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Through the deep dead of night, like lions twain, 335
'Mid slaughter, corpses, arms, and blacken'd gore.

~Nor, in the Trojan camp, did Hector leave
The chiefs to rest ; but all to conf 'rence call'd,
The leaders and the councillors of Troy ;
To whom his prudent speech he thus acldress'd : 340
" Who is there here, that for a rich reward
A noble work will undertake ? A car
And two strong-collar'd horses, best of all
That can be found within the Grecian lines,
Shall he receive, who, to his endless praise, 345
Shall dare approach the ships ; and learn if still
They keep their wonted watch, or, by our arms



BookX. HOMER'S ILIAD. 343

Subdued and vanquish'd, meditate retreat,

And, worn with toil, the nightly watch neglect."

Thus Hector spoke ; but all in silence heard. 350

There was one Dolon in the Trojan camp.
The herald's son, Eumedes ; rich in gold
And brass ; not fair of face, but swift of foot ;
Amid five sisters he the only son ;
Who thus to Hector and the Trojans spoke : 355

" Hector, with dauntless courage I will dare
Approach the ships, and bring thee tidings sure ;
But hold thou forth thy royal staff, and swear
That I the horses and the brass-bound car
Shall have, the boast of Peleus' matchless son : 360
Not vain shall be my errand, nor deceive
Thy hopes ; right through the camp I mean to pass
To Agamemnon's tent, where all the chiefs
Debate in council, or to fight or fly."

He said ; and Hector took his royal staff", 3G5

And swore to him : " Be witness Jove himself,
The Lord of thunder, that no Trojan man,
Thyself except, shall e'er those horses drive ;
For thee they are reserv'd, a glorious prize."



3U HOMEE'S ILIAD. Book X,

Thus Hector swore ; though unfulnll'd the oath,
The hope to Dolon fresh assurance gave. 371

Forthwith, his bow across his shoulders slung,
A grisly wolf-skin o'er it, on his head
A cap of marten's fur, and in his hand
A jav'lin, from the camp he took his way, 375

Straight to the Grecian ships ; but never thence
Destin'd to bring th' expected tidings back.
The crowd of men and horses left behind,
Briskly he mov'd along ; Ulysses first
Mark'd his approach, and to Tydides said : 380

" See, from the camp where some one this way comes,
With what intent I know not ; if to play
The spy about the ships, or rob the dead.
Turn we aside, and let him pass us by
A little way ; we then with sudden rush 385

May seize him ; or if he outstrip us both
By speed of foot, may urge him tow'rd the ships,
Driving liim still before us with our spears,
And from the city cutting off his flight."
Thus saying, 'mid the dead, beside the road 390

They crouch'd ; he, all unconscious, hasten'd by.



Book X. HOMER'S ILIAD. 345

But when such space was interpos'd as leave

Between the sluggish oxen and themselves*

A team of mules (so much the faster they

Through the stiff fallow drag the jointed plough), 395

They rush'd upon him ; at the sound he stopp'd,

Deeming that from the Trojan camp they came,

By Hector sent, to order his return.

Within a spear's length when they came, or less,

For foes he knew them, and to flight address'd 400

His active limbs ; they rush'd in hot pursuit.

And as two hounds, well practis'd in the chase,

With srlist'nino- fana;s, unfla^srinGr, strain to catch,

Iii woodland glade, some pricket deer, or hare,

That flies before them, screaming; so those two, 405

Tydides and Ulysses, stout of heart,

"With fiery zeal, unflagging, strain'd to catch

The flying Dolon, from the camp cut off;

But when the fugitive approach'd the ships,

Close by the guard, fresh vigour Pallas gave 410



* This comparison does not afford a very accurate criterion of the
" space interposed ;" which cannot be estimated without knowing the
total distance within which the faster was to outstrip the slower team.



346 HOMER'S ILIAD. Book X

To Diomed, lest haply from the walls
Some other might anticipate his blow,
And he himself but second honours gain.
Tydides then with threat'ning gesture cried,
" Stop, or I hurl my spear; and small thy chance, 415
If I assail thee, of escape from death."
He said, and threw his spear ; but by design
It struck him not ; above his shoulder ilew
The polish'd lance, and quiver'd in the ground.
Sudden he stopp'd, with panic paralys'd : 420

His teeth all chatt'ring, pale with fear he stood,
With falt'ring accents ; panting, they came up
And seiz'd him in their grasp ; he thus, in tears :
" Spare but my life ; my life I can redeem ;
For ample stores I have of gold, and brass, 425

And well- wrought iron ; and of these my sire
Would pay a gen'rous ransom, could he learn
That in the Grecian ships I yet surviv'd."
To whom Ulysses, deep-designing, thus :
" Be of good cheer; nor let the fear of death 430
Disturb thy mind ; but tell me truly this ;
How is 't that tow'rcl the ships thou com'st alone,



BookX. HOMEK'S ILIAD. 347

In the still night, when other mortals sleep ?
Com'st thou perchance for plunder of the dead ?
Or seek'st upon our ships to play the spy, 435

By Hector sent ? or of thine own accord ?"

Then Dolon thus — his knees with terror shook —
" With much persuasion, of my better mind
Hector beguil'd me, off 'ring as my prize
Achilles' horses and his brass-bound car ; 440

Through the dark night he sent me, and enjoin'd,
Ent'ring your hostile camp, to learn if still
Te keep your wonted watch, or by our arms
Subdued and vanquished, meditate retreat,
And worn with toil, your nightly watch neglect." 445

To whom Ulysses thus with scornful smile :
" High soar'd thy hopes indeed, that thought to win
The horses of Achilles ; hard are they
For mortal man to harness or control,
Save for Achilles' self, the Goddess-born. 450

But tell me truly this ; when here thou cam'st,
Where left'st thou Hector, guardian chief of Troy ?
Where are his warlike arms ? his horses where ?
Where lie the rest ? and where are plac'd their guards?



348 HOMEK'S ILIAD. Book X

What are their secret counsels ? do they mean 455
Here by the ships to keep their ground, or back,
Sated with vict'ry, to the town return ? "

Whom Dolon answer'd thus, Eumedes' son :
" Thy questions all true answers shall receive ;
Hector, with those who share his counsels, sits 460
In conf ' rence, far apart, near Ilus' tomb ;
But for the guards thou speak'st of, noble chief,
Not one is station'd to protect the camp.
Around the Trojan fires indeed, perforce,
A watch is kept ; and they, among themselves, 465
Due caution exercise : but, for th' Allies,
They sleep, and to the Trojans leave the watch,
Since nor their children nor their wives are near."

To whom in answer sage Ulysses thus :
" Say now, where sleep they ? with the Trojans mix'd,
Or separate ? explain, that I may know." 471

Whom answer'd Dolon thus, Eumedes' son :
" To this too will I give ye answer true ;
Next to the sea the Carian forces lie ;
The Paeon archers and the Leleges, 475

The Caucons,and the bold Pelasgians next ;



J3ookX. HOMER'S ILIAD. 349

On Thyrubra's side the Lycians' lot has fall'n,

The Mysians brave, the Phrygian cavalry,

And the Maeonians with their horsehair plumes.

But why of these enquire ? if ye intend 480

An inroad on the camp, apart from all,

New come, the farthest off, the Thracians lie :

Rhesus their King, the son of Eioneus,

Sleeps in the midst ; no steeds that e'er I saw

For size and beauty can with his compare : 485

Whiter than snow, and swifter than the wind.

With gold and silver is his chariot wrought,

His armour golden, of gigantic size,

A marvel to behold ! it seems not meet

For mortal man, but for th' immortal Gods. 490

But take me now in safety to the ships ;

Or leave me here in fetters bound, that so,

Ere ye return, ye may approve my words,

And see if I have told you true, or no."

To whom thus Diomed with stern regard : 495

" Dolon, though good thy tidings, hope not thou,
Once in our hands, to 'scape the doom of death ;
For if we now should let thee go, again



350 HOMER'S ILIAD. Book X



*j



In after times thou mightst our ships approach,

As secret spy, or open enemy : 500

But if "beneath my hands thou lose thy life,

No farther trouble shalt thou cause the Greeks."

He said ; and as the suppliant sought in vain

To touch his beard, imploring, through his throat,

Both tendons sev'ring, drove his trenchant blade : 505

Ev'n while he spoke, his head was roll'd in dust.

The cap of marten fur from off his head

They took, the wolf-skin, and the bow unstrung,

And jav'lin ; these Ulysses held aloft,

And thus to Pallas pray'd, who gave the spoil : 510

" Receive, great Goddess, these our gifts ; to thee,

Of all th' Immortals on Olympus' height,

Our off 'rings first we give ; conduct us now,

The Thracian camp and Thracian steeds to gain."

Thus as he spoke, amid the tamarisk scrub 515
Far off he threw the trophies ; then with reeds,
And twigs new broken from the tamarisk boughs,
He set a mark, lest in the gloom of night
Returning, they might haply miss the spot.
Then on they pass'd thro' arms and blacken'd gore, 520



BookX. HOMER'S ILIAD. 351

And reach'd the confines of the Thracian camp.

There fonnd they all by sleep subdued ; their arms

Beside them on the ground, in order due,

In triple rows ; and by the side of each,

Harness'd and yok'd, his horses ready stood^ 525

Surrounded by his warriors, Rhesus slept ;

Beside him stood his coursers fleet, their reins

Suspended to the chariot's topmost rail :

Ulysses mark'd him as he lay, and said,

" This is the man, Tydides, these the steeds, 530

To us by Dolon, whom we slew, describ'd.

Now then, put forth thy might ; beseems it not

To stand thus idly with thine arms in hand :

Loose thou the horses ; or do thou the men

Despatch, and to my care the horses leave." 535

He said : and Pallas vigour new inspir'd,
That right and left he smote ; dire were the groans
Of slaughter'd men ; the earth was red with blood ;
And as a lion on th' untended flock
Of sheep or goats with savage onslaught springs, 540
Ev'n so Tydides on the Thracians sprang,
Till twelve were slain ; and as Tydides' sword



352 HOIEE'S ILIAD. Book X.

Gave each to death, Ulysses by the feet

Drew each aside ; reflecting, that perchance

The horses, startled, might refuse to pass 545

The corpses ; for as yet they knew them not.

But when Tydides saw the sleeping King,

A thirteenth victim to his sword was giv'n,

Painfully breathing ; for by Pallas' art,

He saw that night, as in an evil dream, 550

The son of (Eneus standing o'er his head.

Meanwhile Ulysses sage the horses loos'd ;

He gather' d up the reins, and with his bow

(For whip was none at hand) he drove them forth ;

Then softly whistling to Tydides gave 555

A signal ; he, the while, remain'd behind,

Musing what bolder deed he yet might do ;

Whether the seat, whereon the arms Avere laid,

To draw away, or, lifted high in air,

To bear it off in triumph on the car ; 560

Or on the Thracians farther loss inflict ;

But while he mus'd, beside him Pallas stood,

And said, " Bethink thee, Tydeus' son, betimes

Of thy return, lest, if some other God



BookX. HOMEK'S ILIAD. 353

Should wake the Trojans, thou sliouldst need to fly."
She said ; the heav'nly voice he recogniz'd, 566

And mounted straight the car ; Ulysses touch'd
The horses with his bow ; and, urg'd to speed,
They tow'rd the ships their rapid course pursued.

]S"or idle watch Apollo kept, who saw 570

Tydicles o'er the plain by Pallas led ;
With anger fill'd, the Trojan camp he sought ;
And Rhesus' kinsman, good Hippocoon,
The Thracian councillor, from sleep arous'd ;
Awaking, when the vacant space he view'd, 575

"Where late had stood the horses ; and his friends
Gasping in death, and welt'ring in their blood,
He groan'd as on his comrade's name he call'd :
Then loud the clamour rose, and wild uproar,
Unspeakable, of Trojans thronging round ; 580

They marvell'd at the deeds ; but marvell'd more
How they who wrought them had escap'd unscath'd.
Meantime arriv'd where Hector's scout they slew,
Ulysses, lov'd of Heav'n, a moment check'd
His eager steeds ; Tydides from the car 585

Leap'd to the ground, and in Ulysses' hand

VOL. I. y



354 HOMER'S ILIAD. Book X.

The bloody trophies plac'd ; then mounted quick,

And tow'rd the ships, their destin'd goal, urg'd on

The fiery horses ; nothing loth, they flew.

Nestor first heard the sound, and cried, " O friends,

The leaders and the councillors of Greece, 591

Am I deceiv'd, or is it true ? methinks

The sound of horses, hurrying, strikes mine ear ;

Grant Heav'n, Ulysses and brave Diomed

May bring those horses from the Trojan camp ; 505

Yet much I fear our bravest may have met

"With some disaster 'mid the crowd of foes."

He scarce had ended, when themselves appear'd,
And from the car descended : welcom'd back
With cordial grasp of hands, and friendly words. 600
Gerenian Nestor first, enquiring, said :
" Tell me, renown'd Ulysses, pride of Greece,
"Whence come these horses % from the Trojan camp %
Or hath some God, that met you by the way,
Bestow'd them, radiant as the beams of light \ 605
Among the Trojans day by day I move ;
'Tis not my wont ; old warrior though I be,
To lag behind ; but horses such as these



Book X. HOMER'S ILIAD. 355

I never saw ; some God hath giv'n them, sure ;

For Jove, the Cloud-compeller, loves you both, 610

And Pallas, child of aegis-bearing Jove."

To whom again the sage Ulysses thus :
" JSTestor, son of Neleus, pride of Greece,
Had they so will'd, the Gods, so great their pow'r,
E'en better horses could have giv'n than these ; 615
But these, old man, are Thracians, newly come ;
"Whose King the valiant Diomed hath slain,
And with him twelve, the best of all his band.
A scout too have we slain, by Hector sent,
And by the Trojan chiefs, to spy our camp." 620

He said, and o'er the ditch the horses drove,
Exulting in their prize ; and with him went
The other chiefs, rejoicing, through the camp.
Arriv'd at Diomed's well-order'd tent,
First with strong halters to the rack, where stood, 625
High-fed with corn, his own swift-footed steeds,
The horses they secur'd ; Ulysses then
The bloody spoils of Dolon stow'd away
In the ship's stern, till fitting sacrifice
To Pallas might be offer'd ; to the sea 630



356 HOMEE'S ILIAD. Book X.

Descending then, they wash'd away the sweat,
"Which on their necks, and thighs, and knees had dried :
The sweat wash'd off, and in the ocean waves
Themselves refresh'd, they sought the polish'd bath ;
Then, by the bath restor'd, and all their limbs 633
Anointed freely with the lissom oil,
Sat down to breakfast ; and from flowing bowls
In Pallas' honour pour'd the luscious wine. 638



ARGUMENT.

THE THIRD BATTLE, AND THE ACTS OF AGAMEMNON.

Agamemnon, Laving armed himself, leads the Grecians to battle
Hector prepares the Trojans to receive them ; while Jupiter, Juno,
and Minerva, give the signals of war. Agamemnon bears all be-
fore him ; and Hector is commanded by Jupiter (who sends Iris
for that purpose) to decline the engagement, till the king should
bo wounded, and retire from the field. He then makes a great
slaughter of the enemy ; Ulysses and Diomed put a stop to him
for a time ; but the latter, being wounded by Paris, is obliged to
desert his companion, who is encompassed by the Trojans,
wounded, and in the utmost danger, till Meneliius and Ajax res-
cue him. Hector comes against Ajax, but that hero alone opposes
multitudes and rallies the Greeks. In the meantime Machaon,
in the other wing of the army, is pierced with an arrow by Paris,
and carried from the fight in Nestor's chariot. Achilles (who
overlooked the action from his ship) sends Patroclus to inquire
which of the Greeks was wounded in that manner. Nestor enter-
tains , him in his tent with an account of the accidents of the
day, and a long recital of some former wars which he had remem-
bered, tending to put Patroclus upon persuading Achilles to fight
for his countrymen, or at least to permit him to do it clad in
Achilles' armour. Patroclus in his return meets Eurypylus also
wounded, and assists in that distress.

This book opens with the eight-and-twentieth day of the poem ;
and the same day, with its various actions and adventures, is
extended through the twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth,
sixteenth, seventeenth, and part of the eighteenth books. The
scene lies in the field near the monument of Ilus.



Book XL HOMER'S ILIAD. 359



BOOK XI.

"ATOW rose Aurora from Tithorras' bed,

To mortals and Immortals bringing light ;
When to the ships of Greece came Discord down,
Despatch'd from Jove, with dire portents of war.
Upon Ulysses' lofty ship she stood, 5

The midmost, thence to shout to either side,
Or to the tents of Ajax Telamon,
Or of Achilles, who at each extreme,
Confiding in their strength, had moor'd their ships.
There stood the Goddess, and in accents loud 10

And dread she call'd, and fix'd in ev'ry breast
The fierce resolve to wage unwearied war ;
And dearer to their hearts than thoughts of home
Or wish'd return, became the battle-field.

Atrides, loudly shouting, call'd the Greeks 15

To arms : himself his flashing armour donn'd.
First on his legs the well-wrought greaves he fix'd,



360 HOMEK'S ILIAD. Book XI

Fasten'd with, silver clasps ; his ample chest

A breastplate guarded, giv'n by Cinyras

In pledge of friendship ; for in Cyprus' isle 20

He heard the rumour of the glorious fleet

About to sail for Troy ; and sought with gifts

To win the favour of the mighty King.

Ten bands were there inwrought of dusky bronze,

Twelve of pure gold, twice ten of shining tin : 25

Of bronze six dragons upwards tow'rds the neck

Their length extended, three on either side :

In colour like the bow, which Saturn's son

Plac'd in the clouds, a sign to mortal men :

Then o'er his shoulder threw his sword ; bright flash'd

The golden studs ; the silver scabbard shone, 31

"With golden baldrick fitted ; next his shield

He took, full-siz'd, well- wrought, well-prov'd in fight ;

Around it ran ten circling rims of brass ;

"With twenty bosses round of burnish'd tin, 35

And, in the centre, one of dusky bronze.

A Gorgon's head, with aspect terrible,

Was wrought, with Fear and Flight encircled round :

Depending from a silver belt it hung ;



Book XL HOMER'S ILIAD. 361

And on the belt a dragon, wrought in bronze, 40
Twin'd his lithe folds, and turn'd on ev'ry side,
Sprung from a single neck, his triple head.
Then on his brow his lofty helm he plac'd,
Four-crested, double-peak'd, with 'horsehair plumes,
That nodded, fearful, from the warrior's head. 45
Then took two weighty lances, tipp'd with brass,
Which fiercely flash'd against the face of Iieav'n :
Pallas and Juno thund'ring from on high
In honour of Mycenae's wealthy lord.

Forthwith they order'd, each his charioteer, 50
To stay his car beside the ditch ; themselves,
On foot, in arms accoutred, sallied forth,
And loud, ere early dawn, the clamour rose.
Advanc'd before the cars, they lin'd the ditch ;
Follow'd the cars, a little space between : 55

But Jove with dire confusion fill'd their ranks,
Who sent from Heav'n a show'r of blood-stain'd rain,
In sign of many a warrior's coming doom,
Soon to the viewless shades untimely sent.
Meanwhile upon the slope, beneath the plain, 60

The Trojan chiefs were gather'd ; Hector's self,



362 HOMER'S ILIAD. Book XI.

Polydamas, ./Eneas, as a God

In rev'rence held ; Antenor's three brave sons,

Agenor's godlike presence, Polybus,

And, heav'nly fair, the youthful Acamas. 65

In front was seen the broad circumference

Of Hector's shield : and as amid the clouds

Shines forth the fiery dog-star, bright and clear,

Anon beneath the cloudy veil conceal'd ;

So now in front was Hector seen, and now 70

Pass'd to the rear, exhorting ; all in brass,

His burnish'd arms like Jove's own lightning flash'd.

As in the corn-land of some wealthy Lord
The rival bands of reapers mow the swathe,
Barley or wheat ; and fast the trusses fall ; 75

So Greeks and Trojans mow'd th' opposing ranks ;
Nor these admitted thought of faint retreat,
But still made even head ; while those, like wolves,
Rush'd to the onset ; Discord, Goddess dire,
Beheld, rejoicing ; of the heav'nly pow'rs 80

She only mingled with the combatants ;
The others all were absent ; they, serene,
Repos'd in gorgeous palaces, for each



Book XI. HOMER'S ILIAD. 3G3

Amid Olympus' deep recesses built.
Yet all the cloud-girt son of Saturn blam'd, 85

Who will'd the vict'ry to the arms of Troy.
He heeded not their anger ; but withdrawn
Apart from all, in pride of conscious strength,
Survey'd the walls of Troy, the ships of Greece,
The flash of arms, the slayers and the slain. 90

"While yet 'twas morn, and wax'd the youthful day,
Thick flew the shafts, and fast the people fell
On either side : but when the hour was come
When woodmen, in the forest's deep recess,
Prepare their food, and wearied with the toil 95

Of felling loftiest trees, with aching arms
Turn with keen relish to their midday meal ;
Then Grecian valour broke th' opposing ranks,
As each along the line encourag'd each ;
First sprang the monarch Agamemnon forth, 100

And brave Bienor slew, his people's guard ;
And, with the chief, his friend and charioteer,
Oileus ; he, down-leaping from the car,
Stood forth defiant ; but between his brows
The monarch's spear was thrust ; nor aught avail'd 105



364 HOMEE'S ILIAD. Book XL

The brass-bound helm to stay the weapon's point ;

Through helm and bone it pass'd, and all the brain

"Was shatter'd ; forward as he rush'd, he fell.

Them left he there, their bare breasts gleaming white,

Stripp'd of their arms; and hasten'd in pursuit 110

Of Antiphus and Isus, Priam's sons,

A bastard one, and one legitimate,

Both on one car ; the bastard held the reins :

Beside him stood the gallant Antiphus.

Them, as they fed their flocks on Ida's heights, 115

Achilles once had captive made, and bound

With willow saplings, till for ransom freed.

The mighty monarch, Agamemnon, drove

Through Isus' breast his spear ; his weighty sword

Descended on the head of Antiphus 120

Beside the ear, and hurl'd him from his car ;

These of their armour he despoil'd in haste,

Known to him both ; for he had seen them oft

Beside the ships, when thither captive brought

From Ida by Achilles, swift of foot. 125

As when a lion in their lair hath seiz'd

The helpless offspring of a mountain doe,



Book XL HOMER'S ILIAD. 365

And breaks their bones with ease, and with strong teeth
Crushes their tender life ; nor can their dam.
Though close at hand she be, avail them aught ; 130
For she herself by deadly terror seiz'd,
Through the thick coppice and the forest flies,
Panting, and bath'd in sweat, the monster's rush ;
So dar'd no Trojan give those brethren aid,
Themselves in terror of the warlike Greeks. 135

Peisander next, and bold Hippolochus,
Sons of Antimachus ('twas he who chief,
Seduc'd by Paris' gold and splendid gifts,
Advis'd the restitution to refuse
Of Helen to her Lord), the King assail'd ; 140

Both on one car ; but from their hands had dropp'd
The broider'd reins ; bewilder'd there they stood ;
While, with a lion's bound, upon them sprang
The son of Atreus ; suppliant, in the car,
They clasp'd his knees ; " Give quarter, Atreus' son,
Redeem our lives ; our sire Antimachus 146

Possesses goodly store of brass and gold,
And well- wrought iron ; and of these he fain
Would pay a noble, ransom, could he hear



B06 HOMER'S ILIAD. Book XI.

That in the Grecian ships we yet snrviv'd." 150

Thus they, with gentle words, and tears, imploring ;
But all ungentle was the voice they heard
In answer ; " If indeed ye be the sons
Of that Antimachus, who counsel gave,
When noble Menelaus came to Troy 155

With sage Ulysses, as ambassadors,
To slay them both, nor suffer their return,
Pay now the forfeit of your father's guilt."
He said, and with a spear-thrust through his breast
Peisander dash'd to earth ; backward he fell. 160

Down leap'd Ilippolochus ; but Atreus' son
Severing his hands and neck, amid the throng
Sent whirling like a bowl the gory head.
These left he there ; and where the thickest throng
Mamtain'd the tug of war, thither he flew, 165

And with him eager hosts of well-greav'd Greeks.
Soon on the Trojans' flight enforc'd they hung,
Destroying ; foot on foot, and horse on horse ;
While from the plain thick clouds of dust arose
P>eneath the armed hoofs of clatt'ring steeds ; 1T0
And on the monarch Agamemnon press'd,


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