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THE ILIAD OF HOMER




MACIMILLAN AND CO., Limited

LONDON • BOMBAY • CALCUTTA

MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NEW YOKK ■ BOSTON • CHICAGO
DALLAS • SAN FRANCISCO

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.

TORONTO



THE



ILIAD OF HOMER



DONE INTO ENGLISH PROSE *



BY



ANDREW LANG, M.A. WALTER LEAF, Litt.D.

LATE FELLOW OF MERTON COLLEGE, LATE FELLOW OK TKINITV COLLEGE,

OXFORD CAMBRIDGE

AND

ERNEST MYERS, M.A.

LATE FELLOW OF WADHAM COLLEGE,
OXFORD



REVISED EDITION



MACMILLAN and CO., LIMITED
ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON

T914



COPYRIGHT

First Edition 1882

Reprinted \%%->„ 1889, 1891, and luitk corrections 1892

Reprinted 1893, 1895, 1897, 1898, igoo, 1901, 1903, 19&6

1907, 1909, 191 1, 1912

Globe Edition 19 14



Printed by R. & R. Clark, Limited, Editiburgh



?A



PREFATORY NOTE.

The execution of this version of the Iliad has been
entrusted to the three Translators in the following
three parts : —

Books I.— IX W. Leaf.

X.— XVI A. Lang.

„ XVII.— XXIV E. Myers.

Each Translator is therefore responsible for his
own portion ; but the whole has been revised by
all three Translators, and the rendering of passages
or phrases recurring in more than one portion has
been determined after deliberation in common. Even
in these, however, a certain elasticity has been deemed
desirable.

On a few doubtful points, though very rarely,
the opinion of two of the Translators has had to be
adopted to the suppression of that held by the third.
Thus, for instance, the Translator of Books X. — XVL



vi PREFATORY NOTE

would have preferred " c " and " us " to " k " and " os "
in the spelling of all proper names.

The text followed has been that of La Roche
(Leipzig, 1873), except where the adoption of a
different reading has been specified in a footnote.
Where the balance of evidence, external and inter-
nal, has seemed to the Translator to be against the
genuineness of any passage, such passage has been
enclosed in square brackets [ ].

The Translator of Books X. — XVI. has to thank
Mr. R. W. Raper, Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford,
for his valuable aid in revising the proof-sheets of
these Books.



NOTE TO REVISED EDITION.

In the present Edition the translation has been
carefully revised throughout, and numerous minor
corrections have been made. The Notes at the end
of the volume have been, with a few exceptions,
omitted ; one of the Translators hopes to publish
very shortly a Companion to the Iliad for English



NOTE TO REVISED EDITION vii

readers, which will deal fully with most of the points
therein referred to.

The use of square brackets has in this edition
been restricted to passages where there is external
evidence, such as absence from the best MSS., for
believing in interpolation. One or two departures
from this rule are noticed in footnotes.



November 1891.



The sacred soil of Ilios is rent

With shaft and pit ; foiled waters wander slow
Through plains where Simois and Scamander went

To WAR with gods and heroes long ago.
Not yet to dark Cassandra lying low

In rich Mycenae do the Fates relent ;
The bones of Agamemnon are a show.

And ruined is his royal monument.
The dust and awful treasures of the dead

Hath Learning scattered wide ; but vainly thee,
Homer, she meteth with her Lesbian lead,

And strives to rend thy songs, too blind is she
To KNOW the crown on thine immortal head

Of indivisible supremacy. A. L.



Athwart the sunrise of our western day
The form of great Achilles, high and clear,
Stands forth in ar.ms, wielding the Pelian spear.
The sanguine tides of that immortal fray,
Swept on by gods, around him surge and sway.
Wherethrough the helms of many a warrior peer,
Strong men and swift, their tossing plumes uprear.
But stronger, swifter, goodlier he than they.
More awful, more divine. Yet mark anigh ;
Some fiery pang hath rent his soul within,
Some hovering shade his brows encompasseth.
What gifts hath Fate for all his chivalry?
Even such as hearts heroic oftenest win ;
Honour, a friend, anguish, untimely death.

E. M.



BOOK I.

How Agamemnon and Achilles fell out at the siege of Troy ; and
Achilles withdrew himself from battle, and won from Zeus a
pledge that his wrong should be avenged on Agamemnon and
the Achaians.

Sing, goddess, the wrath of Achilles Peleus' son, the ruinous
wTath that brought on the Achaians woes innumerable, and
hurled down into Hades many strong souls of heroes, and
gave their bodies to be a prey to dogs and all winged
fowls ; and so the counsel of Zeus wrought out its accom-
plishment from the day when first strife parted Atreides
king of men and noble Achilles.

Who then among the gods set the twain at strife and
variance ? Even the son of Leto and of Zeus ; for he in
anger at the king sent a sore plague upon the host, that the
folk began to perish, because Atreides had done dishonour
to Chryses the priest For he had come to the Achaians'
fleet ships to win his daughter's freedom, and brought a
ransom beyond telling ; and bare in his hands the fillet of
Apollo the Far-darter upon a golden staff; and made his
prayer unto all the Achaians, and most of all to the two
sons of Atreus, orderers of the host : " Ye sons of Atreus
and all ye well-greaved Achaiajis, now may the gods that
dwell in the mansions' of Olympus grant you to lay waste the
city of Priam, and to fare happily homeward ; only set ye
Z B



2 ILIAD I, 20-52

my dear child free, and accept the ransom in reverence to
the son of Zeus, far-darting Apollo."

Then all the other Achaians cried assent, to reverence
the priest and accept his goodly ransom ; yet the thing
pleased not the heart of Agamemnon son of Atreus, but he
roughly sent him away, and laid stern charge upon him,
saying : " Let me not find thee, old man, amid the hollow
ships, whether tarrying now or returning again hereafter, lest
the staff and fillet of the god avail thee naught And her
will I not set free ; nay, ere that shall old age come on her
in our house, in Argos, far from her native land, where she
shall ply the loom and serve my couch. But depart, pro-
voke me not, that thou may est the rather go in peace."

So said he, and the old man was afraid and obeyed his
word, and fared silently along the shore of the loud-sound-
ing sea. Then went that aged man apart and prayed aloud
to king Apollo, whom Leto of the fair locks bare : " Hear me,
god of the silver bow, that standest over Chryse and holy
Killa, and rulest Tenedos with might, O Smintheus ! If
ever I built a temple gracious in thine eyes, or if ever I
burnt to thee fat flesh of thighs of bulls or goats, fulfil thou
this my desire ; let the Danaans pay by thine arrows for my
tears."

So spake he in prayer, and Phoebus Apollo heard him,
and came down from the peaks of Olympus wroth at heart,
bearing on his shoulders his bow and covered quiver. And
the arrows clanged upon his shoulders in his wrath, as the
god moved ; and he descended like to night Then he sate
him aloof from the ships, and let an arrow fly ; and there was
heard a dread clanging of the silver bow. First did he
assail the mules and fleet dogs, but afterward, aiming at the
men his piercing dart, he smote ; and \he pyres of the dead
burnt continually in multitude.



ILIAD I, 53-83 3

Now for nine days ranged the god's shafts through the
host; but on the tenth Achilles summoned the folk to
assembly, for in his mind did goddess Hera of the white
arms put the thought, because she had pity on the Danaans
when she beheld them perishing. Now when they had
gathered and were met in assembly, then Achilles fleet of
foot stood up and spake among them : " Son of Atreus, now
deem I that we shall return wandering home again — if verily
we might escape death — if war at once and pestilence must
indeed ravage the Achaians. But come, let us now inquire
of some soothsayer or priest, yea, or an interpreter of dreams
— seeing that a dream too is of Zeus — who shall say where-
fore Phoebus Apollo is so wroth, whether he blame us by
reason of vow or hecatomb ; if perchance he would accept
the savour of lambs or unblemished goats, and so would
take away the pestilence from us."

So spake he and sate him down ; and there stood up
before them Kalchas son of Thestor, most excellent far of
augurs, who knew both things that were and that should be
and that had been before, and guided the ships of the Achaians
to Ilios by his soothsaying that Phoebus Apollo bestowed on
him. He of good intent made harangue and spake amid
them : " Achilles, dear to Zeus, thou biddest me tell the wrath
of Apollo, the king that smiteth afar. Therefore will I speak ;
but do thou make covenant with me, and swear that verily
witJi all thy heart thou wilt aid me both by word and deed
For of a truth I deem that I shall provoke one that ruleth
all the Argives with might, and whom the Achaians obey.
For a king is more of might when he is wroth with a meaner
man ; even though for the one day he swallow his anger, yet
doth he still keep his displeasure thereafter in his breast till
he accomplish it. Consider thou, then, if thou wilt hold me
safe."



4 ILIAD I, 84-114

And Achilles fleet of foot made answer and spake to
him : " Yea, be of good courage, speak whatever soothsaying
thou knowest ; for by Apollo dear to Zeus, him by whose
worship thou, O Kalchas, declarest thy soothsaying to the
Danaans, no man while I live and behold light on earth
shall lay violent hands upon thee amid the hollow ships ;
no man of all the Danaans, not even if thou mean Aga-
memnon, that now avoweth him to be greatest far of the
Achaians."

Then was the noble seer of good courage, and spake:
" Neither by reason of a vow is he displeased, nor for any
hecatomb, but for his priest's sake to whom Agamemnon
did despite, and set not his daughter free and accepted not
the ransom ; therefore hath the Far-darter brought woes
upon us, yea, and will bring. Nor will he ever remove the
loathly pestilence from the Danaans till we have given the
bright-eyed damsel to her father, unbought, unransomed, and
carried a holy hecatomb to Chryse ; then might we propitiate
him to our prayer."

So said he and sate him down, and there stood up before
them the hero son of Atreus, wide-ruling Agamemnon, sore
displeased ; and his dark heart within him was greatly
filled with anger, and his eyes were like flashing fire. To
Kalchas first spake he with look of ill : " Thou seer of evil,
never yet hast thou told me the thing that is pleasant Evil
is ever the joy of thy heart to prophesy, but never yet didst
thou tell any good matter nor bring it to pass. And now
with soothsaying thou makest harangue among the Danaans,
how that the Far-darter bringeth woes upon them because,
forsooth, I would not take the goodly ransom of the damsel
Chryseis, seeing I am the rather fain to keep her own self
within mine house. Yea, I prefer her before Klytaimnestra
my wedded wife ; in no wise is she lacking beside her.



ILIAD I, 1 1 5-147 5

neither in favour nor stature, nor wit nor skill. Yet for
all this will I give her back, if that is better ; rather would
I see my folk whole than perishing. Only make ye me
ready a prize of honour forthwith, lest I alone of all the
Argives be disprized, which thing beseemeth not ; for ye all
behold how my prize is departing from me."

To him then made answer fleet-footed goodly Achilles :
" Most noble son of Atreus, of all men most covetous, how
shall the great-hearted Achaians give thee a meed of honour?
We know naught of any wealth of common store, but what
spoil soe'er we took from captured cities hath been appor-
tioned, and it beseemeth not to beg all this back from the
folk. Nay, yield thou the damsel to the god, and we
Achaians will pay thee back threefold and fourfold, if ever
Zeus grant us to sack some well-walled town of Troy-land."^

To him lord Agamemnon made answer and said : " Not
in this wise, strong as thou art, O godlike Achilles, beguile
thou me by craft ; thou shalt not outwit me nor persuade
me. Dost thou wish, that thou mayest keep thy meed of
honour, for me to sit idle in bereavement, and biddest me
give her back? Nay, if the great-hearted Achaians will
give me a meed suited to my mind, that the recompense be
equal — but if they give it not, then I myself will go and take
a meed of honour, thine be it or Aias', or Odysseus' that I
will take unto me ; wroth shall he be to whomsoever I come.
But for this we will take counsel hereafter ; now let us launch
a black ship on the great sea, and gather picked oarsmen,
and set therein a hecatomb, and embark Chryseis of the fair
cheeks herself, and let one of our counsellors be captain,
Aias or Idomeneus or goodly Odysseus, or thou, Peleides,
most redoubtable of men, to do sacrifice for us and propi'
tiate the Far-darter."

* Reading with Cobet TfXf^v for Tpoir)v.



6 ILIAD I, 148-180

Then Achilles fleet of foot looked at him scowling and
said : " Ah me, thou clothed in shamelessness, thou of crafty
mind, how shall any Achaian hearken to thy bidding with
all his heart, be it to go a journey or to fight the foe amain?
Not by reason of the Trojan spearmen came I hither to
fight, for they have not wronged me ; never did they harry
mine oxen nor my horses, nor ever waste my harvest in deep-
soiled Phthia, the nurse of men ; seeing there Heth between
us long space of shadowy mountains and sounding sea ; but
thee, thou shameless one, followed we hither to make thee
glad, by earning recompense at the Trojans' hands for
Menelaos and for thee, thou dog -face ! All this thou
reckonest not nor takest thought thereof; and now thou
threatenest thyself to take my meed of honour, wherefor
I travailed much, and the sons of the Achaians gave it
me. Never win I meed like unto thine, when the Achaians
sack any populous citadel of Trojan men ; my hands bear
the brunt of furious war, but when the apportioning cometh
then is thy meed far ampler, and I betake me to the ships
with some small thing, yet mine own, when I have fought to
weariness. Now will I depart to Phthia, seeing it is far
better to return home on my beaked ships; nor am I
minded here in dishonour to draw thee thy fill of riches and
wealth,"

Then Agamemnon king of men made answer to him
*' Yea, flee, if thy soul be set thereon. It is not I that
beseech thee to tarry for my sake ; I have others by my side
that shall do me honour, and above all Zeus, lord of counsel
Most hateful art thou to me of all kings, fosterlings of Zeus ;
thou ever lovest strife and wars and fightings. Though thou
be very strong, yet that I ween is a gift to thee of God. Go
home with thy ships and company and lord it among thy
Myrmidons ; I reck not aught of thee nor care I for thine



ILIAD I, 180-213 7

indignation ; and this shall be my threat to thee : seeing
Phoebus Apollo bereave th me of Chryseis, her with my ship
and my company will I send back ; and mine own self will I
go to thy hut and take Briseis of the fair cheeks, even that
thy meed of honour, that thou mayest well know how far
greater I am than thou, and so shall another hereafter abhor
to m.atch his words with mine and rival me to my face."

So said he, and grief came upon Peleus' son, and his
heart within his shaggy breast was divided in counsel,
whether to draw his keen blade from his thigh and set
the company aside and so slay Atreides, or to assuage his
anger and curb his soul. While yet he doubted thereof in
heart and soul, and was drawing his great sword from his
sheath, Athene came to him from heaven, sent forth of the
white -armed goddess Hera, whose heart loved both alike
and had care for them. She stood behind Peleus' son and
caught him by his golden hair, to him only visible, and of
the rest no man beheld her. Then Achilles marvelled, and
turned him about, and straightway knew Pallas Athene ; and
terribly shone her eyes. He spake to her winged words, and
said : " Why now art thou come hither, thou daughter of
aegis-bearing Zeus ? Is it to behold the insolence of Aga-
memnon, son of Atreus ? Yea, I will tell thee that I deem
shall even be brought to pass : by his own haughtinesses
shall he soon lose his life."

Then the bright-eyed goddess Athene spake to him again :
" I came from heaven to stay thine anger, if perchance thou
wilt hearken to me, being sent forth of the white -armed
goddess Hera, that loveth you twain alike and careth for you.
Go to now, cease from strife, and let not thine hand draw
the sword ; yet with words indeed revile him, even as it shall
come to pass. For thus will I say to thee, and so it shall be
fulfilled ; hereafter shall goodly gifts come to thee, yea in



8 ILIAD I, 213-243

threefold measure, by reason of this despite; hold thou
thine hand, and hearken to us."

And Achilles fleet of foot made answer and said to her :
"Goddess, needs must a man observe the saying of you
twain, even though he be very wroth at heart ; for so is the
better way. ^Vhosoever obeyeth the gods, to him they
gladly hearken."

He said, and stayed his heavy hand on the silver hilt,
and thmst the great sword back into the sheath, and was not
disobedient to the saying of Athene ; and she forthwith was
departed to Olympus, to the other gods in the palace of
aegis-bearing Zeus.

Then Peleus' son spake again with bitter words to
Atreus' son, and in no wise ceased from anger: "Thou
heavy with wine, thou with face of dog and heart of deer,
never didst thou take courage to arm for battle among thy
folk or to lay ambush with the princes of the Achaians ;
that to thee were even as death. Far better booteth it, for-
sooth, to seize for thyself the meed of honour of every man
through the wide host of the Achaians that speaketh con-
trary to thee. Folk-devouring king ! seeing thou rulest men
of naught ; else were this despite, thou son of Atreus, thy
last. But I will speak my word to thee, and swear a mighty
oath therewith : verily by this staff that shall no more put
forth leaf or twig, seeing it hath for ever left its trunk among
the hills, neither shall it grow green again, because the axe
hath stripped it of leaves and bark ; and now the sons of
the Achaians that exercise judgment bear it in their hands,
even they that by Zeus' command watch over the traditions
— so shall this be a mighty oath in thine eyes — verily shall
longing for Achilles come hereafter upon the sons of the
Achaians one and all j and then wilt thou in no wise avail
to save them, for all thy grief, when multitudes fall dying



ILIAD I, 243-275 9

before manslaying Hector, Then shalt thou tear thy heart
within thee for anger that thou didst in no wise honour the
best of the Achaians."

So said Feleides and dashed to earth the staff studded
with golden nails, and himself sat down ; and over against
him Atreides waxed furious. Then in their midst rose up
Nestor, pleasant of speech, the clear-voiced orator of the
Pylians, he from whose tongue flowed discourse sweeter than
honey. Two generations of mortal men already had he seen
perish, that had been of old time bom and nurtured with
him in goodly Pylos, and he was king among the third He
of good intent made harangue to them and said : " Alas, of
a truth sore lamentation cometh upon the land of Achaia,
Verily Priam would be glad and Priam's sons, and all the
Trojans would have great joy of heart, were they to hear
all this tale of strife between you twain that are chiefest
of the Danaans in counsel and chiefest in battle. Nay,
hearken to me ; ye are younger both than I. Of old days
held I converse with better men even than you, and never
did they make light of me. Yea, I never beheld such
warriors, nor shall behold, as were Peirithoos and Dryas
shepherd of the host and Kaineus and Exadios and godlike
Polyphemos [and Theseus sonof Aigeus, like to the immortals].
Mightiest of growth were they of all men upon the earth ;
mightiest they were and with the mightiest fought they,
even the wild tribes of the mountain caves, and destroyed
them utterly. And with these held I converse, being come
from Pylos, from a distant land afar ; for of themselves they
summoned me. So I played my part in fight; and with
them could none of men tliat are now on earth do battle.
And they laid to heart my counsels and hearkened to my
voice. Even so hearken ye also, for better is it to hearken.
Neither do thou, though thou art very great, seize from him



lo ILIAD I, 275-306

his damsel, but leave her as she was given at the first by the
sons of the Achaians to be a meed of honour ; nor do thou,
son of Peleus, think to strive with a king, might against might j
seeing that no common honour pertaineth to a sceptred
king to whom Zeus apportioneth glory. Though thou be
strong, and a goddess mother bare thee, yet his is the
greater place, for he is king over more. And thou, Atreides,
abate thy fury ; nay, it is even I that beseech thee to let go
thine anger with Achilles, who is made unto all the Achaians
a mighty bulwark of evil war."

Then lord Agamemnon answered and said : " Yea
verily, old man, all this thou sayest is according unto right.
But this fellow would be above all others, he would be lord
of all and king among all and captain to all ; wherein I deem
none will hearken to him. Though the immortal gods made
him a spearman, do they therefore put revilings in his mouth
for him to utter?"

Then goodly Achilles brake in on him and answered :
" Yea, for I should be called coward and man of naught, if
I yield to thee in every matter, howsoe'er thou bid. To
others give now thine orders, not to me [play master; for
thee I deem that I shall no more obey]. This, more-
over, will I say to thee, and do thou lay it to thy heart
Know that not by violence will I strive for the damsel's
sake, neither with thee nor any other ; ye gave and ye
have taken away. But of all else that is mine beside my
fleet black ship, thereof shalt thou not take anything or
bear it away against my will. Yea, go to now, make trial,
that all these may see ; forthwith thy dark blood shall gush
about my spear."

Now when the twain had thus finished the battle of
violent words, they stood up and dissolved the assembly
beside the Achaian ships. Peleides went his way to his huts



ILIAD T, 306-339 II

and trim ships with Menoitios' son^ and his company; and
Atreides launched a fleet ship on the sea, and picked twenty
oarsmen therefor, and embarked the hecatomb for the god,
and brought Chryseis of the fair cheeks and set her therein ;
and Odysseus of many devices went to be their captain.

So these embarked and sailed over the wet ways ; and
Atreides bade the folk purify themselves. So they purified
themselves, and cast the defilements into the sea and did
sacrifice to Apollo, even unblemished hecatombs of bulls and
goats, along the shore of the unvintaged sea ; and the sweet
savour arose to heaven eddying amid the smoke.

Thus were they busied throughout the host ; but Aga-
memnon ceased not from the strife wherewith he threatened
Achilles at the first ; he spake to Talthybios and Eurybates
that were his heralds and nimble squires : " Go ye to the
tent of Achilles Peleus' son, and take Briseis of the fair
cheeks by the hand and lead her hither ; and if he give her
not, then will I myself go, and more with me, and seize her ;
and that will be yet more grievous for him."

So saying he sent them forth, and laid stern charge upon
them. Unwillingly went they along the beach of the un-
vintaged sea, and came to the huts and ships of the Myr-
midons, Him found they sitting beside his hut and black
ship ; nor when he saw them was Achilles glad. So they in
dread and reverence of the king stood, and spake to him no
word, nor questioned him. But he knew in his heart, and
spake to them : " All hail, ye heralds, messengers of Zeus
and men, come near; ye are not guilty in my sight, but
Agamemnon that sent you for the sake of the damsel Briseis.
Go now, heaven-sprung Patroklos, bring forth the damsel,
and give them her to lead away. Moreover, let the twain
themselves be my witnesses before the face of the blessed

> Patroklos.



12 ILIAD I, 339-367

gods and mortal men, yea and of him, that king untoward,
against the day when there cometh need of me hereafter to
save them all from shameful wrecL Of a truth he raveth
with baleful mind, and hath not knowledge to look before
and after, that so his Achaians might battle in safety beside
their ships."

So said he, and Patroklos hearkened to his dear com-
rade, and led forth from the hut Briseis of the fair cheeks,



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