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heaven. Cf. cvrevOtv, It forms a genitive with the pronominal
stems, as 20ev etve/ca T 128, Trpo Wiv E 96, o-e0ev A 180.

d. The suffix -ere is added to the stem to denote place whither :
Keio-e, thither, TrdVrocre, in all directions, ercpaxre, to the other side.

e. The enclitic -8e is added to the accusative to denote more dis-
tinctly the limit of motion: oiKoVSe, homeward (also ci/caSe, especially
of the return of the Achaeans to their homes), oVSe So/xov8e, to his
own house, aAaSe, seaward, /cAio-i^vSe, to the tent, OvAv/xTroVSe, to Olym-
pus, xa/xae, to the ground, Ovpa^e (0v/aas-Se), to the door } out.

34. First Declension. (H. 134 ff. ; G. 168 ff.) a. r; is found
for final a of the stem with the exceptions mentioned in 23.

b. The nominative singular of some masculines ends in -rot
for -rys : iTTTrora, horseman, ^rUra, counselor. Cf. the Latin
poeta, nauta. evpiWa, far sounding, is used also as accusative,
e.g. A 498.

All of these words are adjectival (titular) except ue'ora B 107.

c. The genitive singular of masculines ends in -ao or (by trans-
fer of quantity, 23 c) -eco. After a vowel this ending may be
contracted to -co, as Aimo E 534, Bopew * 692, ev//,/AeA/o> A 47.
The ending -cw is always pronounced as one syllable by synizesis
( 25).

The Attic ending -ov (apparently borrowed from the second
declension) is not used.

d. The genitive plural ends in -aw or -cwv : 0edW, /fovAcwv. -cwv
is regularly pronounced as one syllable.

e. The dative plural ends in -^o-t(v) or rarely in -rjs.

35. Second Declension. (H. 161 ff. 5 G. 189 ff.) a. The geni-
tive singular has preserved the old ending -10, which, affixed to the
stem-vowel, makes -oto.

b. The termination -oo (shortened from -oto, cf. 23 /) is indicated
by the meter in certain places where all the Mss. give a corrupt
form, as oi^treXeo-Tov oo fcAeos ov TTOT' oXetrat B 325. Cf. 'It^irou B 518,
' Aax\r}7nov B 731. It is to be recognized also in IIcTewo B 552 for
IleTeaoo, from Jlerecus for IIcTeaos.

The -oo was afterwards contracted to ov.

c. The genitive and dative dual end in -ouv : TOUV,


d. The dative plural ends in -oto-t(v) or -ois. As in the first
declension, the long ending is the rule ; the short ending is very
rare before a consonant.

36. Third Declension. (H. 163 ff. ; G. 205 ff.) a. The ending
t of the dative singular is sometimes long and sometimes short.
It is seldom elided. It is often long before a single consonant, but
only in the first syllable of the foot : Au pfjTiv droAai/Tos, cf. v-n-ep-
fj.tv(.l <f>i\ov B 116.

b. The dative plural has the Aeolic ending -co-o-t(v) as well as
the Attic -(rt(v) : TroSecro-i, TrooW ( 30 e), TTOCTI, dVSpeoxri, dvSpacri,
Kvveoxri, mxrt, vi^eom, VT/VCTI, /xi/xvovrecro-t, fUftvown.

c. Nouns in -is and -vs usually retain t or v throughout, but in its
stead may insert c, which is sometimes lengthened, as TroAr/es (TTOAS).

d. Nouns in -eus generally lengthen e to 77 (perhaps in compen-
sation [ 59 c~\ for the v which between two vowels becomes p and

is lost), as /?tt(riAeus, /foo-iA^os.

37. Anomalous Forms, a. As verbs appear in the present system
with a variety of collateral forms derived from the same root
(cf. tKto, iKavu>, tKveo/xat, 7rev0o/uuu, 7rui/0aVo/Aai, /xevw, fj.Lfj.vu), mui/a^to,

d^evw, aKtt^t'^a), d^w/xat), so nouns of different declensions are
sometimes formed from the same root and are used without appre-
ciable difference of meaning.

b. Some nouns have both vowel and consonant stems : dA/cr;
T 45, but dA/a E 299 ; tpfypos eratpos A 266, but epirj/o* 5 eraipot T 378 ;
cf. TroAiTJTa? B 806 with TroAtrat. Ipos (A 469) and ycAos are used for
the Attic p<us and yc'Aws.

c. Of vto's three stems are found : (1) vio?, vioV, vU. The other
forms of this declension are very rare. (2) vU'o?, vtci, vita, as if
from vtvs. (3) vtos, vu, via, as from a nominative vts.

In this word the first syllable is sometimes short ( 23/), as it
often is in Attic and in other dialects.

d. Certain names of cities are found in both singular and
plural : MvKrjvrj A 52, Mv/oji/as B 569 ; rj/fy? A 378, r;/3as E 804 ;
'A^ms B 546, but 'A^n/i/ rj 80. Instead of the later plural

Homer uses only the singular : tWciai/ B 498,
B 504.



38. a. Some adjectives of three terminations are used as if of
two terminations, i.e. the masculine form is used also for the femi-
nine : IffrOLfJiovs if/v^as A 3, K\VTOS 'iTTTroSa/xeta B 742, rjipa. TTOV\VV
E 776, IIvAoio ly/xa^devros B 77.

b. The feminine of adjectives in -vs ends in -a (gen. -et^s), -ea
( 23 y) Or -erf l flaOeia, a>Ka, /Sa^ec'rjs, fiaOerjs, Tra^eo?, jSaO^rfv.

c. Ti-oAvs (TrouAu's) has in the masculine and neuter both stems
TroXv- (TrovAv-) and TroAAo- (for TroAuo-, 37 a), with a nearly -com-
plete set of forms for each : TroAAoS and TroAAoV, TroAeos, TroAe'es, TroAeW,
TroAeeo'cri, KrA.


39. (H. 559 ; G-. 846 f .) a. Suffixes which originally expressed
connection or possession are used to form patronymic adjectives.
The original force of these suffixes is occasionally preserved : (0eot)

A 570 is a mere adjective of connection, like (0eowriv)
Z 129 5 Homer does not recognize Ovpavo? as the ances-
tor of the gods. 'OAv/A7riaSes /Aovo-at B 491 is equivalent to
'OAv/otTTia Sco/mr' e^oucrai B 484.

b. Patronymics are frequently used as proper names ; cf.
A 7, Mevoma8>7 A 307, before the names Agamemnon, Patroclus
had been mentioned. Cf. the English names Thompson, Wilso
Richardson, Dixon, Dix, Ricks, etc.

A. c. The patronymic is formed from stems of the first declen-
sion by adding -Sa- : Avy^iaSao B 624, or more frequently by adding
-taSa-, as AaepnaSr;? F 200.

d. This analogy, giving an ending in -ia8r/5, is followed by stems
in -10 of the second declension : MevoirtaSr;?. So also by steins of
the third declension, as II^AryiaSew A 1 (as well as Ur}\dBr^ S 316,
n^Aeicova A 197). See,/, below.

e. The suffix -tSa- is added to stems in o, and the o is lost as in
d above, as KpowSi/s, also to stems in cv, which lose their v between
two vowels (cf. 23 /), as 'ArpetSr/s A 7, also to consonantal stems,
as 'Aya/x,e/xvovt8r;s a 30. 'Ai/0e/u'8?7s A 488 is formed as from *Ai/0e/xos
rather than from. 'Aj/0e/uW ('Av0e/uWos vtov A 473).




f . Patronymics from stems in -cv, after the loss of the v, do not
in Homer suffer contraction of the c of the stem with the t of the
suffix. The poet says 'ArpeiSrjs, 'Arpeiwv, as tetrasyllables not tri-
syllables. The verse ictus never falls on the , although Vergil
wrote Atrides and Pelides.

g. Female patronymics are formed by the suffix -18-, which loses
8 before the nominative sign, as Xpvo-rytSa (ace. of Xpvo-T/is) A 182,
Bpio-^tSa A 184. 'A^aa'St? B 235 corresponds to Kovpoi 'AXOUW A 473.

B. h. Patronymics are formed also by the suffix -LOV-, as KpoviW
A 528 (with genitive Kponwos or Kpoviovos), 'ArpeiW, n^Aetwv. In
these last forms from nouns in -evs the t is always short.

i. The corresponding female patronymic is found in 'ASp^a-rivy

j. ToAcuWSao B 566 is irregular; it seems to be formed by a

Cumulation of suffixes from ToAaos. So Aao/zeSovrtaS^s (Aao/xeSovnaS^
T 250) is formed from Aao/xcSoWtos, which itself appears as a patro-
nymic (in the form Aa/xcSdi/rtos) in a Boeotian inscription.

k. Some adjectives in -tos are used as patronymics, as TeAa/nomos
Ata? B 528, NT/XT/IOS vtos, cf. B 20, Kcnramjios vtos A 367.

1. The patronymics in -8775 are far more numerous than those in


m. The patronymic is sometimes derived from the grandfather's
name : Achilles is called Aw/a'S^ B 860 ; Priam, Aap&mSiys r 303 ;
the two grandsons of Actor, 'AKropiWe B 621. Thus in later
poetry Heracles is called Alcides ('AA-Acei'S^s) from Amphitiyo's father


40. a. Comparatives and superlatives end in -tw, -to-ros more fre-
quently than in Attic. (H. 253 ; G. 357.)

b. ayaOos has comparatives dpctW (cf. aptcrros), ft&rcpov,

c. In some comparatives in -repo? the poet has no thought of a
greater or less degree, but of a contrast, as dyporcpo?, wild, dpurrepos,
I'- ft. as opposed to Sc&Vepo?, right. Cf. the use of the same ending
in i)/xTcpos, our (as opposed to all others).

in rjfj.Tt


d. dya-, as in dyavvi</>o?, apt-, as in d/otT^Aos, pi-, as in Ipirifios,

pi/?<oAo|, 8a-, as in Sa<oivos, and a-, as in a#eos, are strengthening
prefixes. Cf. Tra/XTrpwra.


41. (H. 288 ; G-. 372 f.) a. kvL has a collateral form !< Z 422 ;
c/. the feminine form ta A 437.

b. Sv'w, 8vo is indeclinable. It has the collateral forms Soici,

L } KT\.


42. a. Personal Pronouns.


N. ^7<5, ^c6v. <nJ, TI^I/T; (E 485).

G. fata (cf. 35 a), ^eu, cre?o (cf. 35 a), cr& rfo (c/. 35 a), lo ( 23/),

A*eO (encl.), <?^e^ ( 23 /), aeO (encl.), e5 (ericl.), Wev ( 33 c)

( 33 c) [^0, A*OU]. fftdev ( 33 c) [<roO]. [ou].

D. ^/AO, /iof (encl.). aol (encl.), rot (always ol (encl.).


A. 44 /A<? (encl.). <rt (encl.). ^ (encl.), e<?, ^" (encl.)


N. A. vQi, N. vc6. <r0o, <r0c6. o-^w^ (encl.).

G. D. vuiv. a<t>G)iv. <r<t>a>ti> (encl.).


N. -fifietSf A/JLiJLes. uyuefj, vfj.fj.es.

G. Tj/jielwv, T}fj.<>)i> [ijfifav]. {ijietuv, {I/UL^UV [U/AO)*']. <r0efwi', <r0^w>', <T(p>i>.

D. ^yiiti', dyix/it. i/*ti, v(j,fj.i(v). <r<t>L (encl.), <r<j>t<ri(v) (encl.).

A. ^/i^as, d^c/xe [^as]. u^as, UJU/AC [u/xos]. (T0^as (encl.), (T0ds (encl.).

b. Possessive Pronouns.

^u6s, my. rc6s, cris, i^y. ^6s or 5s, ^, 5v, own, his.

vwtrepos, of US two. <r0wfre/)os, of you two.

j, a/t6j, Oltr. y/x^repos, u/x6s, your. <r0repos, <r06s,

c. Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns.

6, ^, r6, iAis; 5$ (in nom.), he; OUTOS, t^is; ^/ceti/os, /cetvos, ^a, <^e [man]

yon ; 65e, t^is, ^e [man] here. Relative, fis or d, ^, d( or r6 ; Nom. pi. roi
or of, ?Mo, wj^ic^.

Adverbs, OVTWJ, ws or ws, TWS, w5e,


T6ff(<r)os, To<r6<r5e, TOVO-OVTOS, so great. Relative, 6V(<r)o$, oao-dnos, ftou> large,

(as large) as.
TO?OS, T<n6<r3e, roioOroj, such. Relative, olos, of what sort, (such) as.

d. Interrogative) Indefinite, and Indefinite Relative Pronouns.

Interr. N. TIJ, rl (rlirre), Gen. rto \rlvoi\, Ace. rlva, who> which, what? TTOIOS, of

what sort ? wdrepos, which of two ?

Indef. N. TIJ, ri, Gen. rev, Ace. nva, rt, some one, something.
Indef. Eel. N. 8s TIS or 3ns, 3n or 8m, Ace. Sjrii/a, TJVTIVO., &TTI, Nom. pi. of
, Ace. ous rivets, curcra [5 rt^a].

e. The oblique cases of the third personal pronoun when enclitic
are { anaphoric/ like avrov KT\. in Attic ; when accented they
have their original reflexive use, like Attic eau-rov, e/xavrov, arcavrov,
KT\., which compounds are post-Homeric.

f . fiLv, o-^xoe, o-</)a>tV, <r<j>L, and o-^as are always enclitic.

g. a. The possessive os, rj, ov is carefully to be distinguished
from the relative os, >J, o. This distinction is generally easy, since
the possessive once began with a consonant (/:, 32 a).

/3. The place of the possessive pronoun is often filled by a dative
(of interest) of the personal pronoun.

h. avTos regularly retains its intensive force in the oblique cases,
even when not connected with a noun expressed, often marking a
contrast which it is difficult to render smoothly in the English
idiom. Cf. 11 j fin. The presumption is always strongly in
favor of the original use, but all shades of meaning are found,
from the strict intensive to the simple anaphoric use of the Attic
dialect. The weaker use, as a simple personal pronoun, is particu-
larly common after prepositions.

i. For avrws in the sense of axravrws, see k, below. In this use it
has a large variety of meanings, as (a<f>povd T') avrw? T 220 a mere
(simpleton); without nniw A 520, iritlmut j,rhe A 133, absolutely
B 138, r<iin!i/ B 342, witlumt clntr'mt E 255. Most of these mean-
ings are derived from in the same way as before, the connection
determining thr special sense of each passage.

j. The Attic article 6, rj, TO generally retains its demonstrative
force iu Homer, but, like the intensive pronoun in the oblique cases,


appears occasionally in its Attic signification. Elsewhere it is
found as a personal or a relative pronoun.

In their demonstrative use 6, 17, ot, at are written also o, %, of, at.
TOI, rat, TOJS are used besides of, at, ws.

k. Thus the absence of the article does not mark a noun as
indefinite; cf. ^viv aetSe Oed A 1 with arma virumque cano.
Frequently avVoo? is equivalent to Attic wo-avVws (<os being the
adverb of the article; see c, above, and 56 c), while oSs 3' avrco?
r 339 is equivalent to Attic OVTW 8* wo-avrws.

1. The demonstrative article is often followed by a noun in appo-
sition with it, as ot 8' e^ap^o-av 'A^atot re Tpcoes re F 111 but these
rejoiced, both Achaeans and Trojans, avrap 6 (3ovv tepevo-ev aVa
'Aya/A/x,va)v B 402 but he, Agamemnon, king of men, sacrificed an
Cf. 13e,/.

m. The forms of the article with initial T often have a relative
force, but refer only to a definite antecedent. This is a relic of
paratactic construction ( 21), as is particularly clear in dAAa ra plv
TroAtW e&rrpdOofjitv TO. Se'Sao-rai A 125 but what we took as spoils from
the cities, these have been divided.

n. TO), the dative of the article (sometimes written TW), is often
used as an inferential conjunction, then, in that case.

o. OVTOS is not frequent. It is never used after prepositions.

p. The form os has also a demonstrative use, especially with ov

fJirjSe, KO.L, and yap.

q. The neuter o is frequently used as a conjunction, like quo
So also ort and o re.

r. No one is ov rts or ^ rts, not ovSets or /x^Sets. ovSe'v is rare.


43. Augment and Reduplication. (H. 354 ff. ; G. 510 ff.) a. The
augment was for a time considered unessential ; whether temporal
or syllabic, it may be omitted in the Homeric poems. The syllabic
augment is omitted rather more frequently than it is used ; the
temporal augment is used rather more frequently than it is omitted.
When the augment is omitted, the accent is thrown back as far
as possible, as rev^e A 4, oAeKoi/ro A 10, d<tt A 25 ; cf.


[Kcn-eVeo-ov] A 593, /x/?aAe [eVe'/faAe] T 139. This free omission of the
augment is very odd, since this element was an old inheritance of
the Greek language, and has never been lost, even to the present day.

b. When the augment is omitted, monosyllabic forms with long
vowel take the circumflex accent, as /fij for Zfir), <f>fj for $77, ^>v for


c. Sometimes initial p is not doubled after the augment, as fpee
B 400 ; sometimes initial A, //,, or o- is doubled after the augment, as
IAAae T 34.

d. Steins which originally began with a consonant may take the
syllabic augment or reduplication, as eetTrov, eTy/ce, ot/<a, eo/oya.

e. The second aorist active and middle of verbs whose stem
begins with a consonant is often found with a reduplicated stem, as
CKcVAero, ci/XTreTraA.wi', Irerfie, TCTVKOI/TO, 7re7rt'^oi/xev, Tcrayuv, Ke^apotaro.

f. The so-called Attic reduplication is more common in Homer
than in Attic, and its use extends to the second aorist, where the
augment also may be used (cf. Attic ^yayov), as rjpape, u>/>ope, lypv/caKe,
and the peculiar form rjvtvairc B 245 from enWw, in which the final
consonant of the theme is reduplicated with a as a connective.

g. 8ct'8otKa and 8ei'8ta have irregular reduplication j probably these
are to be explained as for 8e8/rotKa, 8e8/rta. Cf. 59 h.

h. l/x/xo/oa (from /ueipo/Aat) and lo-crv/xat (from (7cva>) double the
initial consonant and prefix e as if they began with two consonants.

44. Ending. (H. 375 if. ; G. 551 if., 777 if.) a. The singular r
endings -/u, -o-Oa, -a-i occur more frequently than in Attic; especially
-/MI and -o-i in the subjunctive, as ?8<u/xt [i8o>], dyayw/xt, ctfcX^o-i [e^c'Agi], ,
/8a\r;crt. These endings are rare in the subjunctive of the contracted
/u-forms, as Swo-i [8<o] A 129.

b. In the pluperfect, the older endings -eu /crA. are preserved.
The third person singular ends in -cc(v) or -en/ (30 A:), as faflyKeiv
A 221, 8ec B 409.

c. The second and third persons singular of the first aorist opta-
tive active end in -eta?, -eie(v), as /xciWias, KaAe<rete?. The second per-
son in -at occurs very rarely. The third person in -at is more
common, as y^o-at A 255. The third person plural ends in -av, as
Tib-eia? A 42, a/covo-ctav B 282.


d. The third person plural optative active of fit-verbs ends in
as eiev, Sa/AeTev, Sotev.

e. The third person plural imperative ends in -TW, -a-Ow (never

f . a. Active infinitives (except in the first aorist) frequently end
in -fterai, which is sometimes shortened after a short vowel to -/xev,
as 2/A/Aevai, /x/u,ev [aval], A.0e/x,ev(ai) [eA.$eTv], T0vafiev(ai).

ft. The shortening of -/aevat to -//.ev occurs generally before a
vowel, where it may be called elision.

y. The ending -vat is found only after a long vowel, as Sovvai.

8. The second aorist active infinitive sometimes ends in -eeiv, as
<vye'eii/ B 393, Treo-eeiv Z 82. (Perhaps these were once '

g. Aorist passive infinitives end in -/xerai or -van.

h. The second person singular of the middle generally remains
uncontracted ( 24), as 6Sv/>eai, ufyat T 130, /3aAAeo A 297. Con-
tracted forms are used occasionally, as /xcTaT/aeV^ A 160,
B 365, KC^O-T; T 138.

i. In the perfect middle, -o-ai regularly loses its <r.

j. -o-o retains its cr only in the imperative, as lo-o-o, iWao-o.

k. The first person plural middle often ends in -^a-Oa.

1. The third person plural of the perfect and pluperfect indica-
tive middle often, and of the optative middle always, ends in -arai,
-a.ro for -vrai, -I/TO. Before these endings smooth labial and palatal
mutes are aspirated, as cTriTerpa^arai (perfect passive of eTrirpcVw).

m. The third person plural indicative of the aorist passive
generally ends in -ev instead of -rjcrav, as rjyepOev A 57, <f>davOev A 200,
Tpa<ev A 251 Sier/xayev A 531. Cf. the active l-Av-o-a-v, c-Avo-v.

n. Similarly, v is used for the later -o-av in the imperfect and
second aorist of /xi-verbs, as wiei/ [^wiiyo-av] A 273, corai/, o-rav

[lo-TTjcrav], l/?av [2/Vav] ( 22 *)-

o. For the optative ending of /xi-verbs, in -iev, not -t^o-ai/, see c?,

45. Subjunctive Mode. a. The variable vowel (' connecting
vowel ') of the subjunctive is generally short in the present of
verbs in -p, the first aorist, second aorist of /u-forrns, second aorist


47 e. CONJUGATION lxi x

passive, second perfect of primitive formation, as

(H. 373 D ; G. 780.)

This short vowel is found before the endings -^ci/, -TOV, -re, and in
middle forms.

b. A few forms of the first aorist have a long vowel, following
the analogy of the present, as fyXrjo-rjTai T 107.

c. There are no certain examples of the short mode-vowel in the
present of verbs in -<o. (For ySovXcrai dvriao-a? A 67, ftovXrjr' dvrtao-as
may be substituted, etc.)

N.B. The forms of the first aorist subjunctive are easily con-
fused with those of the future, with which they are identical in

46. Optative Mode. For the optative endings, see 44 c, d.

47. Contract Verbs. (H. 409 D; G. 784 ff.) a. Verbs in -<xa>
exhibit unchanged, assimilated, and contracted forms ; the poet's
choice between contracted and uncontracted forms seems to have
been determined largely by the rhythm. The vowels are regularly
contracted when the second is in a short syllable.

b. Uncontracted forms without assimilation occur rarely, as
TTcivawv F 25. (ovra A 525 and often, is a second aorist ; see 53.)
Probably such forms were more frequent in the earliest form of the

c. The vowels of the uncontracted forms are generally assimi-
lated, a prevailing over a following c or rj but being assimilated to
o, w, or ov. These forms are intermediate between the original
and the contracted stage.

d. One of the vowels is usually lengthened in the text of the
Mss. Sometimes this appears to be a conformation to Attic usage
( 22 ff ).

e. Verbs in -e<o generally remain uncontracted (except ec, which is
generally contracted in the Mss.), but often the uncontracted forms are
metrically possible, eo is very rarely contracted except in the parti-
ciple ending -ev/xevo? (where contraction occurs to prevent a too fre-
quent recurrence of short syllables ; 59 e). eo> is never contracted,
but is often pronounced as one syllable by synizesis ( 25).


f. Sometimes the variable vowel e is contracted with c of the
stem instead of with the termination. One of these vowels is
sometimes dropped, as dTrocupeo A 275.

g. The older form of these verbs, in -w, is sometimes pre-
served, as tTcAetcTo A 5, veiKeiTjo-i A 579. See 23 e.

h. <o/oeo> forms <o/oeW A 144, <f>opf)vai B 107.

i. Verbs in -oo> are generally contracted. Sometimes they have
forms with the double o sound, like verbs in -aw, as eo-TpardwvTo
r 187 (which might be written eo-rparooi/To), with which may be
compared <o'w? [<ao?, <ws] B 49.


48, Future and First Aorist, Active and Middle. (H. 420 ff. ; G.
777.) a. Pure verbs which do not lengthen the stem-vowel in the
formation of the tenses often have o-o- in the future and first aorist,
active and middle.

b. In the future the o- of the before-mentioned verbs often dis-
appears, as 8a//,a A 61, KaXeovo-a T 383, oAetrat B 325.

c. Stems in 8 often show era- in the aorist.

d. Most of these forms with trer may be explained as original or
assimilated, as vei/cecro-e, from the theme vet/ceo- (cf. vet/cos), Ko/xtcrtraro
for KO/u8<raTO (cf. KO/xiSr;), as TrooW [TTOCTI] for TTO&TI. Thus the

stem-vowel of these verbs was not final originally, and hence is not
lengthened in the future and aorist.

e. Some stems in X and p retain the er of the future and aorist
(as some do in Attic), as eXtrai A 409, xv/xras T 23, w/oo-e A 10.

f. The so-called Doric future with tense-sign ere is found in
ecnmrai [Icrrat] B 393.

g. Some verbs have a future without tense-sign, as ct/u, /ca/c/c-
ovres, to lie down, ISo/iai, 7ri'o/* at j /'a>. Most of these verbs are old
presents which acquired a future signification. e!/u is not often
future in Homer ; cf. B 87.

h. Some verbs form the first aorist active and middle without <r,
as e^eev Z 419 (from e^ea for e^eva), eWeva E 208 (from <7eva>), t
A 40 (from K<UO>).

50 c. VOICES Ixxi

i. The first aorist often has the variable vowel of the second
aorist / , as Iov, Svo-ero. So in the imperative, as /^o-eo E 109, opa-eo
T 250, aeTe T 105, oto-crc r 103 ; infinitive, oio-e/zewi T 120 j par-
ticiple, fTTiflrja-ofJitvov E 46.

j. Verbs in -to often have themes in y, and thus futures and first
aorists in -w and -a, as 'aAa7raai A 129, TrroAe/u^o/xev B 328.

49. Ptf>/ec. (H. 446 ff., 490 ; G. 682 ff.) a. The so-called first
perfect in -Ka is formed from only twenty vowel-stems. It is
almost as rare as the first aorist in -KO. (cScoKa, cT/xa, #77*0.). Forms
without K are derived even from vowel-stems, especially participial
forms, as /ceV/x^Kas Z 262, but KCK/AT/COTI Z 261 ; c^Tre^vvIa A 513, but

7T</)V/Cet A 109.

b. The final mute of the stem is not aspirated.

c. The endings are affixed immediately to the reduplicated verb-
stem in jSe/Soao-t, yeycuuras, Sa'St0i, eLKTrjv, tS/xev,

d. tpptyyai F 353 and oXwX^ A 164 have the force of present sub-

e. ciKa^Tj/icvo? and eVorv/xevos are accented irregularly as presents.

f . The second perfect often has a long vowel in the stem where
the second aorist has a short vowel, as opwpev B 797, <u/oope B 146.

g. In the feminine participle the short form of the stem appears,
as <x/3?7pujs, but apapvla ; hence ctKvtd (/re^r IKUIO), not eiKVtd, F 386.


50. Middle, a. The active and middle forms bpav (about forty
times) and opao-Oai. (about twenty times), tSctv (more than two hun-
dred times) and i8r&u (ninety times), are used often without
appreciable difference of meaning ; cf. A 56, 203, 262, 587, B 237,
F 163. Cf. tyaTo B 807, tyi? A 584.

b. The first aorist middle is sometimes used without difference
of meaning from the second aorist active, as fi^o-tro F 262, l/fy

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