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Who from Euboea and from Chalcis came,
Or who in vine-clad Histigea dwelt,
Eretria, and Cerinthus maritime, 620

And who the lofty fort of Dium held,
And in Carystus and in Styra dwelt :
These Elephenor led, true plant of Mars,
Chalcodon's son, the brave Abantian chief.
Him, all conspicuous with their long black hair, 625
The bold Abantians follow'd : spearmen skill'd,
Who through the foemen's breastplates knew full well,
Held in firm grasp, to drive the ashen spear.
In his command came forty dark-ribb'd ships.

Those who in Athens' well-built city dwelt, 630
The noble-soul'd Erectheus' heritage ;
Child of the fertile soil, by Pallas rear'd,



Daughter of Jove, wlio liim in Athens plac'd

In her own wealthy temple ; there with blood

Of bulls and lambs, at each revolving year, 635

The youths of Athens do him sacrifice ;

These by Menestheus, Peteus' son, were led.

With him might none of mortal men compare,

In order due of battle to array

Chariots and buckler' d men ; Nestor alone 640

Perchance might rival him, his elder far.

In his command came fifty dark-ribb'd ships.

Twelve ships from Salamis with Ajax came,
And they beside tli' Athenian troops Avere rang'd. 644

Those who from Argos, and the well-wall'd town
Of Tyrins came, and from Hermione,
And Asine, deep-bosom'd in the bay ;
And from Trcezene and Eione,
And vine-clad Epidaurus ; and the youths
Who dwelt in Mases, and JKgina's isle ; 650

O'er all of these the valiant Diomed
Held rule ; and Sthenelus, th' illustrious son
Of far-fam'd Capaneus ; with these, the third,
A godlike warrior came, Euryalus,


Son of Mecistheus, Taliius' royal son. 655

Supreme o'er all was valiant Diomed.

In their command came eighty dark-ribb'd ships.

Who in Myceme's Avell-built fortress dwelt,
And wealthy Corinth, and Cleone fair,
Orneia, and divine Arsethnre, 66C

And Sicyon, where Adrastus reign'd of old,
And Gonoessa's promontory steep,
And Hyperesia, and Pellene's rock ;
In JEgium, and the scatter'd towns that lie
Along the beach, and wide-spread Helice ; 665

Of these a hundred ships obey'cl the rule
Of mighty Agamemnon, Atrens' son.
The largest and the bravest host was his ;
And he himself, in dazzling armour clad,
O'er all the heroes proudly eminent, 670

"Went forth exulting in his high estate,
Lord of the largest host, and chief of chiefs.

Those who in Lacedaenion's lowland plains,
And who in Sparta and in Phare dwelt,
And who on Messa's dove-frequented cliffs, 675

Bryseia, and ^Egoea's lovely vale,


And in Amyclse, and the sea-bathed fort

Of Helos, (Etylus and Laas dwelt ;

His valiant brother Menelaus led,

With sixty ships ; but ranged apart they lay. 630

Their chief, himself in martial ardour bold,

Inspiring others, fill'd with fierce desire

The rape of Helen and his wrongs to avenge.

They who in Pylos and Arene dwelt,
And Thyrum, by the ford of Alpheus' stream, G85
In Cyparissus and Amphigene,
Pteleon, and lofty CEpus' well-built fort,
Helos, and Dorium, where the Muses met,
And put to silence Thracian Thamyris,
As from (Echalia, from the royal house 690

Of Eurytus he came ; he, over-bold,
Boasted himself pre-eminent in song,
Ev'n though the daughters of Olympian Jove,
The Muses, were his rivals : they in wrath
Him of his sight at once and pow'r of song 695
Amerc'd, and bade his hand forget the lyre.
These by Gerenian ]Sfestor all were led,
In fourscore ships and ten in order due.


They of Arcadia, and the realm that lies
Beneath Cyllene's mountain high, around TOO

The tomb of iEpytus, a warrior race ;
The men of Pheneus and Orchomenus
In flocks abounding ; who in Bipa dwelt,
In Stratia, and Enispe's breezy height,
Or Tegea held, and sweet Mantinea, 705

Stymphalus and Parrhasia ; these were led
By Agapenor brave, Anchseus' son,
In sixty ships ; in each a num'rous crew
Of stout Arcadian youths, to war inur'd.
The ships, wherewith they crossed the dark-blue sea,
Were giv'n by Agamemnon, King of men, 711

The son of Atreus ; for th' Arcadian youth
Had ne'er to maritime pursuits been train'd.

Who in Buprasiiim and in Elis dwelt,
Far as Hyrmine, and th' extremest bounds 715

Of Myrsinus ; and all the realm that lies
Between Aleisium and the Olenian rock ;
These by four chiefs were led ; and ten_swift ships,
By bold Epeians mann'd, each chief obey'd.
Amphimachus and Thalpius Avere the first, 720


Sons of two brothers, Cteatus the one,

The other Eurytus, to Actor born ;

Next Amarynceus' son, Diores bold ;

The fourth Polyxenus, the godlike son

Of Angeas' royal heir, Agasthenes. 725

They of Dulichium, and the sacred isles,
Th' Echinades, which face, from o'er the sea,
The coast of Elis, were by Meges led,
The son of Phyleus, dear to Jove, in arms
Yaliant as liars ; who, with his sire at feud, 730

Had left his home, and to Dulichium come :
In his command were forty dark-ribb'd ships.

Those who from warlike Cephalonia came,
And Ithaca, and leafy Neritus,

And Crocyleium ; rugged .zEgilips, 735

And Samos, and Zacyntlms, and the coast
Of the mainland with its opposing isles ;
These in twelve ships, with scarlet-painted bows,
Ulysses led, in council sage as Jove.

Thoas, Andrsemon's son, th' ^Etolians led ; 740

From Pleuron, and Pylone, Olenus,
Chalcis-by-sea, and rocky Calydon :


The race of (Eneus was no more ; himself,
And fair-hair'd Meleager, both were dead :
Whence all JEtolia's rule on him was laid. 745

In his command came forty dark-ribb'd ships.

The King Idomenens the Cretans led,
From Cnossns, and Gortyna's well-wall'd town,
Miletus, and Lycastus' white-stone cliffs,
Lyctus, and Phgestus, Khytium, and the rest 750

Whom Crete from all her hundred cities sent :
These all Idomeneus, a spearman skill'd,
Their King, commanded ; and Meriones,
In battle terrible as blood-stain'd Mars. 754

In their command came fourscore dark-ribb'd ships.

Yaliant and tall, the son of Hercules,
Tlepolemus, nine vessels brought from Rhodes,
By gallant lihodians mann'd, who tripartite
Were settled, and in Ialyssus dwelt,
In Lindus, and Cameirus' white-stone hills. 76C

These all renown'd Tlepolemus obey'd,
Who to the might of Hercules was born
Of fair Astyoche ; his captive she,
When many a goodly town his arms had raz'd,


Was brought from Ephyra, by Selles' stream. 765
Rear'd in the royal house, Tlepolemus,
In early youth, his father's uncle slew,
A warrior once, but now in life's decline,
Lycimnius ; then in haste a fleet he built,
Muster'd a num'rous host ; and fled, by sea, 770

The threatened vengeance of the other sons
And grandsons of the might of Hercules.
Long wand'rings past, and toils and perils borne,
To Rhodes he came ; his followers, by their tribes,
Three districts form'd ; and so divided, dwelt, 775
Belov'd of Jove, the King of Gods and men,

Who show'r'd upon them boundless store of wealth.
Kireus three well-trimm'd ships from Svme brought ■

Nireus, to Charops whom Aglaia bore :

Nireus, the goodliest man of all the Greeks, 780

Who came to Troy, save Peleus' matchless son :

But scant his fame, and few the troops he led.
Who in Nisyrus dwelt, and Carpathus,

And Cos, the fortress of Eurypylus,

And in the Casian and Calydnian Isles, 7S5

Were by Phidippus led, and Antiphus,


Two sons of Thessalus, Alcides' son ;
With them came tlm-l^jsjiips in order due.

Next those who in Pelasgian Argos dwelt,
And who in Alos, and in Alope, 790

Trachys, and Phthia, and in Hellas fam'd
For women fair ; of these, by various names,
Achaians, Myrmidons, Hellenes, known,
In fifty ships, Achilles was the chief.
But from the battle-strife these all abstain'd, 795

Since none there was to marshal their array.
For Peleus' godlike son, the swift of foot,
Lay idly in his tent, the loss resenting
Of Brises' fair-hair'd daughter ; whom himself
Had chosen, prize of all his warlike toil, 800

When he Lyrnessus and the walls of Thebes
O'erthrew, and Mynes and Epistrophus
Struck down, bold warriors both, Evenus' sons,
Selepius' royal heir ; for her in wrath,
He held aloof, but soon again to appear. 805

Those in the flow'ry plain of Pyrrhasus,
To Ceres dear, who dwelt ; in Phylace,
In Iton, rich in flocks, and, by the sea,


In Antron, and in Pteleon's grass-clad meads ;

These led Protesiliius, famed in arms, 810

While yet he liv'd ; now laid beneath the sod.

In Phylace were left his weeping wife,

And half-biiilt house ; him, springing to the shore,

First of the Greeks, a Dardan warrior slew. 814

ISTor were his troops, their leader though they mourn' d.

Left leaderless ; the post of high command

Podarces claim'd of right, true plant of Mars,

Iphiclus' son, the rich Phylacides ;

The brother of Protesiliius he,

Younger in years, nor equal in renown ; 820

Yet of a chief no want the forces felt,

Though much they mourn'd their valiant leader slain.

In his command came forty dark-ribb'd ships.

Those who from Pherse came, beside the lake
Boabeis, and who dwelt in Glaphyrse, S25

In Boebe, and Iolcos' well-built fort,
These in eleven ships Eumelus led,
Whom Pelias' daughter, fairest of her race,
Divine Alcestis to Admetus bore.

Who in Methone and Thaumacia dwelt, 830


In Melibcca and Olizon's rock ;
These Pliiloctetes, skilful archer, led.
Sev'n sh ips were theirs, and ev'ry ship was mann'd
By fifty rowers, skilful archers all. 834

But he, their chief, was lying, rack'd with pain,
On Lemnos' sacred isle ; there left perforce
In torture from a venomous serpent's wound:
There he in anguish lay : nor long, ere Greeks
Of royal Philoctetes felt their need. 839

Yet were his troops, their leader though they mourn'd,
Kot leaderless : O'ileus' bastard son,
Medon, of Ehene born, their ranks array'd.

Who in (Echalia, Eurytus' domain,
In Tricca, and in rough Ithome dwelt,
These Podalirius and Machaon led, 845

Two skilful leeches, iEsculapius' sons.
Of these came thirty ships in order due.

Who in Ormenium and Asterium dwelt,
By Hypereia's fount, and on the heights
Of Titanum's white peaks, of these was chief 850
Eurypylus, Euaemon's gallant son ;
In his command came forty,, dark-ribb'd ships.


Who in Argissa and Gyrtona dwelt,
Ortha, Elone, and the white-wall' d town
Of Oloosson, Polypcetes led ; 855

Son of Pirithous, progeny of Jove,
A warrior bold ; Hippodamia fair
Him to Pirithous bore, what time he slew
The shaggy Centaurs, and from Pelion's heights
For refuge 'mid the rude .zEthices drove. 860

Nor he alone ; w T ith him to Troy there came
A scion true of Mars, Leonteus, heir
Of nobly-born Coronus, Ceeneus' son.
In their command came forty dark-ribb'd ships.

With t^vo and twenty vessels Gouneus came 865
From Cythus ; he the Enienes led,
And the Peraebians' warlike tribes, and those
Who dwelt around Dodona's wintry heights,
Or till'd the soil upon the lovely banks
Of Titaresius, who to Peneus pours 870

The tribute of his clearly-flowing stream ;
Yet mingles not with Peneus' silver waves,
But on the surface floats like oil, his source
From Styx deriving, in whose awful name


Both Gods and men by holiest oaths are bound. 875

Magnesia's troops, who dwelt by Peneus' stream,
Or beneath Pelion's leafy- qniv'ring shades,
Swift-footed Prothous led, Tenthredon's son ;
In his command came forty dark-ribb'd ships.

These were the leaders and the chiefs of Greece :
Say, Muse, of these, who with th' Atridse came, 881
Horses and men, who claim'd the highest praise.
Of steeds, the bravest and the noblest far
Were those Eumelus drove, Admetus' son :
Both swift as birds, in age and colour match'd, 885
Alike in height, as measur'd o'er the back ;
Both mares, by Phoebus of the silver bow
Rear'd in Pieria, thunderbolts of war.
Of men, while yet Achilles held his wrath,
The mightiest far was Ajax Telamon. 890

For with Achilles, and the steeds that bore
The matchless son of Peleus, none might vie :
But 'mid his beaked ocean-going ships
He lay, with Agamemnon, Atreus' son,
Indignant ; while his troops upon the beach 895

With quoits and jav'lins whil'd away the day.


And feats of archery ; their steeds the while
The lotus-grass and marsh-grown parsley cropp'd,
Each standing near their car ; the well- wrought cars
Lay all unheeded in the warriors' tents ; 900

They, inly pining for their godlike chief,
Roam'd listless up and down, nor join'd the fray.

Such was the host, which, like devouring fire,
O'erspread the land ; the earth beneath them groan'd :
As when the Lord of thunder, in his wrath, 905

The earth's foundations shakes, in Arimi,
"Where, buried deep, 'tis said, Typhoeus lies ;
So at their coming, groan'd beneath their feet
The earth, as quickly o'er the plain they spread.

To Troy, sent down by segis-bearing Jove, 910

With direful tidings storm-swift Iris came.
At Priam's gate, in solemn conclave met,
Were gather'd all the Trojans, young and old :
Swift Iris stood amidst them, and, the voice
Assuming of Polites, Priam's son, 915

The Trojan scout, who, trusting to his speed,
Was posted on the summit of the mound
Of ancient .zEsuetes, there to watch

Book It. HOMER'S ILIAD. 79

Till from their ships the Grecian troops should march ;
His voice assuming, thus the Goddess spoke : 020

" Old man, as erst in peace, so still thou lov'st
The strife of words ; but fearful war is nigh.
Full many a host in line of battle rang'd
My eyes have seen ; but such a force as this,
So mighty and so vast, I ne'er beheld : 925

In number as the leaves, or as the sand,
Against the city o'er the plain they come.
Then, Hector, for to thee I chiefly speak,
This do ; thou know'st how various our allies,
Of diff'rent nations and discordant tongues : 930

Let each then those command o'er whom he reigns,
And his own countrymen in arms array."
She said ; and Hector knew the voice divine,
And all, dissolv'd the council, flew to arms,
The gates were open'd wide ; forth x>our'd the crowd,
Both foot and horse ; and loud the tumult rose. 930

Before the city stands a lofty mound,
In the mid plain, by open space enclos'd ;
Men call it Batirea ; but the Gods
The tomb of swift Myrinna ; muster'd there 940


The Trojans and Allies their troops array'd.
The mighty Hector of the glancing helm,
The son of Priam, led the Trojan host :
The largest and the bravest band were they,
Bold spearmen all, who follow'd him in arms. 045
4 Anchises' valiant son, _zEneas, led

The Dardans ; him, 'mid Ida's jutting peaks,
Immortal Yenus to Anchises bore,
A Goddess yielding to a mortal's love :
With him, well skill'd in war, Archilochus 950

And Acamas, Antenor's gallant sons.
Who in Zeleia dwelt, at Ida's foot,
Of Trojan race, a wealthy tribe, who drank
Of dark ^Esepus' waters, these were led
By Pandarus, Lycaon's noble son, 955

Taught by Apollo's self to draw the bow.
WTio from Adraste, and Apeesus' realm,
From Pityeia, and the lofty hill
Tereian came, with linen corslets girt,
Adrastus and Amphius led ; two sons 960

Of Merops of Percote ; deeply vers'd
Was he in prophecy ; and from the war


Would fain have kept his sons ; but they, by fate,
Doom'd to impending death, his caution scorn'd.

Those who from Practium and Pereote came, 935
And who in Sestos and Abydos dwelt,
And in Arisba fair ; those Asius led, .
The son of Hyrtacus, of heroes chief ;
Asius the son of Hyrtacus, who came
From fair Arisba, borne by fiery steeds 970

Of matchless size and strength, from Selles' stream.

Hippothous led the bold Pelasgian tribes,
"Who dwell in rich Larissa's fertile soil,
Hippothous and Pylseus, Lethus' sons,
The son of Teutamus, Pelasgian chief. 975

The Thracians, by fast-flowing Hellespont
Encompass'd, Acamas and Peirous brave ;
The spear-skill'd Cicones JEuphemus led,
Son of Trcezenus, Ceus' highborn son.

From distant Amydon Pyrsecmes brought 980

The Paeon archers from broad Axius' banks ;
Axius, the brightest stream on earth that flows.

The hairy strength of great Pylaemenes
The Paphlagonians led from Eneti


X ("Whence first appear'd the stubborn race of mules),
Who in Cytorus and in Sesamum, 98G

And round Parthenius' waters had their home ;
Who dwelt in Cromne, and iEgialus,
And on the lofty Erythinian rock.

By Iiodius and Epistrophus were brought 990

From distant Alybe, the wealthy source
Of silver ore, the Alizonian bands.

Chromis the Mysians led, and Ennomus ;
A skilful augur, but his augury

From gloomy death to save him nought avail'd ; 995
Slain by the son of Peleus, in the stream,
"Where many another Trojan felt his arm.

From far Ascania's lake, with Phorcys join'd,
The godlike presence of Ascanius brought
The Phrygians, dauntless in the standing fight. 1000

From Lydia came Pylasmenes' two sons,
Born of the lake Gygeian ; Antiphus,
And Mesthles ; these Maeonia's forces led,
Who dwelt around the foot of Tmolus' hill.

In charge of Pastes came the Carian troops, 1005
Of barbarous speech ; who in Miletus dwelt,


And in the dense entangled forest shade

Of Phthira's hill, and on the lofty ridge

Of Mycale, and by Masander's stream ;

These came with ISTastes and Amphimacns ; 1010

Amphimacns and Nastes, Nomion's sons ;

With childish folly to the war he came,

Laden with store of gold ; yet nought avail'd

His gold to save him from the doom of death ;

Slain by the son of Pelens in the stream ; 1015

And all his wealth Achilles bore away.

Sarpedon last, and valiant Glancns led
The Lycian bands, from distant Lycia's shore,
Beside the banks of Xantlms' eddying stream. 1019


Line 253. — The text of the original leaves it somewhat in doubt
whether the anger of the Greeks were directed against Thersite=
or Agamemnon. I believe the preponderance of authority, ancient
and modern, is in favour of the former interpretation ; but the lat-
ter is not without the support of some eminent scholars, and after
much consideration I have been induced to adopt it. The original
represents the Greeks as filled with anger and resentment against
some one. Thersites was an object of general contempt, but he had
done nothing to excite those feelings : indeed, apart from the of-
fensiveness of his tone, the public sympathy was with him ; for the
army was deeply dissatisfied, and resented the conduct of Aga-
memnon against Achilles, mainly perhaps because they had ceased
to be enriched with the plunder of his successful forays (see i. 202,
and ix. 387). This dissatisfaction and resentment are referred to
by Neptune (xiii. 126), and by Agamemnon himself (xiv. 55). They
had lately manifested themselves in the alacrity with which the
whole army had caught at the insidious suggestion of abandoning
the war ; and, just before the second assembly, Thersites avails
himself of the general feeling, constituting himself the representa-
tive of a popular grievance, to vent his personal spite against
Agamemnon. Ulysses saw how dangerous such a display might
be at such a moment; and artfully assuming (line 281) that the
feeling was confined to Thersites alone (though in his subsequent
speech, line 335, he admits and excuses the general discontent), he
proceeds to cut short its expression by summary chastisement.
Thereupon the fickle multitude, "despite their anger" (against
Agamemnon), cannot refrain from laughing at the signal discom-
fiture of their self-constituted champion.

This view is very fully set forth in a note on the passage
appended to a translation of the Iliad by Mr. Barter, published in
1859, but which I have only seen since the publication of this



Tlie armies being ready to engage, a single combat is agreed upon,
between Meneliins and Paris (by the intervention of Hector) for
the determination of the war. Iris is sent to call Helen to be-
hold the fight. She leads her to the walls of Troy, where Priam
sat with his counsellors, observing the Grecian leaders on the
plain below, to whom Helen gives an account of the chief of
them. The kings on either part take the solemn oath for the
conditions of the combat. The duel ensues, wherein Paris being
overcome, is snatched away in a cloud by Venus, and transported
to his apartment. She then calls Helen from the walls, and
brings the lovers together. Agamemnon, on the part of the Gre-
cians, demands the restoration of Helen, and the performance of
the articles.

The three-and-twentieth day stfll continues throughout this book.
The scene is sometimes in the field before Troy, and sometimes
in Troy itself.



TlTHElSr by their sev'ral chiefs the troops were rang'd,

"With noise and clamour, as a flight of birds,
The men of Troy advanc'd ; as when the cranes,
Flying the wintry storms, send forth on high
Their dissonant clamours, while o'er the ocean stream 5
They steer their course, and on their pinions bear
Battle and death to the Pygmsean race.

On th' other side the Greeks in silence mov'd,
Breathing firm courage, bent on mutual aid.
As when the south wind o'er the mountain tops 10
Spreads a thick veil of mist, the shepherd's bane,
And friendly to the nightly thief alone,
That a stone's throw the range of vision bounds ;
So rose the dust-cloud, as in serried ranks
With rapid step they mov'd across the plain. 15

But when th' opposing forces near were met,
A panther's skin across his shoulders flung,

88 HOMER'S ILIAD. Book in

Arm'd with his bow and sword, in front of all
Advanc'd the godlike Paris ; in his hand
He pois'd two brass-tipp'd jav'lins, and defied 20

To mortal combat all the chiefs of Greece.

Him when the warlike Meneliius saw
"With haughty strides advancing from the crowd ;
As when a lion, Irnnger-pinch'd, espies
Some mighty beast of chase, or antler'd stag, 25

Or mountain goat, and with exulting spring
Strikes down his prey, and on the carcase feeds,
Unscar'd by baying hounds and eager youths :
So Menelaus saw with fierce delight
The godlike Paris ; for he deem'd that now 30

His vengeance was at hand ; and from his car,
Arm'd as he was, he leap'd upon the plain.
But when the godlike Paris saw him spring
Defiant from the ranks, with quailing heart,
Back to his comrades' shelt'ring crowd he sprang, 35
In fear of death ; as when some trav'ller sjries,
Coil'd in his path upon the mountain side,
A deadly snake, back he recoils in haste,
ITis limbs all trembling, and his cheek all pale ;


So back recoil'd, in fear of Atreus' son, 40

The godlike Paris 'mid the Trojan host.

To whom in stern rebuke thus Hector spoke :
" Thou wretched Paris, though in form so fair,
Thou slave of woman, manhood's counterfeit !
"Would thou hadst ne'er been born, or died at least 45
Unwedded ; so 'twere better far for all,
Than thus to live a scandal and reproach.
"Well may the long-hair'd Greeks triumphant boast,
Who think thee, from thine outward show, a chief
Among our warriors ; but thou hast in truth 50

Nor strength of mind, nor courage in the fight.
How was't that such as thou could e'er induce
A noble band, in ocean-going ships
To cross the main, with men of other lands
Mixing in amity, and bearing thence 55

A woman, fair of face, by marriage ties
Bound to a race of warriors ; to thy sire,
Thy state, thy people, cause of endless grief,
Of triumph to thy foes, contempt to thee !
Durst thou the warlike Menelaus meet, 60

Thou to thy cost shouldst learn the might of him


"Whose bride thou didst not fear to bear away :
Then shouldst thou find of small avail thy lyre,
Or Yenus' gifts of beauty and of grace,
Or, trampled in the dust, thy flowing hair. 65

But too forbearing are the men of Troy ;
Else for the ills that thou hast wrought the state,
Ere now thy body had in stone been cas'd."
To whom the godlike Paris thus replied :
" Hector, I needs must own thy censure just, 70

Nor without cause ; thy dauntless courage knows
1ST or pause nor weariness ; but as an axe,
That in a strong man's hand, who fashions out
Some naval timber, with unbated edge
Cleaves the firm wood, and aids the striker's force ; 75
Ev'n so unwearied is thy warlike soul.
Yet blame not me for golden Yenus' gifts :
The gifts of Heav'n are not to be despis'd,

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