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The Text of this edition of the First Books of Homer's Iliad
is that of Homeri Ilias edidit Guilielmus Dindorf: editio quinta
correctior quam curavit C. Hentze. Leipzig, 1884.

The Commentary has been adapted to the use of schools from
that of Homer's Iliad, Books I.-III, edited on the basis of the
AmeiS'Hentze edition by T. D. Seymour, in the College Series of
Greek Authors.

The Introduction has been simplified and enlarged, according
to the needs of the present work, from the Editor's Introduction
to the Language and Verse of Homer, also in the College Series
of Greek Authors.

The Vocabulary has been prepared from the poem itself, but
with the use of Seber's Index Homericus, Frohwein's Verbum
Homericum, Ebeling's great Lexicon Homericum, and Seiler-
Capelle's Worterbuch ilber die Gedichte des Homeros.

For a somewhat fuller illustration of the Greek text and of
Homeric forms, the Editor refers to the above-mentioned volumes
of the College Series of Greek Authors.

Reference is made to Books of the Iliad by the capital letters
of the Greek alphabet, A, B, r, kt\, ; to Books of the Odyssey, by
the small letters, a, p, y, kt\. References preceded by the sym-
bol [§] are to the Introduction. H, stands for the Greek Gram-
mar of Hadley-Allen ; G. stands for Goodwin's Greek Grammar.
Other abbreviations are intended to be self-interpreting. Trans-
lations are in italics; paraphrases are enclosed in double inverted
commas ; quotations are enclosed in single inverted commas.

Yalb Collbgb, March 28, 1889.

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Adjectiyes § 38.

Adverbs § 56.

Analysis of Iliad § 8.

Anastrophe § 55 c.

Anomalous Forms § 37.

Aorists of /Ai-form § 53.

Apocope § 29.

Asyndeton § 15.

Augment § 43.

Books, division into, § 10.

Bucolic diaeresis § 58 A.

Caesoral Pauses § 58.

Change of meanings § 17.

Chiasmus § 16 a.

Comparison of Adjectives § 40.

Comparisons § 14.

Consonants § 30.

Contract Verbs § 47.

Contraction § 24.

Crasis § 26.

Dactyls § 57 c.

Dialect, General Remarks, § 22.

Digamma § 32.

Direct Discourse § 11 e.

Elision § 28.

Epanalepsis § 16 h,

Epexegesis § 12 e.

Epic Poetry § 1.

Epithets § 12 a.

Feminine Caesura § 58 c,/.

First Aorist § 48.

First Declension § 34.

Future § 48.

Genitive Absolute § 19 d.

Hexameter § 57.

Hiatus § 27.

Hysteron Proteron § 16/.

Iliad, Story of, § 6.

Iterative Forms § 54.

life in Homer § 5.

Litotes § 16 c.

Masculine Caesura § 58/.

Metathesis § 31.

/lu-verbs § 52.

Middle Voice § 50.

Numerals § 41.

Optative mode § 46.

Order of Words § 11 h.

Parataxis §21.

Parechesis § 13.

Particles § 20.

Passive Voice § 51.

Patronymics § 39.

Periphrasis § 16 d.

Perfect Tense § 49.

Prepositions § 55.

Pronouns § 42.

Quantity § 59.

Reduplication § 43.

Second Declension § 35.

Special Case Endings § 38.

Spondees § 57 c.

Stereotyped Expressions § 12 h*

Style § 11.

Subjunctive Mode § 45.

Synizesis § 25.

Synonymous Expressions § 12 e2.

Syntax § 18.

Third Declension § 36.

Troy §4.

Verb Endings § 44.

Verse § 57.

Vowels § 23.

Zeugma § 16 e.

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§ 1. EPIC POETRY. The Homeric Poems are the oldest remains
of Greek literature, but they were not the earliest poems of the Greeks.
Lyric poetry naturally precedes epic poetry. Every nation has love songs,
war songs, and dirges, before it has narrative poems. Those early songs
of the Greeks are all lost, although traces of them are found in the Iliad
and Odyssey, Doubtless the Greeks had also many brief songs, narrat-
ing exploits in war and hair-breadth 'scapes in adventure, before any one
thought of composing a long epic poem. In the Iliad and Odyssey are
found indications of poems about the adventures of Heracles, of the
Argonautic Expedition for the Golden Fleece, and of short songs about
the expedition against Troy. The earlier and shorter epic poems were
used freely by Homer (for this name may fairly be given to the man who
formed the plan of the Iliad, and to whom its unity is due) in the com-
position of the Iliad, and again, after him, additions were made by other
bards. The Iliad thus contains Pre-Homeric, Homeric, and Post-
Homeric elements. Some scholars lay more stress on the one class of
elements, while other scholars lay more stress on another. But the lover
of the poem, who reads it attentively again and again, generally feels the
essential unity and harmony of the work more forcibly than the incon-
sistencies and discrepancies on which have been based the arguments for
the different authorship of different parts of the poem. Composed at a
time when the art of writing was not familiar to the people, when Greece
had no * reading public,' the poem was made to be recited and heard, not
to be read. It would, then, be composed in parts which could be recited
at one sitting. The poet would not be solicitous to preserve exact har-
mony of detail between lays which were not likely to be sung in immedi-
ate succession nor on the same occasion. He would not begin his work
with the plan of composing a poem of 15,000 verses, but, finding that his
theme was popular and admitted of indefinite expansion, he would natu-
rally develop what had been only indicated before. Thus the Books of
the Iliad doubtless were not composed in the order in which they stand
in our texts. The first part of the First Book must have been the earliest
composed, for that is the basis of the rest of the poem ; but Books IL-YI.

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(and still more, Books VII.-X.) may have been composed after Book XI.,
in order to fill up the details of the story.

The beginner need not (and should not) be disturbed by questions as
to the diverse authorship of different parts of the Iliad. The subject is
exceedingly complicated, and cannot be studied profitably until the stu-
dent is perfectly familiar with the entire poem, and with similar literature
in other languages. The student should strive to enjoy and appreciate
the Homeric Poems, — not to analyze them.^

§ 2. a. Scholars now do not ask where Homer was bom, but rather
where Greek epic poetry had its rise. The Muses were * Pierian Muses,'
*OXvfnrui Stafmr cxovcrctt, and their earliest home seems to have been on
the slopes of Mt. Olympus, in Pierian Thessaly. Thence epic poetry was
carried by the Aeolians to Asia Minor, where it was adopted and per-
fected by the lonians. The Homeric Poems still contain many Aeolic
forms in words and phrases for which the lonians had no metrical equiv-

b. No one can tell the exact date of the composition of the Homeric
Poems. Probably they were essentially in their present form as early as
the Eighth Century B.C.

§ 3. a. An Epic Poem is a narration in heroic verse of a dignified
story of considerable length which has a definite beginning, middle, and
end, and an organic relation of parts. The time of the action should not
be so long as to make difl&cult a general view of the story. The poet
puts as much as possible of his tale into the mouth of his actors, and so
the Iliad is strongly dramatic. In the First Book, the first 427 verses
are almost entirely dramatic, the narrative serving simply as < stage
directions.' Epic poetry was the mother of the drama.

1 The famous Homeric Question, as to the composition of the Homeric
Poems, was first treated in a scientific way by a German scholar, Friedrich
August Wolf, in his Prolegomena ad Homerum, 1795. He claimed that the
Iliad and the Odyssey were not the work of one poet, and that the unity of each
poem was given to it by scholars at the court of Pisistratus in Athens, in the
Sixth Century B.C. He based his view on external arguments, which have
grown weaker rather t)ian stronger since his day, and are almost entirely neg-
lected now. About half a century later, in 1837, another German scholar,
Lachmann, divided the Iliad into sixteen different lays, resting his division on
internal arguments, i.e., on the inconsistencies of different parts. The discus-
sion now continues, with the use of internal arguments, but scholars are less
inclined than a few years ago to suppose that the Iliad is a conglomeration
of separate lays, a ' fortuitous concurrence of atoms,' and are more disposed to
favor the idea of a natural and organic development, — such as was suggested
for the Odyssey by Kircbhoff in 1859.

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§4b. EPIC POETRY. rii

b. The Homeric Poems used to be compared with Vergil's Aeneid,
Dante's Divina Commedia^ and Milton's Paradise Lost, But men have
come to see a difference between the Natural Epic and the Literary
Epic. Vergil had no personal (only an artistic) interest in the battles
and adventures of his hero. He sends Aeneas to Hades simply because
the Homeric Odysseus had been there ; he makes Aeneas tell the story of
his wanderings and sufferings to Queen Dido, because Odysseus had told
a similar story to King Alcinous. Vergil consciously strives to unite the
characteristics of both Iliad and Odyssey, and begins his poem with
arma virumque cano, — the arma being for the Iliad and the
virum for the Odyssey. Vergil is self-conscious, too, in the use of
cano, — he remembers that he is the court poet of Augustus, and bor-
rows the word * sing,' although his poem was not meant to be sung but to
be read. But Homer is in earnest when he says, aetSc tfco, Sing, goddess !

In the Epics of Vergil, Dante, and Milton, more grace and finish are
expected, and more studied thought. * The capital distinction of Homeric
poetry,' as Professor Jebb has well said, < is that it has all the freshness
and simplicity of a primitive age, — all the charm which we associate
with the " childhood of the world " ; while on the other hand it has com-
pletely surmounted the rudeness of form, the struggle of thought with
language, the tendency to grotesque or ignoble modes of speech, the
incapacity for equable maintenance of a high level, which belong to the
primitive stage of literature.'

c. A great Natural Epic is possible only in a nation which has a rich
and varied mythology. Hence, the Romans, being without a mythology
of their own, could have no great Natural Epic.

§ 4. a. Homer's story of the Siege of Troy certainly was not intended
as a history of an actual occurrence. The poet says again and again that
he is of a later generation. He asks the Muse to tell the story, since she
alone knows what really happened. Doubtless many such battles were
fought and many such sieges endured in Asia Minor about 1000 years b.c.

b. Dr. Heinrich Schliemann was led by his Homeric enthusiasm, a few
years ago, to excavate the site of Hissarlik (* Ilium Novum') in the
Troad, near the Hellespont, and that of Mycenae in Argolis. In both
places he found indications and remains of ancient wealth and power
which justified the Homeric epithets of Ilios and Mycenae, and made
more probable the belief that the story of the expedition against Troy
was founded on fact. Mycenae may have been the chief city of Pelopon-
nesus, at one time. An armada may have been led by the King of
Mycenae against Troy. But certainly most of the incidents and names
of heroes were invented.

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§ 5. a. HOMERIC LIFE. The Homeric Poems give a picture of life
in Greece which differs in important particulars from that of the clas-
sical or historical period. The poet knows no one name for Greece as
opposed to other lands. The Greeks are * Argives/ * Achaeans,* or * Da-
nalEins.' The < Hellenes ' are as yet only the inhabitants of a small dis-
trict in Thessaly . The names of ' Attica * and ' Peloponnesus ' are unheard.
Thebes seems to be in ruins. Athens has no special distinction. Mene-
laus, king of Sparta, and his country are comparatively insignificant,
although the war was undertaken to avenge the wrong which he had
suffered from Paris. The brother of Menelaus, Agamemnon, king of
Mycenae, is the chief monarch of Greece. The Greek colonies and the
Greek cities of Asia Minor are not mentioned. Monarchy prevails ; de-
mocracies seem to be unknown. The king is also commander-in-chief of
the army, judge, and priest. As head of the nation he represents it
before the gods, but his power is practically limited. Public opinion is
strong, although Homer has no word for law.

b. Monarchy prevails among the gods as among men. Zeus (< Jupi-
ter') is mightier than all the rest together. Athena (* Minerva') and
Apollo are next to Zeus in power. Athena is the chief divinity of war.
Ares (* Mars ') is comparatively insignificant. Dionysus (* Bacchus ') is
not as yet admitted to the circle of gods on Olympus. Asclepius (* Aes-
culapius ') is still a mortal. Pan and the Satyrs are unknown. The
gift of prophecy is granted to individual men. The oracle of Delphi is
hardly mentioned. Temples are uncommon.

c. The Homeric knights do not ride on horseback, but fight from
chariots. They roast their meat, and do not boil it. They sit at table,
and do not recline at dinner. They buy their wives by large gifts of
cattle to the parents. The most useful metal is copper or bronze ; iron
is little used. Coined money is unknown ; all trade is barter. The occu-
pations of the rich and poor differ little. Princes tend flocks and build
houses ; princesses fetch water and wash clothes. The heroes are their
own butchers and cooks.

§ 6. THE STORY OF THE ILIAD, a. The action of the Iliad
itself covers only a few days, but many allusions are made to preceding
events which complete the story.

Paris (whose Greek name was Alexander), son of King Priam of Troy
(or Hios) on the shore of the Hellespont, on the northwest comer of
Asia Minor, carries away Helen, wife of King Menelaus of Sparta. The
Achaeans (Greeks) unite to avenge the wrong, under command of Aga-
memnon, king of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus. Nestor and Odys-
seus visit Thessaly and enlist Achilles (son of Peleus and the sea-goddess

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Xhetis) and his friend Patroclus. The Greeks assemble at Aulis. There
a portent is seen, which the seer Calchas interprets to mean that they
shall fight for nine years around Troy, and capture the city in the tenth
year. On their way to Troy, they stop at the island of Lemnos, where
they are hospitably entertained, and where they leave one of their chief-
tains, Philoctetes, who has been bitten by a water-snake. On their
arrival at Troy, Menelaus and Odysseus go to the city as ambassadors,
and demand the return of Helen, which is refused. Some of the Trojans
even urge that the ambassadors be put to death, but their host Antenor
and others secure their safety. The Achaeans begin the siege. The
Trojans send to their neighbors and gain allies.

b. The siege is not very close. The Greek camp is at a considerable
distance from the city, and the Greeks cannot devote all of their time to
fighting. They are obliged to make expeditions against the neighboring
towns in order to obtain supplies. In these marauding forays, the men
of the sacked towns are killed or sent to other countries to be sold as
slaves; the women are often brought to the Greek camp before Troy.
Meanwhile, the wealth of the city of Troy is nearly exhausted. The
Trojans have been obliged to pay and support their allies, and have been
shut out from the use of their fields. Th^y are afraid to meet the
Greeks in open battle.

c. Of the gods, Hera (* Juno '), Athena, and Poseidon (< Neptune *) favor
the Achaeans; Aphrodite (* Venus '), Ares, and Apollo favor the Trojans.

§ 7. a. The Iliad begins in the midst of the tenth year of the war.
Chryseis, the daughter of a priest of Apollo, had been captured on one of
the marauding expeditions of the Achaeans, and was given to Agamem-
non as the * first-fruit * of the spoils. The captive's aged father comes to
the Greek camp, bearing the fillets of Apollo as his official insignia, and
begs to be allowed to ransom his daughter, but Agamemnon sends him
away, slighting his request. As he leaves the Greek camp, the old priest
prays for vengeance to his god, Apollo, who hears his prayer and sends
pestilence upon the Achaeans. For nine days the plague rages in the
camp, but on the tenth day an assembly is called by Achilles, who
urges that some seer be questioned of the cause of the god's anger. The
old seer Calchas tells the truth. Achilles reproaches Agamemnon, and
the two heroes quarrel. At last Agamemnon sends Chryseis home to her
father, but takes from Achilles his prize of honor, Brise'is. Achilles begs
his mother, the sea-goddess Thetis, to invoke the aid of Zeus, praying
that victory may be granted unto the Trojans until the Achaeans learn
to value and honor her son's might. This prayer is reluctantly granted
by Zeus, and the First Book closes with a half-ludicrous scene on Olympus.

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b. At the opening of the Second Book, Zens sends to Agamemnon a
delusive dream, bidding him to arm the Achaeans for battle, with all
haste. After a council of the elders, Agamemnon tries the temper of the
soldiers by proposing to return at once to their homes. To his grief, the
men accede enthusiastically and begin immediately the preparations for
the voyage. They are stopped by Odysseus, who acts under the direction
of Athena. A second assembly is held, the Greeks are shamed and awed
into remaining, and they prepare for battle. As the Achaean army ad-
vances against Troy, the poet gives a muster of the forces, — the < Cata-
logue of the Ships,' — which is followed by a less elaborate enumeration
of the Trojans and their allies.

c. At the beginning of the Third Book, the opposing armies are about
to meet, when Paris challenges Meuelaus to a single combat which shall
decide the war. The two husbands of Helen, — the wronged Menelaus
and the offending Paris, — are the fit champions of the two armies. This
scene would naturally belong to the first year of the war ; but as the poet
begins his story in the tenth year of the war, the best that he can do is to
make this combat the beginning of the conflicts which he describes.
Priam is called from Troy, and a truce is struck. K Menelaus slays
Paris, the Greeks are to take Helen and peaceably return to their homes.
If Paris slays Menelaus, the Greeks are to withdraw at once. Menelaus
disables Paris and has him in his power, when Aphrodite snatches up her
Trojan favorite, and deposits him safely in his home.

d. The terms of the truce have not been fulfilled. Neither combatant
has been slain, but the victory fairly belongs to the Greeks. In order
that the Trojans may not surrender Helen, and preserve their city, Athena
(who hates Troy) descends a third time to the field of war, and incites a
Trojan ally to send an arrow at Menelaus. The Greek hero is wounded,
and the Greeks, indignant at this treacherous breach of the truce, pre-
pare at once for the battle, and advance upon the enemy, near the close
of the Fourth Book.

e. Most of the Fifth Book is devoted to the brave deeds of Diomed,
«on of Tydeus. Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, and Ares take part in the
battle, and the two latter divinities are wounded by Diomed.

f . In the Sixth Book, the Trojans are hard pressed, and Hector returns
to the city in order to bid the matrons supplicate Athena's mercy. He
calls Paris to return to the field of battle, and takes a beautiful and
pathetic farewell of his wife, Andromache.

g. The day which began at the opening of the Second Book ends near
the close of the Seventh Book. The coming on of night puts a stop to a
single combat between Hector and Telamonian Ajax. The armies strike

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a truce for one day, for the burial of the dead. The Greeks spend
another day in building a wall about their camp, — a wall which was not
needed as long as Achilles was fighting on their side, but which is neces-
sary now that the Trojans are ready to assume the offensive.

h. The Eighth Book tells of a brief day of battle, in which the fortunes
of war are continually changing, and in which Zeus continually interferes.
At the close of this Book, the Achaeans are driven into their camp, and
welcome the approach of night which affords them relief from pursuit
and attack. The Trojans bivouac upon the plain and are confident of
annihilating their enemies on the morrow.

i. On the night following the battle of the Eighth Book, the Greek
leaders send to Achilles an embassy, offering him rich gifts, and begging
him to return to the battle, but he stoutly refuses. The account of this
embassy fills the Ninth Book.

j. The Tenth Book narrates the visit (on that same night) of Odys-

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