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A 311; cSvo-cro F 328, ISu F 36.

c. The future middle is sometimes used as passive, as
B 36. Cf. 51 e.


d. The aorist middle is often used as passive. Cf.
F 413 with xoAwflei's A 9, x^P 7 ? -^ ^^ with Ke^apotaTO A 256, dyepoi/To
B 94 with yytpOtv A 57, d/x^e^vro B 41, AiVoiro I 1 160, KTa/xeVoto
r 375. C/. eAeXix^r/o-ai/ E 497 Aey rallied, OuprjxOyvai A 226

51. Passive, a. For the ending of the aorist passive infinitive,
see 44 g.

b. For the ending of the third person plural indicative, see
44 m.

c. The second aorist subjunctive passive usually remains uncon-
tracted, and follows the rule of /u-verbs ( 52 c).

d. In the second aorist subjunctive, the passive suffix is often
long (and the mode-vowel short in the dual and in the first or sec-
ond person plural ; 45 a), as Sa/xTJ^s T 436 (Sci/Av^i), rpaTreto/xev
T 441 (repTro), 31), but /uyeWij/ B 475 (/xrya>).

e. Homer has only two futures from passive stems. Cf. 50 c.

f. Some verbs have both first and second aorists passive, as

1*1X0*1 E 134, cpiyyv T 445.

g. The ' verbal adjective ' is not always passive.

N.B. The passive formation in Greek is comparatively late,
and infrequent in Homer. The so-called second aorist passive is
closely related to the intransitive aorist active, like l/fy, terry. Cf.
eSaryv, learned or was taught.

52. Verbs in -ML (H. 476 ff. ; G. 787 ft.) a. Some verbs in
-fjn have forms in the present and imperfect indicative which follow
the analogy of contract verbs : nfla, SiSoT, 8iSoo-i, d<ia, TrpoQtovcn
A 291.

b. For the ending -v for -o-ai/, see 44 n.

c. The second aorist subjunctive active generally remains uncon-
tracted. The stem-vowel often appears in its long form with short
mode-vowel in the dual and in the first and second persons plural
(cf. 45 a, 51 d), as So^o-ii/ A 324, SoWiv [Swcrti/] A 137, Qdopev
A 143 (better QrjofJitv, Attic flw/xev), yi/wooo-t A 302, e<jf>etco [e<w]
A 567, avrjr) [di/17] B 34, epet'o^ev A 62 (better cpijo/xev, as from an
p>7/u). The short form of the stem is seen in

A 327,


53. Second Aorists without Variable Vowel (H. 489; G. 798 f.)
Many second aorists, active and middle, are found without variable
vowel, following the analogy of verbs in -yu, as a\ro A 532 (aAAo/xat),
ScgAu A 23, SC'KTO B 420 (8e X o/xa t ), 0AiJTo A 518 0&UA<o), KXvOi A 37,
K\VTC B 56 (icAveo), ovra. Z 64, tWvro B 809 (o-evco).

54. Iterative Forms. (H. 493 ; G. 778.) a. Iterative forms of
the imperfect and aorist indicate the repetition of a state or action,
as <j>L\<TK F 388. The augment is generally omitted. These forms
are characterized by the suffix -<r/c, and have the inflection of the
imperfect of verbs in -o>. They are confined to the Ionic dialect.
The iterative idea is occasionally wanting, as in IO-KC [?Ji/] F 180.

b. Verbs in -o> add the endings -O-KOV or -O-KO/^V to the c-form of
the stem of the present or second aorist, as !o-/ce, CITTCO-KC, i8eo-Ke.


55. a. Prepositions often retain their original adverbial force
(as cv Se, but therein, VTTO, below, beneath, -rrapa 0, and beside him),
especially with reference to place. They may be placed after the
verbs or nouns with which they are connected. See 19 e. (H.
785; G. 1222 ff.) Frequently an editor must be in doubt whether
to print the preposition as part of the verb or separately.

b. The preposition is often separated from the verb which it
modifies, as Trap 8e Kcc^aAA^voov afj.<f>i (Tribes OVK aAaTraSvai | eo-Ta<rai>
A 330 f., where Trap modifies lo-rao-av.

c. Anastrophe. (H. 109; G. 116.) a. Disyllabic prepositions,
when they immediately follow the word with which they are con-
st rued, take the accent upon the penult, except d/tx<i', dvrt, dva, Sta.
aVa Z 331 stands for avdo-TrjQi. IVL is used for Iveio-i or cycort, CTTI for
ITTCO-TI, /xe'ra for /XC'TCO-TI, Trapa for Trapco-rt E 603 f.

ft. Elided prepositions suffer anastrophe only when they as ad-
verbs modify a verb to be supplied, as ITT' F 45 for ITTCO-TI, or by
way of exception, in order to avoid ambiguity, as <' A 350, to show
that the preposition is to be connected with the preceding word.

d. a. eV has the parallel forms eu>, m. dv stands only in the
part of the foot which receives the stress of voice, and its use IF
nearly confined to certain phrases, as dv ayoprj, dv 'At'Sao


/?. The poet uses both e? and eh, Trpd?, irport, and TTOTL, VTTO and
VTTCU (B 824), Tra/od and Trapat (B 711), vvep and Wp (B 426).

e. d//.<t', dvd, and /xerd are used also with the dative.

f . For the short forms of dvd, Kara, Trapd, see 29.


56. (H. 257 ff. ; G. 365 ff.). a. A predicate adjective is often
used where the English idiom has an adverb or an adverbial phrase,
as x^os tft-r) A 424 went yesterday, fjcpir) A 497 early in the morning,
Trav^epioi A 472 all day long, Trprjvrjs E 58 (pronus) on his face,
KO.LOVTO ^a/xeiat A 52 burned thickly, /Aera//,diov E 19 between the

ft. 7rpd<pa>v, willing, is used only as a predicate, where the English
idiom uses willingly.

b. Adverbs ending in -a are common : o-d^a (not o-a^ws), rd^a
(renews only once), <3/ca (not WKCWS). These seem to have been
originally neuter cognate accusatives, and many are such still; cf.
TroAA' 7TT\\, TToAAo. rjpaTO, fjityo. vrJTTic, /xydX* cv^eTo. See on A 78.

c. Adverbs in -cos are not common ; they are most frequent from
o-Stems : ovrcos (OVTOS), ws (o), currcos (avrds) ? KaKois (/ca/cds). icrws and
6/x,oto>s are not found, KaAtus only y8 63, <^iAa)s only A 347.


3r and

The beginner should remember that, while both Homer
Vergil use the dactylic hexameter,

(1) Homer has far more dactyls than Vergil ; his verse is much

lighter and more tripping ( 57 d).

(2) Homer slightly prefers a pause between the two short syl-

lables of the third foot ( 58 c), while Vergil strongly
prefers a pause after the first syllable of that foot.

(3) Homer freely begins his verse heavily, with one or two

spondees, while Vergil prefers a dactylic beginning.

(4) Homer has a spondee in the fifth foot (57 Ji) more com-

monly than Vergil.

(5) In the Homeric text, elision is already made.

57 a. HOMERIC VERSE l xxv

The beginner should remember also, that

(6) The ' rough breathing ' has no power to make ' a short

vowel long by position,' nor to prevent elision. S(^ of
course, 6, <f>, and ^ are not ' double consonants.' ^

(7) An enclitic in reading should be connected with the word on

which its accent is thrown.

If the beginner has not already made the general rhythm of the
verse familiar to himself from Vergil and his followers, he may
read to advantage Longfellow's Evangeline 1 and Miles Standish,
and dough's Bothie. He will do well to commit to memory a few
(if not many) verses of the Iliad, and repeat them when he is walk-
ing at leisure, keeping time, uttering the first syllable of the foot
as he sets his left foot down, and the other half of the metrical
foot as he plants his right foot.

The exact division of the verse into metrical feet is the founda-
tion of all good scanning, but it is useless in itself. The scholar
must read the verse metrically and yet in harmony with the sense,
not allowing his voice to fall mechanically at the close of the
verse, nor at the caesural pause, and still less making Vergil's
pause after the first syllable of the third foot, whether Homer
made the pause there or not.

57. The Heroic Hexameter. (H. 1064 ff., 1100 ; G. 1668 f.)
a. The poems are to be read with careful attention to the metrical
quantity of each syllable, as well as to the sense of the passage.
There are six feet (bars or measures) in each verse ; hence the
name hexameter. Emphasis or stress of voice (ictus) is laid on the
first syllable of each foot. The part of the foot which has no ictus
(the arsis) should receive as much time though not so much stress as
the ictus-syllable (the t?n>sift). The rhythm would be called f time
in modern music. The English hexameter (e.g. in Longfellow's
A'/v/////,7///r) is generally read as of f time, without much reference to
the quantity of the syllables, and so, too, the Aeneid is often scanned.


' This is the forest primeval, ^ the murmuring pines and the he'mlocks
Sta'nil like Dniids of eld with voi'ces sa'<! and prophetic.
Stand like harpers hoar A with beards that re'st on their bosoms.'

Evang. inlt.


b. The written word-accent must be disregarded in reading
Homeric verse. Occasionally the verse-ictus and word-accent may
coincide (as in a 1, quoted in 58 c), but the word-accent had no
influence on the formation of the verse.

c. The dactyl 1 (J J* ^ or _ w w), with the ictus on the first
syllable, is the fundamental and prevailing foot of Homeric verse.
It is often replaced by a spondee 2 or heavy dactyl ( J J or ).

Dactyls are about three times as frequent as spondees in the
Homeric poems.

d. Verses in which each of the first five feet is a dactyl are
far more common in Homer than in Vergil; there are 160 in the
first book of the Iliad alone, and very nearly three thousand in
the entire Iliad. Many frequently recurring verses have this
rhythm ; as rov 8' aVa/xei/^o/Aevos Trpoa-e^i) TroSas <OKU? 'A^iAA-Cus, aura/3
67ret TTOO-IOS /cat eS^Tvos e tpov ci/To. Many other verses have but one
spondee (generally in the first foot) among the first five feet; as
5/xos 8* rj&ios KaTtSv Kal 7Tt Ki/<as rjXOev. Seven verses, according
to the usual text, have each six spondees : B 544, A 130, ^ 221,
o 334, < 15, x 175, 192.

e. Spondees are most common in the first two feet; they are
more and more avoided in each foot toward the close of the verse.

f. The first foot allows more freedom than any other. A short
vowel there more frequently retains its natural quantity before a
mute and a liquid, and yet is more frequently lengthened in the
unaccented part of the foot before that combination. At the close
of the first foot, hiatus is allowed ( 27 b).

g. The bucolic diaeresis (58 h) is seldom immediately preceded
by a word of three long syllables. Before this diaeresis, a dactyl
is strongly preferred.

h. Verses which have a spondee in the fifth foot are called
spondaic verses (tiry o-TrovSeiaKa). They are more common in Homer
than in the Latin poets, about four per cent of the verses of
the Iliad being spondaic.

1 This name is borrowed from 5</c\os, finger, and the fanciful explanation was
given that this foot, like the finger, has one long and two short elements.

2 This name is derived from the use of this slow, solemn measure in the
hymns which accompanied the libation (O-TTO^) to the gods.


i. These spondaic verses seem especially frequent at the close of
emphatic sentences or of divisions of the narrative (cf. A 21, 157,
291, 600) and in descriptions of suffering and toil, but often no
rhythmic effect is sought; the convenience of the verse determined
the measure.

j. In about half of the cases* a word of four syllables closes the
spondaic verse. Never should the fifth foot be filled by a disyl-
labic word.

k. The last foot in each verse is a spondee, but the final syllable
may be short ; the deficiency in time is then made up by the slight
pause which follows at the end of the verse ( 59 a, I). A heavy
or consonantal ending is preferred ; hence the v-movable is often

1. Though the student need not concern himself about elision,
as in Latin poetry, yet he must be watchful for synizesis ( 25).


58. (H. 1081 ; G. 1642.) a. Each verse has one or more caesural
pauses (caesura = TO/XTJ, cutting), pauses within a foot.

b. The principal caesura of the verse is always a pause in the

I sense, which is often indicated by punctuation, but occasionally
commas are found where no pause is necessary, and at times the
poet indicates by the rhythm a pause where not even a comma
rou Id stand, as A 152, l."l.
Of course no pause ran be made immediately before an enclitic,
since this is closely connected with the foregoing word,
c. A caesura is found almost always in the third foot; only
is.") verses of the ///Wand seventy-one of the Odyssey have no
pause there. It occurs either after the first syllable (as
aet3e Ota. /\ HrjXrjid&ea) 'A^iA^o? Al ww| ww| A | w

^ w | j) Or between the two short syllables (as av8pa fJioi ei
Movcra A TroAvr poirov 09 ftoAa TroAAa a 1, ww| ww| w A w |
_ w w | _ w w | |). These two caesuras are about equally fre-
quent; but the second slightly predominates and seems to have
been preferred.

r ^

Ixxviii INTRODUCTION 58 d.

d. The pause after the first syllable of a foot is called a masculine
caesura, because of the vigorous movement which it gives to the
verse. Cf. also

Arma virumque cano . Troiae qui primus ab oris, Verg. Aen. i. 1,

' Sat by some nameless grave . and thought that perhaps in its bosom
He was already at rest . and she longed to slumber beside him.'


The pause between two unaccented syllables is called a feminine
caesura. Cf. also

' This is the forest primeval. A The murmuring pines and the hemlocks.'

Longfellow, Evang.

e. The importance of the caesura in the third foot is marked not
only by the freedom with which hiatus is allowed there ( 27 6),
and by the evident avoidance of elision at that point, but also by
the large number of tags of verses which are suited to follow it ; as


'A^atoi, 'A^atwi/ ^aXKO^trwvwi/, Kdpy /co/xowvre? 'A^atot, apr)L<f>i\o<;
MeveA.ao9, ara av&pwv 'Aya/xe'/xvwv, ftorjv ayaObs Ato/xr/8?;?, Tepyvios tTTTrora
NeVrw/o KT\., all of which must be preceded by the feminine
caesura (see d) of the third foot ; while 'Aya/xe/xvovo? 'ArpecSao, evpv
Kpetwv 'Aya/Ae/avcov, ^yr^ro/oes ^8e /jte'Sovres, aTra/xet^ero ^xovryo-ev re KT\.

must be preceded by the masculine caesura of the third foot.
See 22 e, f.

f . The pause after the first syllable of the third foot is called the
penthemimeral caesura (^ei/re, ij/u-, tte/oo?) because it comes after the
fifth half-foot ; it divides the verse into 2^+3^- feet. The pause
between the two short syllables of the third foot divides the verse
into 2f + 3i feet.

g. Sometimes the principal pause of the verse is the masculine
caesura of the fourth foot. This is called the hephthemimeral
caesura (CTTTCI, 17 tit-, /xe/oo?). It is frequent after a feminine caesura of
the third foot. It gives an energetic movement after a penthe-
mimeral caesura, when the verse is divided into 2-J- -f- 1 + 2 feet.


h. Sometimes the pause of the verse is at the close of the
fourth foot ; this is called the bucolic diaeresis (a diaeresis being
a pause at the end of a word between two feet) or caesura, since
it is most evidently aimed at in the bucolic or pastoral poetry of
Theocritus. Occasionally there is a transition at this point to
another part of the story, as A 318, 348, 430. This bucolic
diaeresis with the pentheminieral caesura divides the verse into
2 + H + 2 feet.

i. The importance of the bucolic diaeresis is marked by the
large number of tags of verses which are ready to follow it, as Stos

/3KOs 'A^ato^, tTTTrora Neorcop, o/?pt/xos "Aprj<s, <ai'8i/zos
<I>oT^05 'ATroAAooi/, IIaAA.a? 'AOrjvrj, Std Oedwv, fjLrjTitra Zcvs,

i<rd0eos <<k. See 22 /. Hiatus is allowed here occasionally.
See 27 b.

j. A slight pause occurs often after the first short syllable of
the fifth foot. The poet prefers to close the verse with the rhythm
w, w - (where the comma represents the end of a word) rather

than w w, ; hence OUTC reAecro-as A 108, not OVT' ercAeo-o-as,

and oAye' lOrjKev A 2, not oAyca OrJKtv. This rhythm is found in all
verses which close with IlaAAas 'AOrjvrj, 4>oT/3os 'ATrdAAw, Stos 'O8vo-
o-cvs, 'A^tXXcv?, 'A^aiot KT\.

k. The principal pause of the verse is found seldom at the close
of the third foot. This would divide the verse into two equal
parts and cause monotony. A word ends there not infrequently,
but this is accompanied by a more prominent caesura in the third or
fourth foot ; as tvOa t8ov TrXct'o-rov? 4>pvya? avepa? F 185, where the
last two words are so closely connected that no caesura is felt
between them.

1. Even a slight pause is rare between the two short syllables of
the fourth foot. In KU eVei'&ro /iv#o> A 33, the objectionable pause
might be avoided by omitting the augment, but the conjunction is
connected with the verb so closely that no caesura is felt.

m. No sentence ends with the second foot.

n. The pause in the third foot gives to the rest of the verse an
anapaestic movement, from which it is often recalled by the bucolic


o. The varied position of the main caesura, and the minor
pauses in different parts of the verse give perfect freedom from
monotony without detracting from the grace and dignity of the
measure. 1


59. (H. 92 ff. ; G. 98 ff., 1622.) a. Metrical convenience or
necessity often determined the poet's choice among synonymous
words ( 22 a, e, /). The poet in general preferred the light dactyls
to the heavy dactyls or spondees, and retained in the epic dialect a
large number of dactylic forms which were afterwards contracted.
An amphimacer ( w , a/u^t, /uucpov) was avoided often by means
of apocope ( 29), synizesis ( 25), or elision ( 28).

Most exceptions to the rules of quantity are only apparent. The
poet, for example, did not lengthen a short syllable by placing the
ictus upon it. If an apparently short final syllable stands where a
long syllable is expected, it is probable either

(1) that the final syllable was originally long, and later lost part
of its quantity ; or

(2) that the following word has lost an initial consonant which
would have made the preceding syllable long by position (see.;,
below) ; or II

1 Coleridge's lines with regard to the Homeric verse are worth remembering :

' Strongly it bears us along in swelling and limitless billows,
Nothing before and nothing behind but the sky and the ocean.'

2 The beginner will find it convenient to remember with regard to a, i, u,
vowels whose quantity is not clear at the first glance, that

(1) they are short in the final syllable of any word v/hen the antepenult has
the acute or the penult has the circumflex accent ;

(2) they are regularly short in inflectional endings, as tu&xW"> ypwa., T/B^TOWTI,
rtdrriKa., in the final syllables of neuter nouns, as 5t3/Aa, %/j.ap, /uAi, 5d*/3u, in
suffixes, except where v has been lost before <r, as 0wm, SoX^s, $oivi<r<ra, in
particles, especially in prepositions, as dvti, -repi, u?r6, fy>a, ert, and generally
in the second aorist stem of verbs ;

(3) they are long in the final syllable when the penult is long by nature and
has the acute accent ;

(4) they are long when they are the result of contraction, as trl^a. from
<?rfyicte, ip6v, from Iep6i>, and as the final vowel of the stem of nouns of the first




(3) that the pause (musical rest) at a caesura or diaeresis fills
out the time occupied by the foot, allowing the same freedom as at
the end of the verse ( 57 /,-).

b. A considerable number of anomalies, however, remain unex-
plained. Prominent among the unexplained anomalies of quantity
is the I of certain abstract nouns, which form such a definite class
that it may be assumed that there was some explanation, perhaps
physiological, for them all ; as vTrcpoirtiyo-i A 205, Trpoflu/Ai'fltri B 588.

c. Many apparently irregular variations of natural quantity, as
well as apparent freedom in allowing hiatus, and variations of
quantity made by position (see^, below), seem to be explained best
by the loss of a consonant, e.y. - Ai'Sos F 322 but *Ai'8t A 3, from u-/ri8
( 32), /A/nao-av B 863 but /xe/xaoT9 B 818 (ju,e/>iaf ores).

d. a. A syllable which contains a long vowel or a diphthong is
long by nature. Final ui and ot are metrically long, although short
as regards accentuation.

ft. The quantity of some vowels is not fixed, as -'ATroAAwvo? A 14,

ToAAwi/ A 380 ; 'Apes, "Apes E 31 (if the text is right).

y. Most of these vowels with variable quantity were originally
long and were becoming short, as the Homeric ros, /cdAos, and
<apo? became icros, KaAds, and <apo? in Attic poetry, /reiupivos (cf.
wprj dapivrf B 471), Attic capii/o's, is found in a Boeotian inscription.
Evidently every vowel which at first was long and afterwards
became short must have had at some time a metrical quantity
which could be treated as either long or short, i.e. its quantity was

8. For the length of final t in the dative singular of the third
eelension. see ij :\(\ . irpiv in TrpiV UVT' Z 81 retains its original
length, as a contracted comparative.

e. With this variation of natural quantity may be compared the
double forms employed in Homer, one with a single consonant,
another with two consonants, as 'A^iAAcvs A 54, *A^tAeus A 199 ;

A 430, 'OSvo-ev? A 494 ; TpucKrjv B 729, Tpi K ^ A 202 ;
A 344, OTTWS A 136 ; /xcWoi/ r 266, /xeVov A 481 KrA., many
of which doubled consonants are known to be justified etymo-

. o J '


e. Sometimes a naturally short vowel was lengthened (not by
the poet, but in the speech of the people) in order to avoid the too
frequent recurrence of short syllables. This is illustrated by the
rule for the use of o or w in the comparison of adjectives (o-o^wre-
po<s but Kotx^dre/oos), and by the words which have a vowel similarly
lengthened in the Attic dialect (as d&u/aros, Trpoa-itjyopos, vTr^peV^s).
We find avr/p but di/e'pes, U/ata/xos but IlpZa/uS^s, Ovyarrjp but Ovyarcpa.

f. a. In Homeric verse a syllable which contains a short vowel is
long by position when the vowel is followed by a double consonant
(, , \l/) or by two or more consonants, whether these are in the same
or in the following word or are divided between the two words.

ft. This rule holds good also in case of a mute followed by a
liquid. This combination rarely fails to make position within
a word, and generally makes position when it stands at the begin-
ning of a word, especially when this word is closely connected with
the preceding.

g. a. Sometimes a vowel remains short before a mute followed
by A or P) as-A^poStriy T 380, a^iftpor^ B 389, d/^ifyv^s B 700,
7rpoTp(nre(rOa.L Zi 336, vV(T Kpoi/io*!/ A 528, /?a\ Ilpia/xioao r 356, ydp
pa KAvTcu/xvrjor/or/s A 113. These words and phrases could not have
been brought into the verse if the mute and liquid must make
length by position, and the history of the language shows that this
combination of mute and liquid was gradually losing its weight.

ft. That a mute and a liquid do not always make length by posi-
tion is explained by the ease with which the combination can be
pronounced at the beginning of a syllable, leaving the preceding
vowel short and * open. 7

y. Before four words, two of which begin with the double con-
sonant and two with the two consonants <TK (not a mute and a
liquid), the preceding vowel remains short: ot re ZawvOov B 634,
01 8e ZeAetav B 824, Trpo^eovro ^Ka/xai/Spiov B 465, tTreiTa o-Ktwapvov


h. a. A single A, /*, v, />, o- at the beginning of certain words
may < make position ' (cf. 30 b) : tTrea vt^aSeo-o-t T 222 (cf. ayd-
vvi^ov A 420 and English snoiv), to /xe'ya B 239, B 43, B 196, Aid
AiVat A 394, Ivl fj.eya.pw B 661.

59 k. QUANTITY Ixxxiii

(3. So also 8 ' makes position ' in the stem 8/rt- (8eio-cu, fear) and
always in STJI/, lony, as tSao-ci/ 8' 6 ye'pon/ A 33, ou rt />uA.a STJV A 416,

7Tt 0? A 515.

i. a. Cognate languages and collateral dialectic forms show that
most words which in the Attic dialect began with p once began
with o-p or pp. This explains the doubling of the p after the aug-
ment and in composition, as well as its power to ' make position ' in
Homeric verse.

ft. Of the instances of lengthening before /x, many are only
physiologically explained, the /A-sound being easily continued
until it is virtually a double consonant. But this lengthening
occurs only before certain stems (especially before /w-eyas and its
kin), not before /xa^co-^ai, /xeVeiv, p-ovvos.

j. One of the consonants which ' made position ' has often been
lost, as ypr/t 8 fj.iv ftiKvia T 386, /?e'Aos e^tTrevKes A 51, $eos ws F 230
(for $e6s f <*>?)> cf. KO.KOV o>s B 190, opviOes o>? F 2, TrcAe/cvs o>s F 60, ot 8'

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