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VOL. I. R.



And skill ; and with the spear, of all the Greeks 325

None is thine equal ; cease we for to-day

The fight ; hereafter we may meet, and Heav'n

Decide our cause, and one with vict'ry crown.

Night is at hand ; behoves us yield to night.

So by the ships shalt thou rejoice the Greeks, 330

And most of all, thy comrades and thy friends ;

And so shall I, in Priam's royal town,

Rejoice the men of Troy, and long-rob'd dames,

"Who shall with grateful pray'rs the temples throng.

But make we now an interchange of gifts, 335

That both the Trojans and the Greeks may say,

' On mortal quarrel did those warriors meet,

Yet parted thence in friendly bonds conjoin'd.' "

This said, a silver-studded sword he gave,
"With scabbard and with well-cut belt complete ; 340
Ajax a girdle, rich with crimson dye.
They parted ; Ajax to the Grecian camp,
And Hector to the ranks of Troy return'd :
Great was the joy when him they saw approach,
Alive and safe ; escap'd from Ajax' might 345

And arm invincible ; and tow'rd the town

cook VII. HOMEE'S ILIAD. 243

They led liim back, beyond their hope preserv'd ;
"While to Atrides' tent the well-greav'd Greeks
Led Ajax, glorying in his triumph gain'd.

But when to Agamemnon's tents they came, 350
The King of men to Saturn's royal son
A bullock slew, a male of five years old ;
The carcase then they flay'd ; and cutting up,
Sever'd the joints ; then fixing on the spits,
Roasted with care, and from the fire withdrew. 355
Their labours ended, and the feast prepar'd,
They shar'd the social meal, nor lack'd there aught.
To Ajax then the chine's continuous length,
As honour's meed, the mighty monarch gave.
The rage of thirst and hunger satisfied, 360

The aged Nestor first his mind disclos'd ;
He who, before, the sagest counsel gave,
Now thus with prudent speech began, and said :
" Atrides, and ye other chiefs of Greece,
Since many a long-hair'd Greek hatlt fall'n in fight, 365
Whose blood, beside Scamander's flowing stream,
Fierce Mars has shed, while to the viewless shades
Their spirits are gone, behoves thee with the morn


The warfare of the Gree.:- : intermit :

Tlien we, with oxen and with mules, the dead 370

From all the plain will draw ; and. from the ships

A little space reniov'd, will burn with fire :

That we. returning to our native

11 .y to their children bear our comrades^ bor.

T^en will we go, and on the plain ere

und the pyre one common mound for all ;
Then quickly build before it lofty tow'rs
To screen both ships and men ; and in the to -
Alake ample portals, with well-fitting gates,

at through the midst a carriage-way may p. - : 380
i a deep trench around it dig. to guard
I a men and chariots, lest on our defence
e haughty Trojans should too hardly press."
He said ; and all the Kings his words approv'
Meanwhile, on Hiunrs height, at Priam's gat . 385
1 he Trojan chiefs a troubled council held ;
v . ..Ich op'ning, thus the sage Antenor spoke:
"' Hear no" . ye T. >jans, Darian;. and Allies,
The words I speak, the promptings of my soul.
Back to the sons of Atrena let us sire 390


The Argive Helen, and the goods she brought ;

For now in breach of plighted faith we tight ;

Hot can I hope, unless to my advice

Ye listen, that success will crown our arms."

Thus having said, he sat : and next arose 393

The godlike Paris, fair-kair'd Helen's Lord :

"Who thus with winged words the chiefs address'd :

" Hostile to me. Antenor, is thy speech ;

Thy better judgment better counsel knows ;

But if in earnest such is thine advice. 400

Thee of thv senses have the Gods bereft.

Now, Trojans, hear my answer; I reject

The counsel, nor the woman will restore ;

But for the ffoods, whate'er I hither brought

To Troy from Argos, I am well content 405

To give them all, and others add beside."

This said, he sat ; and aged Priam next,
A God in council, Dardan's son, arose.
Who thus with prudent, speech began, and said :

" Hear now, ye Trojans, Dardans, and Allies, 410
The words I speak, the promptings of my soul :
Now through the citv take your wonted meal ;


Look to your watch, let each man keep his guard :

To-morrow shall Idseus to the ships

Of Greece, to both the sons of Atreus, bear 415

The words of Paris, cause of all this war ;

And ask besides, if from the deadly strife

Such truce they will accord us as may serve

To burn the dead ; hereafter we may fight

Till Heav'n decide, and one with vict'ry crown." 42C

He said ; and they, obedient to his word,
Throughout the ranks prepar'd the wonted meal :
But with the morning to the ships of Greece
Idseus took his way : in council there
By Agamemnon's leading ship he found 425

The Grecian chiefs, the ministers of Mars :
And 'mid them all the clear-voic'd herald spoke :

" Ye sons of Atreus, and ye chiefs of Greece,
From Priam, and the gallant sons of Troy,
I come, to bear, if ye be pleas'd to hear, 430

The words of Paris, cause of all this war :
The goods which hither in his hollow ships
(Would he had perish'd rather !) Paris brought,
He will restore, and others add beside ;


But further says, the virgin-wedded wife 435

Of Meneliius, though the gen'ral voice

Of Troy should bid him, he will not restore :

Then bids me ask, if from the deadly strife

Such truce ye will accord us as may serve

To burn the dead : hereafter we may fight 440

Till ITeav'n decide, and one with vict'ry crown."

Thus he : they all in silence heard ; at length
Uprose the valiant Diomed, and said ;
" Let none from Paris now propose to accept
Or goods, or Helen's self ; a child may see 445

That now the doom of Troy is close at hand."
He said ; the sons of Greece, with loud applause,
The speech of valiant Diomed confirm'd.

Then to Idaeus Agamemnon thus :
"Idseus, thou hast heard what answer give 450

The chiefs of Greece — their answer I approve.
But for the truce, for burial of the dead,
I nought demur ; no shame it is to grace
With fun'ral rites the corpse of slaughter'd foes.
Be witness, Jove ! and guard the plighted truce." 455

He said : and heav'nward rais'd his staff ; and back


To Ilium's walls Idaeus took his way.

Trojans and Dardans there in council met

Expecting sat, till from the Grecian camp

Idauis should return ; he came, and stood 460

In mid assembly, and his message gave :

Then all in haste their sev'ral ways dispers'd,

For fuel some, and some to bring the dead.

The Greeks too from their well-mann'd ships went forth

For fuel some, and some to bring the dead. 465

The sun was newly glancing on the earth.

From out the ocean's smoothly-flowing depths

Climbing the Heav'ns, when on the plain they met.

Hard was it then to recognize the dead ;

But when the gory dust was wash'd away, 470

Shedding hot tears, they plac'd them on the wains.

ISTor loud lament, by Priam's high command,

"Was heard ; in silence they, with grief suppress'd,

Heap'd up their dead upon the fun'ral pyre ;

Then burnt with fire, and back return'd to Troy. 475

The well-greav'd Greeks, they too, with grief suppress'd,

Heap'd up their dead upon the fun'ral pyre ;

Then burnt with fire, and to the ships return'd.


But ere 'twas morn, while daylight strove with night,
About the pyre a chosen band of Greeks 480

Had kept their vigil, and around it rais'd
Upon the plain one common mound for all ;
And built in front a wall, with lofty tow'rs
To screen both ships and men ; and in the tow'rs
Made ample portals with well-fitting gates, 485

That through the midst a carriage-way might pass :
Then dug a trench around it, deep and wide,
And in the trench a palisade they fix'd«

Thus labour'dthro' the night the long-hair'd Greeks :
The Gods, assembled in the courts of Jove, 490

With wonder view'd the mighty work ; and thus
Neptune, Earth-shaking King, his speech began :
" O Father Jove, in all the wide-spread earth
Shall men be found, in counsel and design
To rival us Immortals ? see'st thou not 495

How round their ships the long-hair'd Greeks have built
A lofty wall, and dug a trench around,
Nor to the Gods have paid their off 'rings due !
Wide as the light extends shall be the fame
Of this great work, and men shall lightly deem 500


Of that which I and Phoebus jointly rais'd,
"With toil and pain, for great Laomedon."

To whom in wrath the Cloud-compeller thus :
" Neptune, Earth-shaking King, what words are these ?
This bold design to others of the Gods, 505

Of feebler hands, and pow'r less great than thine,
Might cause alarm ; but, far as light extends,
Of this great work to thee shall be the fame :
When with their ships the long-hair'd Greeks shall take
Their homeward voyage to their native land, 510
This wall shall by the waves be broken through,
And sink, a shapeless ruin, in the sea :
O'er the wide shore again thy sands shall spread,
And all the boasted work of Greece o'erwhelm."

Amid themselves such converse held the Gods. 515
The sun was set ; the Grecian work was done ;
They slew, and shar'd, by tents, the ev'ning meal.
Erom Lemnos' isle a num'rous fleet had come
Freighted with wine ; and by Euneus sent,
Whom fair Hypsipyle to Jason bore. 520

For Atreus' sons, apart from all the rest,
Of wine, the son of Jason had despatch'd


A thousand measures ; all the other Greeks
Hasten'd to purchase, some with brass, and some
With gleaming iron ; other some with hides, 525
Cattle, or slaves ; and joyous wax'd the feast.
All night the long-hair'd Greeks their revels held,
And so in Troy, the Trojans and Allies :
But through the night his anger Jove express'd
With awful thunderings ; pale they turn'd with fear :
To earth the wine was from the goblets shed, 531
Nor dar'd they drink, until libations due
Had first been pour'd to Saturn's mighty son.

Then lay they down, and sought the boon of sleep.



Jupiter assembles a council of the deities, and threatens them -with
the pains of Tartarus, if they assist either side : Minerva only
obtains of him that she may direct the Greeks by her counsels.
The armies join battle ; Jupiter on Mount Ida weighs in his bal-
ances the fates of both, and affrights the Greeks with his thunders
and lightnings. Nestor alone continues in the field in great dan-
ger ; Diomed relieves him ; whose exploits, and those of Hector,
are excellently described. Juno endeavours to animate Neptune
to the assistance of the Greeks, but in vain. The acts of Teucer,
who is at length wounded by Hector, and carried off. Juno and
Minerva prepare to aid the Grecians, but are restrained by Iria,
sent from Jupiter. The night puts an end to the battle. Hector
continues in the field, (the Greeks being driven to their fortifica-
tions before the ships,) and gives orders to keep the watch all
night in the camp, to prevent the enemy from re-embarking and
escaping by flight. They kindle fires through all the field, and
pass the night under arms.

The time of seven-and-twenty days is employed from the opening
of the poem to the end of this book. The scene hure (except of
the celestial machines) lies in the field toward the sea-shore.



]VTOW morn, in saffron robe, the earth o'erspread ;

■^ And Jove, the lightning's Lord, of all the Goda

A council held upon the highest peak

Of many-ridg'd Olympus ; he himself

Address'd them ; they his speech attentive heard. 5

" Hear, all ye Gods, and all ye Goddesses,
The words I speak, the promptings of my soul.
Let none among you, male or female, dare
To thwart my counsels : rather all concur,
That so these matters I may soon conclude. 10

If, from the rest apart, one God I find
Presuming or to Trojans or to Greeks
To give his aid, with ignominious stripes
Back to Olympus shall that God be driv'n ;
' Or to the gloom of Tartarus profound, 15

Far off, the lowest abyss beneath the earth,


With, gates of iron, and with, floor of brass,

Beneath the shades as far as earth from Heav'n,

There will I hurl him, and ye all shall know

In strength how greatly I surpass you all. 20

Make trial if ye will, that all may know.

A golden cord let down from Heav'n, and all,

Both Gods and Goddesses, your strength apply :

Yet would ye fail to drag from Heav'n to earth,

Strive as ye may, your mighty master, Jove ; 25

But if I choose to make my pow'r be known,

The earth itself, and ocean, I could raise,

And binding round Olympus' ridge the cord,

Leave them suspended so in middle air :

So far supreme my pow'r o'er Gods and men." 30

He said, and they, confounded by his words,
In silence sat ; so sternly did he speak.
At length the blue-ey'd Goddess, Pallas, said :
" O Father, Son of Saturn, King of Kings,
"Well do we know thy pow'r invincible ; 35

Yet deeply grieve we for the warlike Greeks,
Condemn'd to hopeless ruin ; from the fight,
Since such is thy command, we stand aloof;


But yet some saving counsel may we give,

Lest in thine anger thou destroy them quite." 40

To whom the Cloud-compeller, smiling, thus :
" Be of good cheer, my child; unwillingly
I speak, yet will not thwart thee of thy wish."

He said, and straight the brazen-footed steeds,

Of swiftest flight, with manes of flowing gold, 45

He harness'd to his chariot ; all in gold

Himself array'd, the golden lash he grasp'd,

Of curious work ; and mounting on his car,

Urg'd the fleet coursers ; nothing loth, they flew

Midway betwixt the earth and starry heav'n. 50

To Ida's spring-abounding hill he came,

And to the crest of Gargarus, wild nurse

Of mountain beasts ; a sacred plot was there,

"Whereon his incense-honour'd altar stood :

There stay'd his steeds the Sire of Gods and men, 55

Loos'd from the car, and veil'd with clouds around.

Then on the topmost ridge he sat, in pride

Of conscious strength ; and looking down, survey'd

The Trojan city, and the ships of Greece. 59

Meantime, the Greeks throughout their tents in haste
vol. i. s


Despatch'd their meal, and arm'd them for the fight ;

On tli' other side the Trojans donn'd their arms,

In numbers fewer, but with stern resolve,

By hard necessity constrain'd, to strive,

For wives and children, in the stubborn fight. 65

The gates all open'd wide, forth pour'd the crowd •

Of horse and foot ; and loud the clamour rose.

"When in the midst they met, together rush'd

Bucklers and lances, and the furious might

Of mail-clad warriors ; bossy shield on shield 70

Clatter'd in conflict ; loud the clamour rose :

Then rose too mingled shouts and groans of men

Slaying and slain ; the earth ran red with blood.

While yet 'twas morn, and wax'd the youthful day,

Thick flew the shafts, and fast the people fell 75

On either side ; but when the sun had reach'd

The middle Heav'n, th' Eternal Father hung

His golden scales aloft, and plac'd in each

The fatal death-lot : for the sons of Troy

The one, the other for the brass-clad Greeks ; 80

Then held them by the midst ; down sank the lot

Of Greece, down to the ground, while high aloft


Mounted the Trojan scale, and rose to Heav'n.*
Then loud he bade the volleying thunder peal
From Ida's heights ; and 'mid the Grecian ranks 85
He hurl'd his flashing lightning ; at the sight
Amaz'd they stood, and pale with terror shook.

Then not Idomeneus, nor Atreus' son,
The mighty Agamemnon, kept their ground,
Nor either Ajax, ministers of Mars ; 90

Gerenian Nestor, aged prop of Greece,
Alone remain'd, and he against his will,
His horse sore wounded by an arrow shot
By godlike Paris, fair-hair'd Helen's Lord :
Just on the crown, where close behind the head 95
First springs the mane, the deadliest spot of all,
The arrow struck him ; madden'd with the pain
He rear'd, then plunging forward, with the shaft
Fix'd in his brain, and rolling in the dust,
The other steeds in dire confusion threw ; 100

* See also Book xxii. 1. 252.

Milton, in the corresponding passage at the close of the 4th Book
of ' Paradise Lost,' reverses the sign, and represents the scale of the
vanquished as " flying up " and " kicking the beam."

" The Fiend look'd up, and knew
His mounted scale aloft ; nor more, but fled
Murm'ring, and -with him fled the shades of night"


And while old JSTestor with his sword essay'd

To cut the reins, and free the struggling horse,

Amid the rout down came the flying steeds

Of Hector, guided by no timid hand,

By Hector's self; then had the old man paid 105

The forfeit of his life, but, good at need,

The valiant Diomed his peril saw,

And loudly shouting, on Ulysses call'd :

" Ulysses sage, Laertes' godlike son,

Why fliest thou, coward-like, amid the throng, 1 10

And in thy flight to the aim of hostile spears

Thy back presenting ? stay, and here with me

From this fierce warrior guard the good old man."

He said ; but stout Ulysses heard him not,
And to the ships pursued his hurried way. 115

But in the front, Tydides, though alone,
Remain'd undaunted ; by old Nestor's car
He stood, and thus the aged chief address'd :
" Old man, these youthful warriors press thee sore,
Thy vigour spent, and with the weight of years 120
Oppress'd ; and helpless too thy charioteer,


And slow thy horses ; mount my car, and prove

How swift my steeds, or in pursuit or flight,

From those of Tros descended,' scour the plain;

My noble prize from great ^Eneas won. 125

Leave to th' attendants these ; while mine we launch

Against the Trojan host, that Hector's self

May know how strong my hand can hurl the spear."

He said ; and Nestor his advice obey'd :
The two attendants, valiant Sthenelus, 130

And good Eurymedon, his horses took,
"While on Tydides' car they mounted both.
The aged Nestor took the glitt'ring reins,
And urg'd the horses ; Hector soon they met :
As on he came, his spear Tydides threw, 135

Yet struck not Hector ; but his charioteer,
Who held the reins, the brave Thebseus' son,
Eniopeus, through the breast transfix'd,
Beside the nipple ; from the car he fell,
The startled horses swerving at the sound ; 110

And from his limbs the vital spirit fled.
Deep, for his comrade slain, was Hector's grief ;
Yet him, though griev'd, perforce he left to seek


A charioteer ; nor wanted long his steeds

A guiding hand ; for Archeptolemus, 145

Brave son of Iphitus, he quickly found,

And bade him mount his swiftly-flying car,

And to his hands the glitt'ring reins transferr'd.

Then fearful ruin had been wrought, and deeds
Untold achiev'd, and like a flock of lambs, 150

The adverse hosts been coop'd beneath the walls,
Had not the Sire of Gods and men beheld,
And with an awful peal of thunder hurl'd
His vivid lightning down ; the fiery bolt
Before Tydides' chariot plough"d the ground. 155

Fierce flash'd the sulph'rous flame, and whirling round
Beneath the yoke th' affrighted horses quailed.

From Nestor's hand escap'd the glitt'ring reins,
And, trembling, thus to Diomed he spoke :

" Turn we to flight, Tydides ; see'st thou not, 160
That Jove from us his aiding hand withholds ?
This day to Hector Saturn's son decrees
The meed of vict'ry ; on some future day,
If so he will, the triumph may be ours ;
For man, how brave soe'er, cannot o'errule 165


The will of Jove, so much the mightier he."
"Whom answer'd thus the valiant Diomed :
" Truly, old man, and wisely dost thou speak ;
But this the bitter grief that wrings my soul :
Some day, amid the councillors of Troy 170

Hector may say, ' Before my presence scar'd
Tydides sought the shelter of the ships.'
Thus when he boasts, gape earth, and hide my shame !"

To whom Gerenian Nestor thus replied :
" Great son of Tydeus, oh what words are these ! 175
Should Hector brand thee with a coward's name,
No credence would he gain from Trojan men,
Or Dardan, or from Trojan warriors' wives,
Whose husbands in the dust thy hand hath laid."

He said, and 'mid the general rout, to flight 180
He turn'd his horses ; on the flying crowd,
"With shouts of triumph, Hector at their head,
The men of Troy their murd'rous weapons show'r'd.
Loud shouted Hector of the glancing helm :
" Tydides, heretofore the warrior Greeks 185

Have held thee in much honour ; plac'd on high
At banquets, and with lib'ral portions grac'd,


And flowing cups : but thou, from this day forth,

Shalt he their scorn ! a woman's soul is thine !

Out on thee, frighten'd girl ! thou ne'er shalt scale i90

Our Trojan tow'rs, and see me basely fly;

Nor in thy ships our women bear away :

Ere such thy boast, my hand shall work thy doom."

Thus he ; and greatly was Tydides mov'd
To turn his horses, and confront his foe : 195

Thrice thus he doubted ; thrice, at Jove's command,
From Ida's height the thunder peal'd, in sign
Of vict'ry swaying to the Trojan side.
Then to the Trojans Hector call'd aloud :
" Trojans, and Lycians, and ye Dardans, fam'd 2C0
In close encounter, quit ye now like men ;
Put forth your wonted valour ; for I know
That in his secret counsels Jove designs
Glory to me, disaster to the Greeks.
Eools, in those wretched walls that put their trust,
Scarce worthy notice, hopeless to withstand 206

My onset ; and the trench that they have dug,
Our horses easily can overleap ;
And when I reach the ships, be mindful ye,


To have at hand the fire, wherewith the ships 210
We may destroy, while they themselves shall fall
An easy prey, bewilder' d by the smoke."

He said, and thus with cheering words address'd
His horses : " Xanthus, and, Podargus, thou,
^Ethon and Lampus, now repay the care 215

On you bestow'd by fair Andromache,
Eetion's royal daughter ; bear in mind
How she with ample store of provender
Your mangers still supplied, before e'en I,
Her husband, from her hands the wine-cup took. 220
Put forth your speed, that we may make our prize
Of Nestor's shield, whose praise extends to Heav'n,
Its handles, and itself, of solid gold ;
And from the shoulders of Tydides strip
His gorgeous breastplate, work of Vulcan's hand :
These could we take, methinks this very night 226
"Would see the Greeks embarking on their ships."

Such was his pray'r ; but Juno on her throne
Trembled with rage, till great Olympus quak'd,
And thus to Neptune, mighty God, she spoke : 230
" O thou of boundless might, Earth-shaking God,


See'st thou immov'd tlie ruin of the Greeks ?

Yet they in ^Egoe and in Helice,

With grateful off 'rings rich thine altars crown ;

Then give we them the vict'ry ; if we all 235

Who favour Greece, together should combine

To put to flight the Trojans, and restrain

All-seeing Jove, he might be left alone,

On Ida's summit to digest his wrath."

To whom, in anger, Neptune thus replied : 240
" O Juno, rash of speech, what words are these !
I dare not counsel that we all should join
'Gainst Saturn's son ; so much the stronger he."

Such converse held they ; all the space meanwhile
Within the trench, between the tow'r and ships, 245
Was closely throng'd with steeds and buckler'd men ;
By noble Hector, brave as Mars, and led
By Jove to vict'ry, coop'd in narrow space ;
Who now had burnt with fire the Grecian ships,
But Juno bade Atrides haste to rouse 250

Their fainting courage ; through the camp he pass'd ;
On his broad hand a purple robe he bore,
And stood upon Ulysses' lofty ship,


The midmost, whence to shout to either side,
Or to the tents of Ajax Telamon, 255

Or of Achilles, who at each extreme,
Confiding in their strength, had moor'd their ships.
Thence to the Greeks he shouted, loud and clear :
" Shame on ye, Greeks, base cowards, brave alone
In outward semblance ! where are now the vaunts 2G0
Which once (so highly of ourselves we deem'd)
Ye made, vain-glorious braggarts as ye were,
In Lemnos' isle, when, feasting on the flesh
Of straight-horn'd oxen, and your flowing cups
Crowning with ruddy wine, not one of you, 2G5

But for a hundred Trojans in the field,
Or for two hundred, deem'd himself a match :
Now quail ye all before a single man,
Hector, who soon will wrap our ships in fire.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 13 14 15 16 17 18

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