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in the Iliad and thrice in the Odyssey, while this title is given to
only five other chiefs, once to each. Achilles is TroSdp/oys Stos 'A^tXAevs
twenty-one times, TroSa? WKV? 'A^XXevs thirty times, TroSwiceos Aia/aSao
ten times, TroSw/cea n^XecWa ten times. Menelaus is ' good at the
war cry' (jSor/v dyaflos) twenty-five times. Hector is Kopv9aLo\os
thirty-seven times, <atSi/xos "E/crw/o thirty times. Cf. pius Aeneas,
fidus Achates, and Longfellow's ' gentle Evangeline,' 'Basil the
blacksmith,' 'Captain of Plymouth,' 'the Puritan maiden Priscilla.'
'In our own national songs,' says Macaulay, 'Douglas is almost
always the doughty Douglas, England is merry ^England, all the
gold is red, and all the ladies are gay.' Cf. 22 a, b, e, f.

c. The situation of the moment seems sometimes to contradict
the epithet, as rov Se iSwv pty^o-e /3or)v dya0os Ato/^TJSr;? E 596 at sight
of him Diomed good at the war cry shuddered.

d. Synonymous Expressions. The poet is fond of a cumulation
of synonymous or nearly synonymous expressions, many of which
remind the reader of redundant legal expressions, as <wj(7as

rjvSa. A 201 lifted up his voice and addressed her, CTTOS r fyar' c
oi/o/Aaev A 361 spoke a word and called upon him, e'/zev toi/ros KCU
X#ovt SepKO/xevoio A 88, aTrptar^v avaTrowov A 99, ro>i/ ov n fAerarpCTrr)
dXeyt'^et? A 160, TroXe/AOt' re /xa^at re A 177, TTCIVTW /xei/ Kpareetv
7rdvrecr(rt 8' dvaorcretv, | Tratri 8e (T^/xatVeti/ A 288 f., OVT' eipo/xat ovre
/aeraXXw A 553, oi/^eat et K' 0\r)(T0a. KOL et KcV rot TO, fJLfJL-tj\r] A 353,

TyyTJTopes ^Sc /xe'Sovres B 79. Sometimes the same stem is repeated
for emphasis, in a different form, as oi/a/nov o^ireXeo-rov B 325.




13 a. HOMERIC STYLE xxxix

e. Epexegesis. A clause is often added epexegetically, to explain
a preceding clause or word, as /x^vtv . . . ovAo/ntV^v rj /xvpi" ' AVOUCH?
aAye tOr]Kf.v A 1 f., TO. re ouip A.<f>pooiTr)<s, rj re KOJJLT) TO re eI8o? F 54 f.
For explanatory asyndeton, see 15 b.

f. The species often follows in apposition with the genus, as
KVfJMra fiaKpa OaXdo-o-ys \ TTOVTOV 'iKctpt'oio B 144 f., opviGwv, \ \rjvwv B
459 f., /?oi)s I ravpos B 480 f. Cf. the explanatory use of the infini-
tive, as ZpLot. wer)Kf. /xa^eo-^at A 8 brought together in a strife, to
contend.

g. Thus also the part of the mind or body which is employed or
specially affected is mentioned, as OVK 'Aya/xe/xvovi rjvoavf. 6vu<S A 24,
Xwo/u,evo? Krjp A 44, Ke^apotaro Ovaw A 256, cV o<$aA/AOurii> opacr&u

F306.

h. Stereotyped Expressions. The same expressions recur under
similar circumstances. We find a stereotyped description of a feast
and of the preparations for it, of the breaking of day and of the
approach of night, of doffing or donning sandals and armor ; there
are conventional expressions for setting out on a journey, for an
attack in battle, for the fall and death of a warrior, for lying down
to rest. Such formulae were convenient for the bard, and did not
distract the attention of the hearer from more important matters.
Speeches are introduced and followed by set verses, as KCU piv (or

crc^eas) ^xovr/cra? 7rea Trrepoevra Trpoo-rjvBa A 201, and in fifty other
places ; o cr<f>iv ev <f>pove<av ayop-qo-aTO Kal /xercetTrev A 73 and in fourteen
other places, while the second hemistich is found several times in
other combinations ; rj rot o y <os CITTWV KO.T* ap* ^CTO, rotcri 8* avfa-Trj
A 68, 101, B 76. These stereotyped verses have been compared
with the frequently recurring ' And Job answered and said/ ' Then
Eliphaz the Temanite answered and said/ of the book of Job, and
with the set form in which the reports of the messengers were
brought to the man of Uz, each of the four reports ending ' and
I only am escaped alone to tell thee.'

13. a. Parechesis, Onomatopoeia, etc. The, poet seems to have
looked with indifference on the similarity of sound in neighboring
words. He does not appear to have designed the rhyme in t/ceV&u,
A 19 f., 8wo-, aTTwo-et A 96 f., Xov<ra, rcKovcra A 413 f.,






INTRODUCTION 13 b.

/, rawo-crai/ A 485 f., or between the two hemistichs of a verse,

as e(T7reT vvv fJiOL Mov<rai 'OAv/XTTta Sw/AaT* ^ov(rat B 484.

Most examples of parechesis (Tra/o^x^s) and alliteration are
probably accidental, as TroAAetov CK TroAi'w B 131, es TroAe/xov TrwA^o-eai
E 350, Trarpi re (ra> /xeya TH^O, iroXrjL TC Trai/Tt re Sry/xa) F 50.

b. Occasionally an onomatopoetic (oVo/zaroTroua), imitative expres-
sion is used, giving a kind of echo in the sound, as rpixOd re KOL

T 363, of the breaking of the sword of Menelaus ; CK Se
r/os /&/ TTOI/TOTTO/OOIO A 439, where a vivid imagination may
perhaps hear the measured steps of the damsel as she leaves the
ship, with a quick rush at the close ; avns cTretra Tre'Soi/Se KuAiVSe-ro
\aa? di/cuSi/s X 598, of the rolling back of the stone which Sisyphus
in Hades was continually urging to the summit of a hill. Cf.
Vergil's quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula cam-
pum (Aen. viii. 596).

c. The poet plays occasionally on the names of his heroes, as
Up60oo<s Oobs ^ye/xoVevev B 758 (" swift by nature as well as by
name"), TA.?;7roAe/xov . . . rA^/Aora Ovfjiov e^toi/ E 668 ff., "E/crop . . . ^s
irov arcp Aawi/ 7rdA.ii/ ^/ACV E 472 f., where c^e/Aei/ seems to be selected
with reference to the assumed etymology of *EKTO>P.

14. a. Comparisons or Similes. A notable characteristic of
Homeric style is the comparison. This is designed to throw into
high relief some point in the action narrated, especially some
change in the situation ; it often relieves the monotony of the
description of a battle. But the poet is not always satisfied to
illustrate the particular point for which the comparison is intro-
duced ; he often completes the picture by adding touches which
have nothing to do with the narrative, as is done in the parables
of Scripture, and the similarity of details must not be pressed.

b. Illustrations are furnished by all experiences of life, from the
lightning of Zeus and the conflict of opposing winds, from the snow-
storm and the mountain torrent, to a child playing with the sand
on the seashore, and a little girl clinging to her mother's gown ;
from lions arid eagles, to a stubborn ass whioh refuses to be driven
from a cornfield by children, and to a greedy fly ; from the evening
star, to women wrangling in the street. The lion is a special



15 a. HOMERIC STYLE xli

favorite, and appears in comparisons thirty times in the Iliad.
These comparisons afford a wider view of life in the Homeric age
than is presented by the events themselves.

c. Homer, like Milton, could not think of an army in motion
without thinking of its resemblance to something else. Just before
the Catalogue of the Ships, the movements of the Achaean armies
are described by six detailed comparisons (B 455-483) : the splendor
of their armor is compared with the gleam of fire upon the moun-
tains (455-458) ; their noisy tumult, with the clamor of cranes or
swans on the Asian plain (459-466) ; in multitude, they are as the
innumerable leaves and flowers of springtime (467 f.) ; they are
impetuous and bold as the eager flies around the farm buildings
(469-473) ; they are marshaled by their leaders as flocks of goats
by their herds (474-479) j their leader (Agamemnon) is like to
Zeus, to Ares, to Poseidon, he is preeminent among the heroes
as a bull in a herd of cattle (480-483).

d. The Iliad has 182 detailed comparisons, seventeen briefer
(as TrcLUjiv cot/cores rjyopdao-Oe. | VTyTTia^ot? ol? ov n /xe'Aet TroXc/XTyta Ipya
B 337 f.), and twenty-eight of the briefest sort. The Odyssey has
thirty-nine detailed comparisons, six briefer, and thirteen very
brief. The first book of the Iliad has only two comparisons, and
those of the briefest, 6 8' rjie WKTL eot/cois A 47, yvr o^X\rj A 359,
in addition to oo-cre Se ot TTV/H Xa/xTrerowvTi CIACTT/I/ A 104. Books B-Z
have forty detailed comparisons.

e. Comparisons are introduced by <o? re, ws ec, o>s ore, <os irep KT\.
Prepositive ws is not used in comparisons (except in p. 433).

In the briefest comparisons, postpositive ws is often used, generally
lengthening the preceding syllable ( 59.;).

f. The aorist indicative (the so-called < gnomic aorist') is often
used in comparisons, as T 4, 10, 23, 33.

15. a. Asyndeton. In the Homeric period more frequently
than in later Greek, sentences were left unconnected by conjunc-
tions, i.e. asyndeton (H. 1039) was allowed more freely. Orna-
mental epithets are not connected by K<U, and sometimes in animated
discourse the poet uses no conjunction between clauses or words,

as a7rpia.Tr)V avd-rroivov A 99.



as enrol a



xlii INTRODUCTION 15 b.

b. Asyndeton of sentences is most frequent where the second
sentence explains the first and is in a kind of apposition with it,
repeating the thought in a different form : dAAo. KCU <o? e0e'A<o So/aevcu
TraAtv ei TO y a/xeivov (3ov\OfA eya) Aaov croov eyu-yu,evat tfj aTroXecrOau A
116 f., w TTOTTOI, ^ /Aeya. TrwOos 'A^aa'So. yaTav i/cavei | ^ KCI/ yrjOrjaaL
HjOia.jU.os Ilpta^xoto re TralSe? A 254 f., dAA oo avrjp e0eAet Trept TTOLVTWV

fJifJLVOiL aAA(Ol/, TTaVTWV /Al/ Kpa.T.LV lOeXcL TCO.VTf.Wl O aVOLGTCT^LV A 287 f.

In B 299, rA^Te <^>tAot Kai /zeiVar' CTTI ^pwoi 7 gives the sum of the
preceding' sentence, and the asyndeton marks the speaker's warmth
of feeling.

c. An adversative relation (but) is occasionally expressed by an
asyndeton, especially with ye /aeV in the second clause, as B 703,
E 516.

d. The absence of a conjunction often gives rapidity to the style
and thus is found often where the second sentence begins with
OLVTIKO. or alif/a, as t 8* aye fjirjv Treiprjcrai . . . alij/d rot, at/xa KeAatvov
/oa)^o-ei Tff.pl SovpL A 302 f., avTLKa KeprojJiLOicri Aia. Kpovtwva Trpoa-fjvBa
A 539 ; cf. B 442.

16. a. Chiasmus?- For emphasis, the poet sometimes so
arranges the words of two clauses that the extremes, as also the
means, are correlative with or contrasted with each other, as TratSa
TC o"ot dye/xev, 3>oi/3w & iepyv eKaro/x/^v A 443, where TratSa and
o-ot and $ot/?<o respectively are contrasted. Cf. ws
TifJirjcrys oAeVrys 8c TroAeas A 558 f., 6W/u.ej/e'criv /xei/ X^PW
Ka.Tr)<j>tLY)V 8 aot avra) F 51, apv*, erepov ACUKOV, erep^v 8e //.eAatvav, | F^ 1
re Kat 'HeAtw F 103 f., where the black lamb was for Tfj and the
white for 'HeAios, /?ao-iAev? T* dya^o? /cparcpos r* atp(/X7yT>;5 F 179,
where the adjectives are brought together, A 450 f. Cf. Milton's
' Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet,' Par. Lost iv. 641,

1 The name is given from the Greek letter X, there being a crossing of
ideas, as:



179.



It should be noticed that this chiastic arrangement is often the most simple and
natural, as in the first example above, where <rol at once suggests the other
person interested, 4>ot/3oj.



16 d. HOMERIC STYLE xliii

( Adam the goodliest man of men since born | His sons, the fairest
of her daughters Eve,' Par. Lost iv. 323 f., and Shakspere's ' Malice
domestic, foreign levy,' Macbeth iii. 2. 25.

b. Epanalepsis. Sometimes a word (generally a proper name)
or a clause is repeated in the same sentence at the beginning of a
new verse. Cf. Milton's Lycidas 37 f. ' But the heavy change,
now thou art gone, | Now thou art gone and never must return,'
58 f . ' What could the muse herself that Orpheus bore, | The
muse herself for her enchanting son ? ' The name is repeated at
the beginning of three successive verses (Nipev? . . . Nipevs . . .
Nipew), B 671 ff. Cf. also B 838, 850, 871, Z 154. The name when
repeated is attracted into the case of the following relative pro-
noun, in 'Avopofjidxr], Ovydrrjp /u-cyaA^TOpos 'HertWos, | 'HertW 09 Iraicv
VTTO HXaKo) vA^eWfl Z 395 f. Andromache, daughter of the great-
souled Eetion, Eetion who dwelt at the foot of woody Placus.

c. Litotes (AITOTT/S or /netWis), a simplicity of language, or under-
statement of the truth (usually a strong affirmation by denial of the
contrary), is common to all languages. Milton's < unblest feet' is
stronger than cursed feet. Homeric examples abound, as OVK 'Aya-
/xe/xvovt Tjv8av OvfjuS A 24 it was not pleasing to the soul of Agamem-
non, i.e. it was hateful, etc.; ty 8' cs KovXtbv wo-e /xc'ya i'<os ov'8'
aiTLOrjo-tv | fjLvOw 'A^T/vaoys A 220 f. back into the sheath he thrust his
great sword nor did he disobey the word of Athena, i.e. he obeyed ;
"E/cTtop 8' ov rt #eas ITTOS rjyvoir)(Tv B 807.

d. a. Prrlji/ii'dsis. Certain periphrases occur frequently, as <xere
& HpLa.fj.oLo (^Lifjv F 105 bring the might of Priam, i.e. the mighty
Priam, na<A.uydva>/ 8' riyilro IIvXat/MeVeo? Xacrioj/ K^p B 851, ry ITTCI

KpaOLrjv Aio? ^ Kac pya> A 395, TroAc/XT/ia epya B 338, work* f
if. tt'tir. /xeVo? dvSpaii/ B 387, i.e. brave men. Cf. odora canum
vis Verg. Aen. iv. 132, horrentia centum terga suum ib. i.
634 f. ; ' First, noble friend, let me embrace thine age,' Shakspere
Tempest v. i ; <The majesty of buried Denmark/ Hamlet init.;
Milton's ( Meanwhile . . . where the might of Gabriel fought,' Par.
Lost vi. 355 ; ( The violence | Of Ramiel, scorcht and blasted, over-
threw,' ib. vi. 371 f . ; 'By them stood the dreaded name | Of
Demogorgon,' ib. ii. 965.



xliv INTRODUCTION 16 e.

(3. Some of these periphrases were used simply for metrical con-
venience. E.g. fiirj 'HpaKXrjeir) is equivalent to 'Hpa/cAe^s, which is
not suited to the Homeric verse.

y. SovXiov fjpap Z 463 is simply a poetic expression for slavery,
iXf.vOf.pov rjfjiap Z 455 for freedom.

e. Zeugma. Sometimes two connected subjects or objects are
construed with a verb which is appropriate to but one of them,
as rj /xcv tTreiTa | et? a\a aA.ro . . . | Zevs 8 ov Trpos 8w/xa (sc. /3rj)
A. 531 ff. she then leaped into the sea, but Zeus went to his own house,
r)*Xi KacrT(t) | tTTTrot <lepcrt7ro8es KOL TroiKi'Aa rev^e' CKetro r 326 f. where
the high-stepping horses of each were standing, and the bright armor
was lying. Cf. Shakspere, Sonnet 55, 7, ' Nor Mars his sword, nor
war's quick fire shall burn The living record of your memory. 7

f. Hysteron Proteron. Occasionally the more important or obvi-
ous object or action is mentioned before another which should
precede it in strict order of time, as a/xa rpafav ^8c yeWro A 253
were bred and born with him. Cf. Shakspere, Twelfth Night i. ii.
< For I was bred and born | Not three hours' travel from this very
place' and Vergil's moriamur et in media arma ruamus Aen.
ii. 353. In some phrases metrical convenience may have deter-
mined the order of expression.

g. Apostrophe. At times the poet addresses directly one of his
characters, as ovSe o-0ev, MeveAae, Oeol /wxKape? \\dOovTO A 127 nor
did the gods forget thee, Menelaus, Ivff apa rot, IlaTpo/cAe, <f>dv-r) PLOTOLO
TtXevrr) II 787 then, Patroclus, appeared for thee the end of life.
Fifteen times in the Odyssey the poet thus addresses the < godlike
swineherd' Eumaeus, which may be there chiefly a metrical con-
venience. Cf. Milton's apostrophe to Eve, < much deceiv'd, much
failing, hapless Eve, | Of thy presum'd return,' Par. Lost ix. 404 f.

17. Later Change in Words. The student must be watchful to
apprehend the exact Homeric meaning of words which are used in a
slightly different sense in later Greek. Thus ayopr) and dyw are
used in Homer of an assembly, gathering, not of market and contest.
"Ai'tfys is always the name of a person, not of a place. doiSos, (101877
are used for the Attic TTOI^TT/S, v/xvos, CTTO? and pvOos are used for
Xoyos, Koo-/xo> for rao-o-w. /JAaTrra) is to injure by detaining, detain.



18 b. HOMERIC SYNTAX



means terrible, not skilful. oti-n-vov is the principal meal of
the day, whenever it is taken. lyx5 means spear, never sword.
/A7r>79 is used for the Attic o/x<os, nevertheless, ijptos is used of all the
warriors ; it does not mean a hero in the English sense. 0epa7r<ov
was nearly the Spartan Oepd-n-iav, not a menial servant, ^yco/wu is
to lead, not to think. Kpw<a is to select, discriminate, rather than
to judge. Aaos [Aews] is often used of soldiery. AtWo/xat is used
only once of entreaty addressed to gods. /xeAAto never means delay.
voc'w often has the sense of ala-Odvofjun (which is not Homeric), per-
ceive, and <^>poo/xcu is to consider. VO/AOS is not used for law. ovo/xai
is not to blame in a general way, but to think insufficient, despise.
OVTOW is wound with a weapon held in the hand, not with a missile.
7re/n7rcu is escort, attend, as well as send ; cf. 77-0/^77, convoy. 7roA.e/xos
is often battle rather than war. irprjcro-u is to carry through rather
than to do, as in Attic. cr;(e8oV is near, of place, not almost, o-to/xa
is used only of a dead body, Se/xas being used of the living form, and
avrds and TTtpl xpoi taking some of the Attic uses of o-w/xa. ra^a
always means quickly, never perhaps, as in later Greek, rii^/u is
often used like Trotew, make. rXrj^v is bold, or enduring, rather than
wretched, as in later Greek. <iA.eo> is often to entertain hospitably (i.e.
as a friend, <i'A.os). <o'/3os is not fright but flight ; <o/?eo/xtu is
not /ear but ^ee. cos does not mean since. KtVSuvos, opyTJ, btrXirri^,
crrpaTOTreSov, and crTparT/yos are not used.

With these changes the student may compare the changes in
meaning of many words between Shakspere's time and our own, as
in honest, charity, convenient, prevent, homely, painful.

HOMERIC SYNTAX.

18. a. In syntax, as in forms, where the Homeric dialect
differs from the Attic it may be presumed that the Homeric usage
is the earlier. The language was less rigid ; custom had not yet
established certain constructions as normal. There was greater
freedom in the use of the modes and the cases, of prepositions and
conjunctions.

b. It is impossible to bring the Homeric uses of the modes
under the categories and rules that prevailed in the Attic period.






xlvi INTRODUCTION 18 c.

Intermediate in force between the simple future and the potential
optative with av were :

a. The future with *e, as 6 8e KCV /cc^oA-wo-crat A 139; of. A 175,
523, B 229.

ft. The subjunctive as a less vivid future, as ov yap TTW rotW t8ov
dvepas oiiSe i8a>ju,at A 262 / never yet saw such men nor shall I see them.
(H. 868 ; G. 1321.)

y. The subjunctive with KCV or av, as a potential mode, as ei Se KC
/AT) Swwo-tv, eyw Se KCV avro? eAw/xat A 137 Zm i}^ /ie?/ z#t7 not give it,
I myself will then take, etc. OVK av rot yp^M KtOapt^ T 54 the
cithara would not in that case avail thee.

8. The potential optative without oV, as B 687, A 18.

c. The subjunctive is used more freely in Homer than in later
Greek.

d. a. Homer prefers ct with the subjunctive to et KCV (at KCV) or
ci <iv with the subjunctive, d av is not used in general conditions.

ft. ci KCV is rarely used with the optative (twenty-nine times in
all) ; never in the expression of a wish, ci oV is used with the
optative but Once, ct Trep av avrat | /xovcrat dctSotcv B 597 f.

y. The optative in indirect discourse is used for the indicative in
direct discourse only in questions.

8. In a few passages the optative with KCV is used in the apodo-
sis, where Homeric and Attic usage alike lead us to expect av with
a past tense of the indicative, as B 81, T 220, E 85, /cat vv KCV v0'

aTToAoiro ava dv8/oo>v Atvetas, | et /A 1 *) a/3* ov voTycrc Ato? OvyaTrjp *A<f>po-

8tVry E 311 f. u Aeneas would have perished if Aphrodite had not
perceived."

e. a. The infinitive is often (in about two hundred cases, nearly
twice as frequently in the Odyssey as in the Iliad) used as an
imperative, as A 20.

ft. The < explanatory ' or ' epexegetical ' use of the infinitive is
frequent, as A 8, 107, 338, B 108. Often, as in these instances, this
is a survival of the old datival origin of the mood.

f . Kcv is used four times as frequently as av.

g. The ' historical present ' is not used.

h. The imperfect is much used, even associated with the aorist.



19 g. HOMERIC SYNTAX xlvii

i. eon' is not always a mere copula, and is occasionally modified
by an adverb, as a true verb of existence ; cf. eVet v\> rot atcra ^(.vwOd
Trtp, ov TI ju.aAa oi'jv A 416 since thy appointed time of life is brief, etc.,
and /jiLvvvOa 8e 01 yeVe^' op/j,rj A 466 but brief was his onset.

19. a. The cases retained more of their original force than in
Attic and had less need of a preposition to make the construction
distinct (it was once thought that the poet omitted the preposition
for the convenience of his verse), as the ablatival genitive in I/SKOS
' A^atoTo-tv TreAerat TroAe/xoio Ka/coio A 284 is a bulwark for the Achaeans
from (to keep off) evil war, KapTraXt/iw? di/e'Sv 770X1775 dAos yvr ofjLL^Xrj
A 359 swiftly she rose as a mist out of the hoary sea. The dative of
place is often found without a preposition, as TO' (o/xoio-ii/ f^wv A 45
having his boiv upon his shoulder.

b. The accusative without a preposition often expresses the
'limit of motion/ as A 254, 497. This construction is frequent
with IKW, IKO.V(I), Lcreofuu, but rare with tt/xt, e/a^o/xai, /?awo. Cf. Mil-
ton's < Arrive the happy isle/ Par. Lost ii. 409 ; Tennyson's < Arrive
at last the happy goal/ In Mem. Ixxxiii.

c. Clear examples of the so-called ' accusative of specification'
are not nearly so common as in later Greek.

d. Many cognate accusatives are on their way to become adverbs.

e. The prepositions still retain much of their adverbial nature,
and have not become fixedly attached to the verbs which they
modify ( 55). It was once thought that the occasional separation
of verb and preposition was a poetic license, and (considered as a
surgical operation) it was called tmesis. The student may think of
the freedom of the prepositions of some German compound verbs.

f. In the Homeric period certain constructions were only begin-
ning to appear definitely in use, such as the accusative with the
infinitive, and the genitive absolute.

g. a. The genitive absolute is more frequent with the present
participle than with the aorist participle. The genitive absolute
with omitted subject is particularly rare, and is denied by most
scholars. The participle sometimes seems to be used with omitted
subject when it really agrees with the genitive which is implied in
a preceding dative.



INTRODUCTION

(3. It is often impossible to say categorically whether the genitive
is in the absolute construction or rather depends on some other
word, as VTTO Se Tpwes Ke^aSovro | dvSpos aKovTiWavros A 497 f., where
the position of the genitive at the beginning of the verse gives it
greater independence, but it was probably influenced by the verb,
the Trojans drew back from the man as he hurled his javelin ; cf.
K\.ayav 8' a/>' OKTTOI CTT' w/x,(ov xwoyaei/oio | avrov Kiv^eVros A 46 f.

y. Sometimes a preposition is used where the genitive absolute
would be used in Attic prose, as d/x<t Se v^es | o-^cpSaXeov Kovdfirjo-av
avaavTW VTT 'A^atwv B 333 f.

h. The dative of interest is often used with the verb where the
English idiom prefers a possessive genitive with a noun, as Seu/w Sc
ot oWe <f>dav6tv A 200 terribly did her (lit. for her the) eyes gleam;
or is used instead of an ablatival genitive with a preposition, as
Aaraouriv deiKea Xotyov cbrwcm A 97 will ward off ignominious destruc-
tion from (lit. for) the Dana'i ; or instead of a genitive with verbs
of ruling and leading, as Travreo-tn 8' dvao-o-eiv A 288 to reign over
(lit. be the king for) all; or instead of an adverbial expression, as
Toto-t 8' dveVn? A 68 for them rose (not to be taken as a local dative,
among them).

i. VTTO is used with the dative in almost the same sense as with
the genitive in Attic, as cSa/x,^ virb x e P"' TroSw/ceos AiaKtSao B 860 he
was slain by the hands of the swift-footed Aeacides, with perhaps
more of the original local force of the preposition.

j. The use of ^ after a comparative is rare; only nineteen
instances are found in Homer.

k. Some constructions were used more freely and constantly
than in later Greek. Certain of these were always looked upon
as poetic, as Otirj TTC&IOIO Z 507 runs over the plain, XovtvBai iroTa-
/xoto Z 508 bathe in the river. For the genitive of the place to which
the action belongs, see H. 760 ; G. 1137.

1. A neuter noun in the plural is the subject of a plural verb
more frequently than in Attic.

20. a. Particles, a. The beginner in reading Homer is per-
plexed by a large number of particles that are not easy to render
by English words. Their force can often be given best by the



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