The Iliad of Homer, according to the text of Wolf online

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. 3






NOTES "^^ "^'^


Aitpice M^ONiBBiff a quo, ceu fonte perenht,
V^tun Pieriis on reganiur aquis.— OviB.





No. 879 Broadway.


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4. f r.g : ■. ■■ ■ .




Bnterp jL according to act orCongresa, in the year 1861. by


Id the Clark's Ofllce of the D^rict Court of the United Sutea lur the Southern Diatnd
of New- York.



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Avwy< j^





%ts{Rrtfiillt( SeMtatrit









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This edition of the IHad k a reprint of WdTs, pnUiahed at Leipog,
1839. In selectnig that edition as the basis of the text^ the editor
was actuated not onfy bj a high sense of its intrinsic merit, but
also by a desire to naake the present volume unifivm with hk
editi<m of the Odyssey, pnbhshed in 1844. In a few instances,
however, the editw has slightly departed from the reading of Wol(
when that of some other scholar seemed more conformable to the
wantB <^ a given passage, and supported l^ stronger mannscript

In correcting the text and preparing the notes, the editor has
availed himself <^ the best editions extant, among which he wiU name
as of spedal nse to him, 1, Heyne's, London, 1834. 2, Beyne^
with the Scholia Minora, Oxford, 1834. 3, Spitsnei's, Gothn, 1832.
4, CSarke'is, London, 1824. 6, Emesti's Garke, Leipog, 1824.
6, Bothe's, Leipzig, 1832-3. 7, G. G. Onnnn', Hanover, 1845.
8,Brandreth's,L(nidon,1841. 9, Oxford Edition, 1849. ]0,Felton\
Boston, 1847. 11, Stadlemann^ QrammatiBch-Rritische Anmer-
kungen zor Ilias des Homer, Leipog, 1840-4. 12, E<yppeii^ An
merkongen za Homers IKas, Hanovw, 1820. 13, lliiersch tlbei
das Zeitaher and Yaterland des Hcmier, Halberstadt, 1824. 14,
Lachmann's Betrachtm^^ Qber Homers Ilias, Beilin, 1847. 15,
Vdl^er's, Homerische Geographic, Hanovw, 1830. 16, Wood's
Boay on the Genius and Writings of H<Hner, London, IBM. 17,
ErOger^ Homerische Formldire, Berlin, 1849.


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The editor takes pleasure in referring more particularly to one uf
the above-mentioned editions^ Prof. Felton's, which for elegant and
accurate scholarship, and a just conception of the beauty and spirit
of the Homeric veise, is worthy of all praise. The present work is
not intended as a rival to that, or any other edition now used in our
institutions of learning, but rather as an aiudliaiy in the field of
classical Hteratare, helping to furnish our youth with a complete
apparatus to the study c^ the first and greatest of epic poets.

The Notes are mainly based on the exegetical wants of he
reader ci Homer. Mythological works are now so abundant and
accessible to the student, that it seemed undesirable to enlarge and
encumber the notes by quotations of this sort ; yet wherever it was
deemed essential to the explanation of any passage, points of mytho-
logical interest have been duly adverted ta It wiU be seen, that
oc^ioQB illustrations have been given to all that pertains to the
archsedogy of the poem. In this portion of his labor, the editor
acknoidedges his obligations to Snaith^s Dictionaiy of Greek and
Roman Antiquities, a work which has now been republished in this
oountiy, and slioukl be in the hands of every student as a book of
referen ^ As h respects the places spoken of in the poem, much
pains has been taken to give them the geographical position assigned
them by the most a^^noved autiioritios, such as Leake, Mure, Kio-
pert) and others.

Those iriio have been conversant with the editor's former publi-
catbns, it is believed, will find evidence m this volume of the same
desire to maintain the gc^en mean between extreme fulness and
meagreness of annotation, whidi has marked his previous labors.
Whether he has achieved this object is left to an indulgent public,
from whom, in the light <^ past experience, he has evciy reason to
expect aa fiivonUe a dedskm as Uie woik will justify.

Tlie same system of punctuation and accentuation has been fol*


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lowed, which i^as adq>ted in the editor's earlier works, viz^ to give
to every oxytoae standing before a ponctuation-mark, whether in a
Greek or J&ighah sentence, the acute accent The uniformitj result-
mg from this practice seems, in the editor's judgment, far to out
weigh anj objecti<Hi which may be advanced against it

Reference has been freely made to Sophocles', Eahner's, Crosby's,
and Buttmann's Greek Grammars. The'ktter of these works, m re-
vised by the author's son, and translated by Dr. Robinson, has just
been published, and thanks are due to the translator for furnishing
the editor with sheeto of the granmiar, in season for reference to be
made to it in the present work. References also have been made to
the Gnunmars of Matthiae, Thiersch, ErQger, Rest, and Kohner
(JelTs edit, Oxford, 1842).

Ihe Granmiatacal and IDstorical Indexes have been prepared
with as much frilnees, as the space allotted to them would justify.
Tlie EBstorical Index, in particular, has been made by carefully
tracing the history and deeds of each person whose name figures in
the poem, and noting down every thing of general interest Thus
reference can easily be made to any act of the personages of the poem,
and a general view taken c^ their achievements. A Summary of each
book ii prefixed to the volume, which will be of use to the student
in obtaining, a general view of the plan and parts of the poem.

With renewed expressions of gratitude to the classical professors
and teachers, who have so abundantly manifested their kind interest
ID the editor's previous publications, he commits this new work to
them and to the literary public, with the wish that it may advance
in tome degree the cause of classical learning, and render the study
of this great poem both profitable and pleasing to the youthiu?

Nkw-York Free Aoadbmt,
June 14, 1851.


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L The fo^Mi^Jmrmmtb» anO^eot of Us poem the WBATH OF AOHILLES, lu m>
e— nHwg far tM uose of whieb, be rebitee how Ohiyiea, a priest of Apollo, oum to the
Grecian eamp, to nuuom hie danghterf who had been taken captive, but was rudely dls-
nrisped by Agamemnon (1-81). In his distress he prays to ApoUo, who sends a destruoUve
pestilence noon the Qreelan camp, (83-68X ^ eonseqaence of which Achilles calls an assem-
bly of the Ckeeka, and having letunt ttom the vwthsayer Chalcas the oaose of Apollo's an-
ger, advises the restoration or Ghrysee (68-189X wherenpon Agamemnon becomes enra^Fod,
and a violent altereadon ensnes between these chi^taina. Nestor attempts to reconcile
them, bat in vain, for Agamemnon seizes upon Briset^s the fiUr captive or Achilles (180-
948): whereupon the latter withdmws lh>m the armv, and expreeees his determination to
take no ftutner part in the war. His mother, Thetu, at his solidtaUon, ascends to 01 vm-
pua, and obtains Jupiter's jMomise to honor her son by giving victory to the Troiaos (849-
OOOi Juno is inoeosed at tills, and quarrels with Jupiter, but a reconciliation is effected by
Yalcan, who also promotes hilari^ aoKMig the gods by performing the office of cnp-bearor

11 — A deoeltftil dream being seat to Agamemnon by Jupiter, he assembles tlie principal
efaieft, and afterwards the army, and In order to make trial'of their disposition, proposes an
immediate retun to Greece (1-84). To this proposal they joyfUUy assent, and run to pre-
pare tt « ahipa for thair departore (85-154) ; but through the address of UlyBsok Indted
thereto by Minerva, are diasuaded from carrying their design into execution. Thersites
alone diasent^ but is rebuked and ehastlaed by Ulysses (155-S77). UlvBse^ Nestor, and
Agamemnon narangue the army, and preparations are made for battle (27»-488). The poet
enumerates the forces and leaders of the two opposing armies (484-677).

IIL— As the battle is about to be Joined. Paris challenges the bravest of the Grecian
lieft, but at sight of Menelaos turns his hack and flies. Hector, seeing this, upbraids him
r his eowardioe, and obtains his promise to fight Menelaus (1-l)iO). Helen belns sum-
moned by Iris to witness the combat, points out to Priam the chief loaders in tlio Grecian
army (121-244,), The terms of the combat are ratified by Priam and Agamemnuo (245-
$18), «ter which the fight takes place, in which Paris is worsted, and saved only by the in-
terposition of Venus (814-882> The goddess conveys Paris to bis chamber, and ttittber
brings abo Helen, who upbraids him hr Us weakness and unwarlike character (8S8-44S).
Agamemnon deniaadB from the Trq)ans the performance of the stipulations of the combat

lY.— The gods having agreed in council to continue the war, Minerva is sent down to
break the truce (1-78). Thb ^e effbcts by means of Pandams, whom she persuades to dis-
charge an arrow at Menelaus, by which he is wounded, but cured by Machaon (78-219)
Aguiemnon marshals his forces, and (wsslng throngh the ranks, exhorts the leaders, pralr
fa)f some and blaming others (220-481). The armies join battle with great fhry (422-^4).

Y.— DiomedeSL with the help of Minerva, greatly signalizes himself (1-94X He is
wounded bv Pandarus, and cured by the godde», who enables him to dLsUngtdsh the god£
from mortala, and forbids hiafigbting with any of the former except Yenus (95-1 65). iEneas
goes in quest of Pandams, and with him drives against Diomedes, who kills Pandarus and
wounds i£neas. Yenus, in rescuing her son from Diomedes, is also wounded by that hero
1M-480X but Is assisted by ApoUo, who conveys ifineas to his temple, where he is healed
yy Latona and Dhma (481-468)k Mars excites Hector to the fight (454 -518), and ^neas abu)
-•tums to the battl^ which rages with fgnat fnrv. Sarpedon slays Tleptolemus (51 A-710).
Juno and Minerva descend to assist the Greeks, by the latter of whom Uiomedes is incited
to |o againat Mars, whom he wounds, and causes to leave the battle (711-871). He com-
plains to Jupiter of the conduct of Minerva, but receives a stem rebuke (S72-90C). Juno
sad Minerva ascend to Olympus (907-909X

YL— The battle oonlJnnIng after the departure of the irodf, the Grecians previiil
(1-71) : whereupoB Hector, at the advice of Helen us, enters the city to direct Hecuba to
lead a procession of Trqjan matrons to the temple of Minerva, in order to entreat the god-
dess to remove Diomedes from the fi«^t C^.- 118). Glauens and Diomedes. as ther im


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alXNit to engage In combat, beoome known to each other as desoendaDt» of ancestors b^
tween whom existed the league of hospitality, whercapon thev excbango armor, and fm^
as frienda (119-286X Hector having delivered bis message to Hecnba (287-31 1 \ finds Paris,
and exhorts him to retom to the field of war (812-868X after which he tAkes a tender leave
of his wife Andromache (dl2-n502X and, accompanied by Paris, retarns to battle (5U8-^9).

YIL— On the return ot the Trojan chief, the fight is renewed with groat nnlor. Helenua,
incited thereto by Apollo, directs Hector to challenge the bravest of the Greeks to a single
combat (1-68), m>m which challenge the chie6 at first shrink, but at last, stung by tlie re-
proaches ot Menelaus, who had ofnovd to accept the chaUengo, nine of them arise and claim
tlie combat Lota hftvinc been cast, AJax obtidna the honor (M-2U6), and immediately pre-
pares for tlie fight The nerotis engage, and the combat is protracted, with nearly equal
success, until, at the approach of luglit, they are separated by the heralds, and part with
mutual presents (206-^2). Nestor advises the burial of the slain, and the fortification ol
the Qrecian camp (818-^13). Priam also proposes a truce for the burial of the shtin, and
communicates the decision of a council of the Trojans which had Just been held, to restore
the treasures, but not Helen ^844-420). This is hidignantly rejected by the Quck^ who
strondy fortify their camp (421-441X at the greatness of which work Neptune becomes Jea-
lotu, but is pacified by Jupiter (442-4081 The Greeks and Trojans pass the night hi feast-
ing, but Jupiter plans evib against the latter, and terrifies them during Uie night with his
thunders (464-482).

VIIL— Jupiter calls a council of the goda, and forbids their taking any part in the war
>K)fore Troy (1-40), tifter which he repairs to Ida, and there baUnces the destinies of the two
armies, and direcbi his lightnings against tli^Greciana (41-77). Nestor being in imminent
danger is reeoued by Diomedes, who drives asalnst Hector and slays hie charioteer. Again
the thtmders of Jove break over the Qredan boat, afM^ted at which they flee to their
entrenchments (78-219). Diomedes with other chiefK, however, sally forth and renew the
battle, Teucer perftirms great exploits until he is disabled by Hector (220-885). The Greeks
are again driven liack to their entrenchments, seeing which Juno and Minerva are filled
with rage, and prepare to deeoend to the field of battle, but are peremptorily forbidden to do
so by Jupiter ($86'1S4V Night puts an end to the battle, and both armies rest, having first
taken measures to leoure themselves flrom surprise (485-561).

IX.— The Greci.in chlefe meeting in council (1-7SX Nestor advises the sendins an em-
bassy to request Aohilles to return to the aid of the Greeks, and AJax, Ulyase^ and Phoenix
are therefore sent to the oiTended hero with proposals of reconciliation (79-281). These all
make eloquent and urgent speeche^ but in vain, for Achilles remains inexorable (282-664).
Phosnix having been left behind at the invitation of Aohillea, the others return and report
to the leaders their misuccessftil mission (665-709).

X.— Agamemnon being unable to sU'cp in consequence of the critioal state of aflUra,
arouses Uie principal chiefs holds a council, and determines on exploring the enemies* camp
(1-217> Diomedes takes tliis service upon himself, selecting Ulysees as his companion
(218-271). They surprise Dolon. who has in like manner been sent by Hector to spy out the
Grecian camp (*?72-889). Having obtained fi-om him all the information they desb^ they
kill him (890-468), iifter which they sUiy Rhesus and return with his horses to the Grecian
camp (469-679).

XI.— The battle is renewed on the following day, and Agamenmon greatly disdnguishea
liimseU; but being woumled is obliged to rethre (1-298X whereupon Hector charew* the
Greeks with great liApetuosity, and drives them bcobre him, but is temporarily checked by
AJax, who rallies the Greeks and makes head against Uie victorious Trojans (299-595).
Achilles seeing fyom his ship the flying Greeks, sends Patroclusto Icam the name of a
wounded chief (596-658). Nestor detains him in his tent with a recital of some of his
former deeds, and implores bini to obtain permission of Achilles to fight in his armor (654-
802). PatrocluB meets the wounded Euryphylus and assists him (808-847).

XIL— The Tro>1sns in five divisions and on foot, make a desperate charge upon the
Qredan entrenchments (1-107). Asius r^ecting the proposal to descend ft-om his chariot
and fight on foot, drives within the ditch, but is repulsed ^ith in^t loss (108-194). On the
appearance of an unfiivorable omen, Polydarnus advises the withdrawal of the troops from
the Grecian ramparts, but Ls sternly opposed by Hector who with great valor continnes the
assault biupodon <listlnffui4he<« himself and first makes a breach in the wall (195-899), but
being repulsed. Hector advances with a stone of enormous size, breaks down the wall, and
rushtnff in niirsues the Greeks to their slilps (400-471).

X III.— Neptune comes to the assistjmce of the Greeks, and arouses the AJaxra to onpose
Uio Trojans (1-82). Great exploits are perfonned on both bid^ and many are slain. Meri-
ones and Teucer especially distinguish themselves (88-16S), and Idomenens bisplred by Nep-
tone slays many of the Trojans, but Is at length compelled to retreat before iEn^s and
Deiopholus (169-516). The Trojans are repulsed on the left wing, but Hector holds hla
position on the right, imtil being harassed by the Locrian archers and slingcrs, he goes to
summon the leaders to a war-council, after which he returns and renews the fight with AJax

XlY.— At the suggestion of Diomedes, the chiefe who had been wounded, visit the bat-
tle and enoounum the army with their presence (1-184). Neptune continues to excite the
Qreidts (185-ld2X adcI when Jupiter by a strat^gcn) of Juno had been thrown into a deef


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nhm, glTM tbem more epon and efUdent aid (IfiS-iOl). H«ctor to strode down Inr t

tby AJax. and carried offfrtNn the battle (4M-489X after which the T^ans belu

* '^. back. On tbto ooeaaion A)u Oileos greaUj dtotingntohes himaelf (440-

81T.— Jnplter having awaked from hto sleep, and seeing Hector disabled and the Trqjans
Ib oooftisioo, to greatly moensed aspsinst Jnna 8he socoeeds in appeasing him and to sent
to sommon Iris and Apollo (l-TTi Repairing to the assembly or the gods, she endeavors
to excite them agaiiMi Jupiter (76-112). Mars to abont to arm for batUe bnt to restrained
bj Minora^ 18-148). Irto and ApoUo repair to Jnpiter, the former of whom to sent to com-
mand Neptnne to retire from tike battle, which he reluctantly does (149-81 9X the latter at
the comniand ot Jove restores Hector, marches before him with the aegis, and iafttses into
hii limbs strength and aottTity (220-a43> The Trojan hero breaks down a great portion ot
the Gredan wall, bnt to unable to drive the Aiaxes from the line of shipe, which they defend
wiib gnat ralor (848-74«).

X V L— Ajax being at length overpowered, and hto spear being cut in two by Hector, to
obliged to give way, wtierenpon hto snip to immediately fired. Fatrodus who at ihis time
w«i Mitie^Uig AchiUee for permission to fight In hto arnKHr, to suddenly Indeed tliereto by
Adiillea, wtio sees the flames bursting out from the ship (1-197). The Myrmidons being
armed and marshalled for battle are addressed by Achillea, ana committed to PatroduSi
who leftds them forth (193-377). Supposing him from hto armor to be AchiUos himself, the
Trojans flee in comtemadon (278-968X Sarpedon to slain and the troops are driven to the
very walto of Troy (284-697), at which time the fortune of the battle to changed, Patrodna
being alain by Hector, having been prevtoosly disabled by Apollo and wound^ by Euphor-
boa (696-867).

XVIL— A dreadfhl fight takes place over the dead body of Patrodos, the Trojans beaded
by Hector endeavoring to get possession of it, and the Greeks under the conduct of thdr
tea vest chieA, striving as eagerlv to defend it In thto battle Menelaus greatly distinj^lshes
himself (1-1891 Hector arrays himself in the armor of Achillea, which bad been worn by
Patrodns, and sustained by .£neas prestts hard upon the Greeks, who are rallied and
ebeered on by AJax (140-420). Hector and .£neas attempt to take the chariot of Achillea,
bat are repelled by Antomedon (<tt6-6ti). Jnpiter oisbrouds the body of Patrodus in
thick darkness, whereat Ajax prays for Ugbt (548-647), and as soon as the mist dears awi^
•ends Menelaus to find AntUocnos. in <mler that he may communicate to Achilles the sad
news of tiie death of hto friend. Having executed thto commission Menelaus returns to the
flight, where be and Merionea, covered by the -^klaxes. bear away the body, the Trojans led
on by Hector attacking them with great mi^ (648-761).

X VUL— Antiloohns having deUvered hto message, Achilles breaks out in the most pas-
sionate lamentation, which soon htiaga Thette and her attendant nymphs to comfort nim
(1-77). While they are conversing (78-147), the battle continues to rage around the body
of Patrodus, until at the command of Iris, Achilles stands at the head of the entrench-
ments, and shouts dreadAilly, wherennon the Trojans flee in terror and confhslon, and tlie
Greeks bear away the body (148-288). Polydamus advises Hector to retreat to the dty,
and fight from the walls, but hto advice to r^ected by Hector, who expresses hto readiness to
fight Achilles (289-815). Achilles mourns over the body of hto friend (316-355). Jupiter
taunts Jnno with her extreme concern for the Greeks (856-868X Thetto repairs to Vulcan
and obtains from him a new suit of armor tor her son (869-477). Description of the shicld

XIX.— Thetto brings the armor made by Vulcan to her son (1-20), who to reconciled to
Agamemnom, speedies, presents, and solemn sacrifices gracing the joyous occasion (21-276).
Brtoeto laments Patrodus (277-302). Achilles reftising to take any food until he has avensed
hto friend, Minerva descends and infhses into hto breast nectar and ombrosto (308-856X alter
wbldi he anns, addreeses hto horses, and rusbee to the battle (857-424X

XX->Jnpiter permits the gods to mingle in the fight (1-80). They take difl^erent sides

Online LibraryHomerThe Iliad of Homer, according to the text of Wolf → online text (page 1 of 65)