, Machaon. K: cf. 161. irapCo-Taro : cf.







FOlllTIl BOOK OF THE ILIAD 141

215 f. Cf. 186 f.

217 ff. |iirc<r : cf. 134. tot : adverb with iracnre. elS<is : " skilfully."
ot: ethical. <|>Xa KrA.. : see on A 73.

221 If. eirC : construe with r/A-vfloi/, cf. A 475. ol : sc. 'A^atot". Kara:
construe with eSw. iivrja-avro : i.e. they were eager. tSois : cf. F 220.

226 f. fcmrovs jt'v : correlative with avrap 6 231. TOVS ju'v : repeats the
ptv from 220. <f>vo-i6o>vras : snorting in their impatience.

229. iroXXd : cf. A 35. ira.pur\i}uv : sc. iirrrovs /cat ap/jara. The chariot
was used for transportation from one part of the field to another, not for
actual fighting.

231 f. lireirwXtiTo KT\. : cf. F 196. jUv : correlative with av 240. o-irev-
Sovras: iii:nl- emphatic by the verse-pause. I8oi : for optative, cf. B 188.

234. irw: as 184 oXic^s : aMatival genitive of separation.

236. Cf. 07. 237. Their bodies will lie unburied." Cf. A 4.

238. TIIICIS: contrasted with yvrres 237, as oAd^ovs is with avrcov.

239. alojwv : sc. as captives. See on A 13.

240. Cf. 2:52. 242. Q*n&*:cf. B 235.

243. r<J>6' : ri TTOTC. ^rrj\rt : as this stands, it is perfect, eonyrc?

244. a'i TC KT\. : cf. F 4. iroX^os : broad. ireSCoio : see on B 785.

247. Sarcastic. v6a KT\. : the clause is here equivalent to vryoiv.

248. evirpvuvoi : the sterns were more prominent in the camp than the
pn>\\ >. 251-421. Five divisions of the Achaean army are enumerated.

256-271. I. Idomeneus.

252. ol 8' dji<|>(: cf. B 445. Owp^jo-o-ovro : sc. when he reached them.

253. 'I8ofiVvs : >>. was busy. <rvt: for the comparison, see B 480.
255 f. ^0T!<rv : cf. A 330. jwtXixCowriv : see on A 539.

257. Aavawv : for the genitive after Trepi TWO, cf. A 258.
258 f. H>th in action and in council." SeurC : see 28 c.
260 f. Kt'ptDvrcu: for the mode, see on A 80. ct irep: cf. A 81.
262 f. & : as 161. irXeiov : full. mlciv : for infinitive, cf. /xa^co-^ot A 8.
264. olos: i.e. as brave as. irdpos : with present. Cf. A 553. evxcu
elvcu: SIM- on A 01.

266 f. ^pos : cf. F 47. TO irpwrov : on A 6. vnr6rrT]v KT\. : cf. A 514.

269. o-vv : construe with ^vav. ^ : emphasi/es tin- whole clause.

270. Tp9 : for position, cf. c>8c 28. 271. (/. 286.
272-291. II. The Ajaxes. 272. K^p:onA44. 273. Qf. 251.
274 f. W<j>os: thi- tfl the following comj.arison. Cf. 'cloud of

v.itnrxx.'s.' s ore: cf. l:',o. T 88, B 2o!>. aliroXos : the goatherd is not
IUM -(led for the comparison, but he and his tlock^ enliven the scene. 14 a.




142 COMMENTARY TO THE

278. 4>cUveT : ^atverat, 28 a.

280. TOICU: refers to d>s 275 ; predicate. " So dark and threatening."

282. ir<t>piKviai : cf. 'Bristled with upright beams innumerable | Of
rigid spears, and helmets thronged, and shields,' Milton Par. Lost vi.
82 f . ; 'horrent arms,' ib. ii. 513.

284. o-^as: monosyllable; 25 ; cf. B 704.

286. cr<J>(oi : object of or/owe/xev. 287. aurco : of yourselves.

288-291. C/.B 371-374.

289. irdo-iv: masculine, not neuter; cf. T<5 104.

292-325. III. Nestor. 293. cv0a : particle of transition.

299. KPKOS: cf. A 284.

301 f. lirirevo-iv jxe'v : has no correlative TT^OIS Se - xV v: check.

303. Transition to ' direct discourse,' without the usual introduction.

304. trpoo-0' oXXwv : i.e. as Trpo/xa^os. The warriors while on their
chariots could not safely hurl their spears, lest they could not recover
them.

305. " Remain together." dXairaSvorcpoi : sc. if you fail to obey.

306. owro 6xv: nearly equivalent to ots o^e'earni/. Contrasted with



310. iroX^wv : genitive, as TO&OI/ 196 . 311. Cf. 255, 283. 312 = B 7.

314. yovva.ro. : the seat of bodily vigor. These weaken in time of fear.

315. 6'4>\v : cf. A 415. 316. e'xeiv: sc. yiy/xxs as object.
319. ws : modifies tf/uev [ctvat] ; equivalent to TOIOS. See on pivvvOa

A 416. 'EpcvOoXUva: the story is told at full length in H 132 ff.

320 f. iravra : sc. ayaOd. el : see on A 280. vvv avre : see on A 237..
oiratei : virtually equivalent to reipei, above. Non omnia possum us
omnes.

322. Kalws: " although old." 323. TO: cf. 4

324. 01 irtp : nearly equivalent to since they.

326-363. IV. Menestheus and Odysseus.

327 f. Cf. 89 f. 329. 'OSvo-crevs: in apposition with 6.

330 f. irap: construe with Icrracrav. o-<j>Cv : for the dative, see 19 h.

332. v'ov: as A 391. 334. oirirore : cf. B 794.

335. Tpwwv: for genitive, cf. MeveXaov 100. ap^iav : for plural, cf.
B278.

336. Cf. 241, 255. 337 = 284. 338. vU: for the ultima, cf. 155.
339. For the ' alliteration ' of K, see 13 a. Kp8a\66<j>pov : cf. A 149.
340 f. d<t>o-TaTe : sc. fta^s. H^v T lirc'oiiw : contrasted with vvv 347.

46vras : for the accusative, in spite of <r</><otv, see on A 541.










FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 143

343. " You are always ready to listen to an invitation to a feast."

345. <J>i\a: predicate. See on A 107. on-raXta : cf. A 465 f.

347. vvv Sc : opposed to 341 f. tl KT\. : object of opware.

349. Cf. A 148.

350-355. Speech of Odysseus, in six lines like that of Agamemnon in
358-363. 350. < Rhetorical question.' Cf. A 5.VJ.

351 f. iroXt'jioio jJL8tfiv : sc. ^/xas. Cf. '234. 4m : at/dinst, upon.
fyeipontv KT\. : cf. B 440. tyipo\t*v: for the subjunctive, cf. A 164.

353 ff. I shall fight bravely." Ti^dx 010 KT\. : cf. B 260. fu^Vra :
inceptive ' aorist. dvtjiwXia : predicate.

357. x u P"' 010 : supplementary participle. For the genitive, cf. B 348.

358 = B 173.

362. " We will make all this right hereafter." Cf. Z wl fin.

363. rd Sc : xc. harsh words. 364-418. V. Diomed and Sthenelus.
364 = 292. 365 f. Cf. 89 f., 327 f.

366. iirirowri KT\. : form one thought.

367. imp : sc. as charioteer. 368. Cf. 3:56. TOV : i.e. Diomed.
370. r/'. B 23.

372. <|>Xov TJV : equivalent to fybavtv. Trrtuo-Ka^'/xei/ is subject.

374. tSovro : for the voice, see 50 . irovevjuvov : i.e. in battle.

375. irepC : construe with

376. arep iroXt'iJiou : ex})hiine(l

377. |civos : a>- a fr' ml. <ryipv : cf. 28 ; sc. for the expedition against
Thebes.

378. ot : i.e. Tydeus and Polynices. fcrrpaTowvTO : cf. F 187.

379. jidXa : for length of ultima, cf. A 394.

380. ol : 1. 1 '. Mycenaeans.

381. (rp\|/c : i.e. dissuaded. irapawria KrA. : cf. B '>.">: J.

382. ol : a return to ot of 378. irp<5 : adverb. 6Sov : local genitive.
383 f. For the story, cf. E 802 ff. The invaders halted at the river

and sent an embassy to the town. dyyeXitiv : predicate, as ambassador;
cf. T 206. fcrl : construe with o-reZAav, I.e.. to Thebes. TvSri : TrSe'u.

387 f. gcivos KT\. : ttrttngcr ikowjk h<- u-us. KaS^uiouriv : equivalent to
Ka8/xtu)va5 3-S5. Cf. Aapoanot and AapSavtcoj'e?.

389. o -y : resumes o :5s.-). irpoKaXO^To : cf. T 19. irdvra : neuter,
"in all contests," i.e. event-.' wr->tlin^, fte. < /. B i 13. IvUa : wv/x ruVo/-.

391. x^ a)<r L H L<v01 : x ''- because of his suce-

393. Kovpous: in apposition with \6x<>v. The leaders have bloody
names.



7TT(H B 32.



144 COMMENTARY TO THE

396. Kal TOUTIV: i.e. he overcame these, too. <f>fjKv: cf.

397. eva : sc. to bear the tidings.

398. apa : resumes eVa Sc KT\. The omens directed that Maeon should
be spared.

399. AlrwXios : Tydeus was grandson of Oeneus (B 641). TO'V: this.

400. jidxu : local; cf. A 521. d<yopfj KT\. : "although better," etc.

401. Cf. A 511.

402. viirT|v : accusative after cuSe<r0ets, see H. 712 ; G. 1049.

404 f . xJ/cvS*' : i^evSeo. <rd<}>a : i.e. true. Note the following ' asyn-
deton' and the repetition of Tj/xeis. K-e'-ya: on A 78.

406 f. The former (in which Tydeus and Capaneus, fathers of Diomed
and Sthenelus, had part) expedition against Thebes failed ; the second, of
the Epigoni, destroyed the city. iravpdrepov : sc. than the fathers. d-ya-
Yo'vre : dual, for Diomed and Sthenelus. viro reixos: cf. B 216.

409. Ktivoi: i.e. the first assailants.

410. T: therefore. OJIOIT) : sc. fjfjfiv. " We deserve higher honor."
412 ff. Seven verses in reply to seven. See on 350. 412. Cf. A 565.
415. Tovmpne'v: correlative with TO vrw Se 417 ; and icvSos is contrasted

with ircvOas, in the same place in the verse, before the pause.

417. 'Axauov : genitive of cause or possibly genitive absolute ; 19 g.

419. Cf. T 29. 420. Savo'v: cf. T 337. 421. faro': cf. T 34.
For the supposed spectator, cf. 539.

422-456. This scene might follow immediately on B 483 or B 785.

423. ira<r<rvTepov : the point of comparison ; cf. eVcunrvTepai 427.

425. x c 'p*<P : local. 427. Aavawv : construe with <aAayyes.

428 f. KC'XCVC KT\. : cf. B 805. Tpy|io'vv : at the head of the verse, in
contrast with ot 8' aAAoi. ot 8e KT\. : cf. T 8. <j>at]s: on T 220.

430. i'xovra KT\. : contains the principal idea. 431. SciSiores : causal.

433. Tpwcs : the comparison is continued until the subject is forgotten
and resumed in TpdW dAxxA^roV 436. Cf. B 459.

434. XCVKO'V: for the epithet, see 12 a. 435. Two 'apparent hiatus.'

436. Tpwwv : see on 433. dvd o-Tparo'v : cf. A 10.

437. ta : cf. p.ia T 238. -yifrvs : cf. B 804.
439. TOVS ji^v : i.e. Trojans.

442 f. Vergil imitates this passage in his description of Fama: parva
metu primo, mox sese attollit in auras | ingrediturque solo et
caput inter nubila condit Aen. iv. 176 f. Cf. 'Satan alarmed]
Collecting all his might dilated stood : | . . . His stature reached the
sky, and on his crest | Sat horror plumed,' Milton Par. Lost iv. 985 f.






FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 145

442. Cf. 424.

443. ovpavw: for the dative, see on Z 136. cVrTJpi^ : gnomic aorist,
parallel to /&uVct. ical &rrl KT\. : " while still it walks," etc.

447. <rvv : together. Construe with IfiaXov. ju /Va : c f- B 387 > 53 6.

449. iroXvs KT\. : cf. B 810. Cf. < Of shout and scream the mingled
din | And weapon-clash and maddening cry | Of those who kill and those
who die,' Scott Rokeby v. 31 ; ' Sweat, writhings, anguish, labouring of
the lungs | In that close mist, and cryings for the light, | Moans of the
dying, and voices of the dead,' Tennyson Passing of Arthur.

450 f . Note the chiasmus,' cv^wXi} belonging to oXXwrw, and
oifjutiyrj to oAAv/xo/iiH/. 452. opco-<f>i : genitive.

453. v[Apd\\Tov : cf. < Met as torrents from the hight | In highland
dales their streams unite,' Scott Lady of the Lake iii. 24.

455. Soihrov: the point of comparison. iroiji^v: cf. 275. Cf.
rapidus montano flumine torrens . . . stupet inscius alto |
accipiens sonitum saxi de vertice pastor Verg. Aen. ii. 305 ff.,
and also ib. xii. 523 f . ; Then like the billow in his course, | That far to
si-award finds his source, | And flings to shore his muster'd force, | Burst
\\ ith loud roar their murmur hoarse,' Scott Lady of the Lake iii. 9.

456. TWV: construe with la^i}. Cf. A 49. -ye'vcro : see 32 f.

457. Tpa>v : construe with avSpa.
459-461 = Z 9-11.

459. d : marks the clause as a repetition of 457. Cf. E 79.

460. irr\%t : sc. Sdpv or y^os as object. wrWov t<rw : cf. A 71.

461 f. oo-o-e: in apposition with TOV, cf. 350. irvp-yos : sc. f)purc..
Cf. B :)! L 463. iro8v : cf. xpos 154. 464 = B 541.

465. 2\K : mark the change to the imperfect. <xj>pa KT\. : = <rvXf)(rai.

466. jitwvea: cf. A 416.

470. TOV |i^v : i.e. Elephenor. awrw : i.e. his body. Cf. A 4.

472 f. avT]p avSpa: equivalent to oAA^Aovs. Cf. legit virum vir
Verg. A en. xi. 632. vtov: for the short penult, see 23 /.

477. KoXeov : sc. roKrjts. 478. " He did not repay his parents' care."

479. W6 : construe with Sovpi. Cf. T 436.

481 f. dvriKpvs : '/. F 359. \<W*l for xa/*ac- r f- w/'ov A 486.

483 f . ir<j)viqj : for the subjunctive, cf. T 61 f . drop TC : cf. aXXa re
A 82.

485. dvT|p : see on B 474.

486. 4|Tajt : gnomic,' hence subjunctive, Kafjuf/y.

488. TOIOV: refers to cuyapos w? 482. Cf. T 153. 'AvecjiiSiiv : 39 e.




146 COMMENTARY TO THE

489. TOV : i.e. Ajax. Cf. Mei/eAaov 100. 490. Ka0' ojuXov : cf. 199.

491. 6 &: for the repetition of the subject, see on A 191.

493. avTw: i.e. his booty, the dead Simo'isius. ol: dative of interest.

494. TOV : causal. Cf. 168 f . diroKTane'voio : passive. See 50 d.
496. lyytis : sc. to the body of his friend.

498. dvSpo's: ablatival genitive; see 19 g ft. aXiov : cf. 26, 179.

500. Trap' iinrwv : clearly Priam had a stock farm at Abydus.

501. crdpoio : for the genitive, cf. TOV 494.

502. T| : refers to oovpi, but ol^rj (which is added in apposition) is
already in the poet's mind.

504. A frequently recurring formula. The verse is thought to echo
the thud of the warrior's fall and the ring of his arms.

505. vir6: construe with ^w/a^o-av. re': for its position, cf. A 417.

506. ne'-ya : for the length of the ultima, cf. 456.

508. Efcp-ydjjLov : i.e. from his temple. See E 446. dvo-as : cf. ^xoi/^cra?.
509 f. x^W 1 !*: ablatival. X0os : "of stone." XP*s : subject.
512. ov ndv ovSe: cf. B 703. 513. w\ov wfo-o-ei : cf. A 81.

514. irroXios : i.e. <xKpO7roA.o>s. 516. (wOieVras KT\. : cf. 240.

519. KVTJp,T]v : one of the two accusatives in the active construction
(e/?aXc Atw/3tt KVTJIJLYJV} is retained in the passive construction.

521. dvaio^rjs : pitiless. 523. erdpoio-i : sc. appealing to them for aid.

526. For the < alliteration ' of x> cf. 339. r6v: i.e. Diores.

527. TOV : i.e. Piroiis.

530. epvo-0-ttTo : drew his sword ; middle.

531. T$: demonstrative, with this. o -y: see on A 97.

532. dir'8u<r : cf. B 261. irepurTTjo-av : second aorist, intransitive.

533. dKpoKojioi : possibly like American Indians, with a scalp
See on B 11.

537. 6 |'v : i.e. Piroiis (519 f.). 6 8: i.e. Diores (517, B 622).

538. irp: cf. B 417. 539. OVOO-CUTO : for the optative, cf. iSois 223.

541. d-yoi Be: see on KO.L ol A 79. No one would dare as an observer
to enter such a field, unless under the special protection of the mighty
goddess of war.

542. x L P5 - by the hand. eXovo-a : hiatus justified by pause; 27 b.

543. yap : refers to ovomuTo. 544. irpi\v&s : cf. 522, B 418.
The last verses of the Fourth Book form a fitting conclusion to the

story of the battle up to this point, and a preparation for the more
important contest which follows ; but the last two verses ' may have been
a rhapsodist's "tag," meant to wind up a recitation.'




,

p lock.



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 147



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD

The subject of the Fifth Book is at once announced : The Bravery of
I)initi>il. who had already been somewhat prominent, before the battle
(A 11!) ff.).

1-453. The AckaejM preu forwtml victoriously. 1-94. Diomed comes
forward.

I. tv0a : as A I'D 3. *A6T|VT] : not only the goddess of war, but also the
special pat roncss of Diomed, as she had been of his father (A 390).

4. Appositive asyndeton.' Cf. Verg. Aen. x. 270 ff.

5. do-Tpi : i.e. Sirius, the dog star, as appears from X 26 f. Cf.
'Satan stood | Unterrified ; and like a comet burn'd | That fires tin*
length of Ophiuchus huge | In th' Arctic sky, and from his horrid hair |
Shakes pestilence and war,' Milton Par. Lost ii. 707 ; 'And as the fiery
Sirius alters hue | . . . Their morions, wash'd with morning, as they came,'
Tennyson /'//'/// >> v.

6 f. 'ftKtavoio : for genitive, cf. B 415, Z 508 ; see 19 j. Kpards : cor-
responds to KopvOos 4, and o>/xooi/ to dcnrt'Sos.

9 f . rjv S TIS: cf. B 811. ifxvs : there were no priests in the Greek
camp. 'H4>awrroio : the Trojans honored the same divinities as the
Achaeans.

II. \t-0i\r\s KT\. : r/'. B 823. 12. ol : i.e. Diomed. lvavr<i>: predicate.
13. iretos : <;/'. A 41!). wh-re Diomed dismounts. 14 = T 15.
15. irpbrcpos : ';/'. vcrTtpos 17. 17. uipwro KT\. : cf. F 349.

18. oXiov : as A 498.

19. fjLTC4iau>v : <f. A 480. For the compound, see on B 56. w<re : xr.
by the cast of his spear. iinrwv : "chariot."

21. ircpipfjvai : cf. '-'!!, a/x^e'^T/Ka? A 37. a8X<|>iov (better dStX^ctx),
Jj 3.') //) K-rA. : - his slain brother." 22. ovSe KT\. : cf. B 703.

23. dXXd : = ei p.rj. 24. ws : final. ol : ethical.

28. T6vfjtt'v: i.f. Idaeus. 29. bpivQj] : ar. to fear and flight.

31. *Aps, "Aps : -J ">!' '/ ft- For the epithets without conjunction, see
ji 1"> a. 32. OVK av : '/'. I" .VJ. ji^v : correlative with voii 8e 31.

33. fidpvcurBai : ti-ht and see."

34. Aios KT\. : this is (nly a pretext.

35. Ares ifl nol long mactiye ; see hl. Athena departs (to Olympus?)
at l;i3. 37. K\tvav: after Ares' withdrawal.

38. T-ycjiovwv : construe with l/cacrro?.




148 COMMENTARY TO THE

40. irpcoTa> : dative of interest; " in his back first, as he turned to flee."

<rrp<f>0e'vTi : construe with Trpomp. Note the caesura per&fypevtp :

local, with lv TH^CI/.

41. fe'Xeuro-cv : sc. So/ov as object. 42 = A 504.
43. apa : cf. B 522. 44. 6s : i.e. 4>atcrTos.

46. iirirwv : construe with eTri/^o-o/zevoi/. Phaestus had been fighting
on foot. Now he started to mount his chariot in order to flee.

47. O-KOTOS clfcv : cf. 68, 82, 310, 659, 696, A 461.

50. Menelaus is able to fight, in spite of his wound (A 139 f.).

51. 8(80$: cf. A 72, B 827. 52. otpto-iv : local.
53. XP " ^ 6 : cf. A 28. 54. cK-qpoXiai : for plural, see on A 205.
56. Of course this implies that Menelaus drove him.

57 f. = 41 f. 59. The names indicate the craft of the family.

60. 6s : i.e. ^epe/cAos. Cf. os 44 ; see on B 872.

62. 6s: i.e. Phereclus again. 63. apxcicdicovs : see on ovXofjicvrjv A 2.
64. Phereclus pays the penalty for his work. K : construe with Qt&v.

0<r<j>aTa : sc. that misfortune would befall Troy if Paris should bring
home a Greek wife. 65. ore KT\. : parenthetical.

66. (3cpX*|Ki : as A 492. -f, : cf. A 502.

67. dicuictfj : in apposition with rj.

70. |iv, 8 : contrasted. Nearly equivalent to ov voOov TTC/O eoVra KT\.
73 f. K<J>O\TIS : partitive genitive, with Iviov. dvTiicptis: cf. T 359.
75. \|/vxpov xo^o'v' "cold steel." Cf. iaculum ore momordit



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