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mules and nuaggons to fetch nvood for the pyre. The

funeral procejfwn, and the offer i^ig of their hair to
the dead. Achtlles facrijices feveral ani^nals-j and
lajlly inveheTroJan captives at the pile, t hen fets fire
to it. He pays libations to the nvindsy n^jhich {at the
injiance of Iris) rife and raife theflanies. When the
pile has bur?ied all nighty they gather the bones j
place them in an urn of gold, and raife the tomb.
Achilles infitutes the funeral games : the chariot-
race^ the fight of theCctjius, the ivrefling, thef.ot^^
race, the Jingle combat e, the Dijcus, the fjjootina
'with arroi'js, the darting the javelin : the various
dtfcriptiom of '■which, and the various fuccefs of tic

feveral antagonijls, ?nake the greatejl part of i'hL'

In this look ends the thirtieth day. The iiwht fQllo^.V"
ing, the ghoji of Patroclus appears to Achilles: the
one and thirtieth day ii employed in fcllino th ii^n-
bsr for the pile ; the tn.vo and thirtieth in burning it;
and the three and thirtieth in the games. The J'cene
is generally o.n the fea-fbore.


i62 H M E R'3 I L I A D. Book XXII!.

^ I ^HUS humbled in the duft, the penfive train

"*• Thro' the fad city mourn'd her hero flain.
The body foird with duft, and black with gore,
Lies on broad Hellefpont's refounding (bore :

This, and the following book, which contains the de-
fcription of the funeral of Patroclus and other matters
relating to He(5lor, are undoubtedly fuper-added to the
grand cataftrophe of the poem ; for the ftory is com-
pleatly finiflied with the death of that hero in the twen-
ty-fecond book. Many judicious critics have been of o-
pinion, that Homer is blameable for protracfling it, Vir-
gil clofes the whole fcene of adion with the death of Tur-
nus, and leaves the reft to be imagined by the mind of
the reader r he does not draw the pi^lare at full length,
but delineates it fo far, that we cannot fail of imagining
the whole draught. There is however one thing to be
faid in favour of HcHner, which may perhaps juftify him
in his method, that what he undertook to paint was the
anger of Jchilles : and as that anger does not die with
He£lor, but perfecutes his very remains, fo the poet ftill
keeps up to his fubjed; nay, it feems^to require that he
fl\ould carry down the relatbn of that refentment, .
which is the foundation of his poem, till it is fully latisfi-
ed : and as this furvives Hetflor, and gives the poet an
opportunity of ftill ftiewing many fad effe^ls of Achilles 's
anger, the tv/o following books may be thought not to be
excrefences, but effential to the poem.

Virgil had beeninexcufable had he trod in Homer's foot-
fteps ; for it is evident that the fall of Turnus, by giving
tineas a full power over Italy, anfwers the whole defign
and intention of the poem ; had he gone farther, he had
overlhot his mark : and tho'Homer proceeds afterHedor's
death, yet the fabje<5l is ftill the anger of Achillea.

We are now pjift the war and violence of the Ilias,
the fcenes of blood are clofed during the reft of the

Book XXIII. H O M E R*s ILIAD. i6^

The Grecians feek their (hips, and clear the flrand, 5
All, but the martial Myrmidonian band:
Thefe yet afTembled great Achilles holds.
And the rtern purpofe of his mind unfolds.

Not yet (my brave companions of the war)
Releafe your fmoaking courfers from die car 10

But, with his chariot each in order led,
Perform due honours to Patroclus dead.
Ere yet from reft or food we feek relief,
Some rites remain, to glut our rage of grief.

The troops obey'd ; and thrice in order led 1 5

(Achilles firft) their courfers round the dead;
And thrice their furrows and laments renew ;
Tears bathe their arms, and tears the fands bedew»,

poem ; we may look back with a pleafing kind of horror
upon the anger of Achilles, and fee what dire eifedls it
has wrought in the compafs of ninteen days : Troy and
Greece are both in mourning for it, heaven and earth,
gods and men, have fuffered in the conflid. The read-
er feems landed upon the fliore after a violent ftorm;
and has leifure to furvey the confequences of the tem-
peil, and the wreck occafioned by the former commoti-
ons, Troy weeping for He(51:or, and Greece for Patroclus.
Our paffions have been in an agitation fince the opening
of the poem ; wherefore die poet, like fbme great mafter
in mufic, foftens his notes, and melts his readers into ten-
demefs and pity.

V. 18. Tears bathe their arms^ and tears the fands

■■. Thetis aids their nvoe 3

It is not eaiy to give areafon why Thetis fliould be faid
to excite the grief of the Myrmidons and of Achilles ; it
had feemed more natural for the modier to have com-

i64 H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XXIU.

For fuch a warrior Thetis aids their woe,

Melts their ftrong hearts, and bids their eyes to flow, 20

pofed the forrows of the Ton, and reflored his troubled
mind to tranquillity.

But fuch a procedure would have outraged the cha-
ratSler of Achilles, who is all along defcribed to be of
fuch a violence of temper, that he is not eafy to be pa-
cified at any time, much lefs upon fo great an incident
as the death of his friend Patroclus. Perhaps the poet
made ufe of this fidion in honour of Achilles ; he makes
every paflion of his hero confiderable ; his forrows as
well as anger is important, and he cannot grieve but a
" goddefs attends him, and a v/hole army weeps.

Some commentators fancy that Homer animates the
very fands of the fea, and the arms of the Myrmidons,
and makes them fenfible of the lofs of Patroclus ; the
preceding words feem to ftrengthen that opinion, becaufe
the poet introduces a goddefs to raife the forrow of the
army. But Euftathius feems not to give into this con-
jecture, and I think very judicioufly ; for what relation
is there between the fands of the (liores, and the arms
of the Myrmidons i It would have been more poetical
to have faid, the fands and the rocks, than the fands and
the arms ; but it is very natural to fay, that the foldiers
wept fo bitterly, that their armour and the very fands
were wet with their tears. 1 believe this remark will
appear very juit by reading the verfe, with a comma af-
ter riv^^icCf thus,

Aoix-fiiJcri ,

Then the conflrudion will be natural and eafy, period
will anfwer period in the Greek,, and the fenfe in Engliili
will be, the flmds were wet, and the arms v/ere wet, with
tlie tears of the mourners.

But however this be, there is a very remarkable
beaivty in die run of the verfe in Homer, every v/ord

Book XXIU. HOME R's ILIAD. i6s

But chief, Pelldes : thick-fucceeding fighs
Burft from his heart, and torrents from his eyes :
His llaught'ring hands, yet red widi blood, he laid
On his dead friend's cold bread, and thus he faid.

All hail Patroclus ! let thy honour'd ghoft 25

Hear, and rejoice on Pluto's dreary coaft ;
Behold ! Achilles' proraife is compleat ;
The bloody Hedor ftretch'd before thy feet,
Lo ! to the dogs his carcafe I refign ;
And twelve fad vidims of the Trojan line, 30

Sacred to vengeance, indant fhall expire,
Their lives effus'd around thy fun'ral pyre.

Gloomy he faid, and (horrible to view)
Before the bier the bleeding He<Slor threw,

has a melancholy cadence, and the poet has not only
made the fands and the arms, but even his very verfe, to
lament with Achilles.

V. 23. His JIaught\ing hands i yet red <with blood,
he laid
On his deadfriend^s cold hreafl. ]
I could not pafs by this paflage without obferving to my
reader the great beauty of this epithet, otv^^o^ovi^?. An
ordinary poet would have contentedhimfelf with faying,
he laid his hand upon the bread of Patroclus ; but Ho-
mer knows how to raife the moil trivial circumitance, and
by adding this one word, he laid his deadly hands, or his
murderous hands, he fills our minds with great ideas, and
by a fmgle epithet recalls to our thoughts all the noble
atchievemcnts of Achilles through the Iliad.

V. 25. All haily Patroclus y etc.] There is In this a-
poftrophe of Achilles to the ghoft of Patroclus, a fort of
favagenefs, and a mixture of foftnefs and atrocity, which
are highly conformable to his charader. Dacier,


Prone on the duft. The Myrmidons around 35

Unbrac'd their armour, and die fteeds unbound.

All to Achilles' fable fliip repair,

Frequent and full, the genial feafl; to fliare.

Now from the well-fed fwine black fmoaks afplre,

The bridly victims hilling o'er the fire : 4c/

The huge ox bellowing falls ; with feebler cries

Expires the goat ; the iheep in filence dies.

Around the hero's proflrate body flow'd, ^

In one promifcuous ftream, the reeking blood.

And now a band of Argive monarchs brings 4^

The glorious vicflor to the king of kings.

From his dead friend the penfive warrior went.

With fteps unwilling, to the regal tent.

Th' attending heralds, as by office bound.

With kindled flames the tripod-vafe furround ; jo

To cleanfe his conqu'ring hands from hoffile gore.

They urg'd in vain ; the chief refus'd, and fwore.

No drop fhall touch me, by almighty Jove !
The fird and greateft of the Gods above !
'Till on the pyre I place thee ; 'till I rear 55

The grafly mound, and clip thy facred hair.

V. 51. To cleanfe his conquering hands — >

The chief refus''d' ]

This is conformable to the cuflom of the orientals : A-
chJIles will not be induced to wafh, and afterwards re-
tires to the fea-fhore, and fleeps on the ground. It is
juft thus that David mourns in the fcriptures ; herefufes
to wafh, or to take any rep aft, but retires from compa-
ny, and lies upon the earth.

XXlir. Book HOMER'S ILIAD. 167

Some eafe at leaft thofe pious rites may give.

And foothe my forrows, while I bear to live.

Howe'er, reludant as I am, I flay,

And iTiare your feaft ; but, with the dawn of day, 60

(0 king of men !) it claims thy royal care.

That Greece the Vv'arrior's fun'ral pile prepare,

And bid the forefts fall : (fuch rites are paid

To heroes flumb'ring in eternal (hade)

Then, when his earthly part fliall mount in fire, 65

Let the leagu'd fquadrons to their pofls retire.

He fpoke ; they hear him, and the v\rord obey ;
The rage of hunger and of third allay,
Then eafe in fleep the labours of the day.

But great Pelides, (Iretch'd along the fliore 70

Where dafli'd on rocks the broken billows rore.

Lies inly groaning ; while on either hand

The raarnal Myrmidons confus'dly^ftand :

Along the grafs his languid members fall,

Tir'd Vv'ith his chace around the Troian wall 75

'Hufli'd by the murmurs of the rolling deep

At length he finks in the foft arms of Heep.

When lo ! the fhade before his clofinp- eves

Of fad Patroclus rofe, or feem'd to rife ;

V. 78. The ghoft of Patroclus.'} Homer has introduc-
■ed into the former farts of the poem the peribnages of
gods and godde/Tes from heaven, and of furies from hell.
He has embeUiflied it Vvfith ornaments from earth, fea,
and air ; and he here opens a new fcene, and brings to
the view a gbo.1, the fiiade of the departed friend : by
thefe methods he diverlifies his poem with new and fur-

i63 homer's ILIAD. BookXXUf.

In the fame robe he living wore, he came, 80

In flature, voice, and pleafing look, the fame.

The form familiar hover'd o'er his head.

And fleeps Achilles (thus the phantom faid)

Sleeps my Achilles, his PatrocJus dead?

Living, I feem'd his deareft, tend'reft care.

But now forgot, I wander in the air ;

Let my pale corfe the ntes of burial know.

And give me entrance in the realms below :

'Till then, the fpirit finds no refting-place,

Bvit here and there th' unbody'd fpedrcs chace .

The vagrant dead around the dark abode,

Forbid to crofs th' irremeable flood.

prizing circumflAnces, and awakens the attention of the
reader ; at the fame time he very poetically adapts his
language to the circumflances of this imaginary Patro-
clus, and teaches us the opinions that prevailed in his
time, concerning the ftate of feparate fouls.

v. 92. Forbid to crofs th' irremeable food. ~] It was
the common opinion of the ancients, that the fouls oi'
the departed were not admitted into the number of the
happy till their bodies had received the funeral rites ;
they fuppofed thofe that wanted them wandered an hun-
dred }'ears before they were wafted over the infernal
river ; Virgil pei haps had this pafiage of Homer in his
view in the fixth ^i^neis, at lead he coincides widi his
Jentimcnts concerning the llate of the departed fouls.

Hi€C o??ni}i, quam cernis^ imps inhumataauc turha eft'.
Nee ripas datur borrendas ^ nee rauca fiuenta
Trixnfpoi ta^c priusy qua?nfedibus of 4 ^uierunj ;
Centum errant annos^ voUtanqae bxc lit tor a cirum :
Turn demtim admijjiflagna c^oplata revifunt.


Book XXm. H O M E R's ILIA B. i^9

Now give tby hand ; for to the farther fiiore

When once we pafs, the foul returns no more.

When once the lafl funereal flames afcend, 95

No more fliall meet, Achilles and his fiiend.

No more oar thoughts to thofe we lov'd make known ^

Or quit the deareft, to converfe alone.

Me fate has fever'd from the fens of earth,

The fate fore-doom'd diat waited from my birth : ioc>

Thee too it waits ; before the Trojan wall

Ev'n great and godlike thou art doom'd to fall.

Hear then ; and as in fate and love we join.

Ah fuffer that my bones may reil: wdth thine !

It was during this interval, between death and the rites
of funeral, that they fuppofed the only time allowed foi'
feparate fpirits to appear to men ; tbei^efore Patroclu sphere
•tells his friend.

■ II. ■ ' ■ 71? the farther fI:ore

11 he?! once nve pafs, the foul rsturm ?io more.

For the fuller undcrdanding of Ploraer, it is neceflary
to be acquainted with his notion -of the ftate of the foul
after death : he followed the philofophy of the -.'tlg5'p-
tians, \vho fuppofed man to be compounded of three
parts, an intelligent mind, a vehicle for that mind, and
a body ; the mind they call <^giy, or -'pv^y,, the vehicle
«^«/Aoy, image ox foul., and the grofs body (rjif^cc. The
foul, in which the mind was lodged, was fiippofed exacSl-
ly to refemble the body in Ihape, magnitude and features ;
for this being in the body, as the llatue in its mold, io
loon as it goes forth is properly the image of that body
in which It was inclofed : this it was that appeared to A-
chilles, with the full refemblance of his fiiend Patroclus.
Yid. Daciers life of Pythagoras, p. 71.

V. 104. Ahftiff$rthat my hznes may reft ^joith th/r:e.}

Vol. IV. P

lyo H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XXHI.

Together have we liv'd, together bred, loj

■One houfe receiv'd us, and one table fed ;
That golden urn thy goddefs-mother gave,
IVIay mix our afhes in one common grave.

And Is It thou ? (he anfwers) to my fight
Once more return'ft thou from the realms of night ? f lo
Oh more than brother ! think each office paid.
Whatever can reft a difcontented fhade ;
'But grant one iaft embrace, unhappy boy !
Afford at lead that melancholy joy.

There is fomething very pathetical In this whole fpeech

of Patroclus; he begins It with kind reproaches, and

blames Achilles with a friendly tendemefs ; he recounts

to him the Infeparable afTedtion that had been between

them in their iives, and makes it his laft" requeft, that

they may not be parted even in death, but that their

bones may relt in the fame urn. The fpeech itfelf is

of a due length ; it ought not to be very fliort, becaufe

this apparition is an Incident intlrely different from any

other in the whole poem, and confequently the reader

would not have been fatisfled with a curfory mention of

it ; neiilier ought it to be long, becaufe this would have

been contrary to the nature of fuch apparitions, whofe

flay upon earth has ever been defcribed as very fhort, and

-confequently they cannot bcfuppofed to ufe many words.

The circumdance of being buried in the fame urn. Is

Intlrely conformable to the eaflern cuflom : there are

innumerable inflances in the fcriptures of great perfon-

anes beinfT burled Vvith their fathers : fo Tofeph would

not fuffer his bones to reil in -T:]gypt, but commands his

brethren to carry them into Canaan, to the burylng-place

of his father Jacob.


Book XXIII. H O M E R's r L I A D. 171

He laid, and witii his longing arms efiky'd 1 15

In vain to gralp the viiionary ihade ;

Like a thin fmoke he fees the fpirlt iiy,

And hears a feeble lamentable cry.

Confus'd he wakes ; amazement breaks the bands *)•

Of golden fleep, and flatting from the fauds, y. . 20

Penfive he mufes with uplifted hands. ^

'Tis trae, 'tis certain ; man tho' dead, retains -^

Part of himfelf; th' immortal mind remains 4

The form fublilts without the body's aid.

Aerial femblance, and an empty Paade ! 125

V. 124. The form fiibfijht nxHthout the body's aict\
Aerial femblance^ and an e}?ipty /hade,~\
The words of Hcmer are,

In which there (eems to be a oreat difTicuItv ; it beincr
not eafy to explain how Achilles can fay that the gholb
of his friend had no under/landing, wlien it had buc
juft made fuch a rational and moving fpeech ; efpecialiy
when the poet introduces the apparition with the very
(liape, air, and voice of Patroclus.

But this pafTagc v/ill be clearly underflood, by ex-
plaining the notion which the ancients entertained of
the fouls of the departed, according to the fore-cited triple
divifion of mhid, image^ and body. Hiey im.agined that
th« foul was not only fcparatcd from the body at the hour
of death, but that there was a farther fepaiatlon of the
^^y,Vi or underRanding. from its eioidXov, or vehicle ; fo
that while the alaXov, or image of the body, was in hell,
the f ^*)v, or underftanding, might be in heaven: and that
.this is a true explication, is evident from a paJTage in the
OdyfTey, book 11, v. 600.


172 H O^ M E R's I L I A I>. Book XXIIf;

This night my friend, fo late in battle lofl".

Stood at my fide, a peniive, plaintive gholl ;

Ev'n now familiar, as in life, he came,

Alas I how diff 'rent ! yet how like die fame !

Thus while he fpoke, each eye grew big with tears ; 1-30
And now the rofy-finger'd morn appears,
Shews ev'ry mournful face with tears o'erfpread,
And glares on the pale vifage of the dead.

"Ei^ofXcy' uvrog Pi /tgr' ^^ocvoiroKri B'ioTirt

NcvJ I ihejlrength of Hercules behold,
.'/ t-Qi'i'ring fp€^re of gigantic rnold ;
A ff) ido'iay form ! for high in heav*ns ahodas
Hinifelf refide^, a God among the Gods :
There in the bright affemblii's of the skies
He NeSlar quajfsy and Hebe cronuns his Joys.

By this it appears that Homer was of opinion that Her-
esies was in heaven, while his «^.>;Aev, or image, was in
hell : fo that when this fecond feparation is made, the
image or vehicle becomes a mere thoughtlefs form.

We have this v^^hole dodrine very diftinftly delivered
by Plutarch in thcfe words :_ " Man is a compound fub-
*' je^t ; but not of two parts, as is commonly believed,
** bccaufe the underjiandifig is generally accounted a
" part of the/c^w/; whereas indeed it as far exceeds the
*' foul, as the foul is diviner than the body. Now the
*' foul, when compounded with the underftanding, makes
" reafon : and when compounded with the body, pafTion :
*' whereof the one is the fource or principle of pleafure
** or pain, the other of vice or virtue. Man therefore
" properly dies two deaths ; the firft death makes him
** two of three, and the fecond makes him one of two."
* Plutarch, of the face in the 7fioGn%


But Agamemnon, as the rites demand,

With mules and waggons fends a chofen band ; 1 3 S

To load the timber, and the pile to rear,

A charge confign'd to Merion*s faithful care,

"With proper inftruments they take the road.

Axes to cut, and ropes to fling die load,

Firit march the heavy mules, fecurely flow, 140.^

O'er hills, o'er dales, o'er crags, o'er rocki they go :

V. 141. O'er hills J o'er dales, o'er crags y o'er rocks
they go
On alljides round the forejl hurls her oah

Headlong . 3

The numbers in the original of this whole paflage are
admirably adapted to the images the verfes convey to us.
Every ear muii have felt the propriety of found in.
this line.

The other in its kind is no lefs exa^^t,

T'auvov iTTityo^uivci, rxf Pi f4,iyuXcc y^lVTriHa-xt.

Dionyfius of HalicarnafTus has collefled many inilances
of thefe forts of beauties in Homer. This defcription.
of felling the forelts, fo excellent as it is, is compre-
hended m a fev/ lines, which has left room for a larger,
and more particular one in Statius, one of the belt (|.
think), in that author.

•^Cadii arduajagus,

Chaonlumque neinuss briimceque illcefa cuprs/Jus
Vicciunhunt picexyflammis al'wieritafu^remis^
Orniquct iliciifque trabes, tnetuajidaqitejulco

P 3

J 74 H O M E R's ILIA D. Book XXII I.

Jumping, high o'er the fhrubs, of the rough ground,
' Rattle the clatt'rlng cars, and the fliockt axles bound.

But when arriv'd at Ida's fpreading woods,

(Fair Ida, water 'd with defceading floods) 145

' Loud founds the axe, redoubling ftrokes on ftrokes ;
4. On all fides round the foreft hurls her oaks
■f Headlong. Deep-echoing groan the thickets brown j
^.Thea ruflling, crackling, crafliing, thunder down^

'Taxuff et infandos belli potura cruores
Fra-xlnuSy atquejttu non expugnahile rohur t -
Hinc audax abiesy et odoro vulnere pinuf
Scinditur, acclinant intonfa cacumiria temc
Alnus amicaJretiSi nee inhofplta vitibus ulmus, etc.

I the rather cite this fine pafTage, becaufe I find It co-
pied by two of the greateft poets of our own nation,
Chaucer and Spenfer. The firfl: in the ajfemhlyof fomjli,
the fecond in \\\% fairy queen ^ lib. i.

The failing pine, the cedar proud and tally

The vine-prop ehri, the poplar never dry^

The builder oaky f etc king offorejis ally

The afpingoodforfavesy the cyprefs funcrah

The laurel, meed of 7?iighty conquerors.

And poets fage ; the fir that weepeihjlill,

The nvillo-w, nuorn of forlorn paramours ^

Theyeiu obedient to the bender* s ivill.

The birch for fh aft Sy the falloivfor the ?nill.

The myrrhyfiueet-bleeding in the bitter 'vjound, |

The ^warlike heechy the afh for nothing illy

The fruitful clivCy and the planfane round.

The carver holme, the maple feldom iniuard found.

Book XXTII. H O M E R's I L I A D. 175

The wood the Grecians cleave, prepar'd to burn ; 150
And the flow mules the fume rough road return.
The fturdy woodmen equal burdens bore
(Such charge was giv'n 'em) to the Tandy fhore ;
There on the fpot which great Achilles fliow'd.
They eas'd their fhoulders, and difpos'd the Ic^d"; 155
Circling around the place, where times to come
Shall view Patroclus' and Achilles' tomb.
The hero bids his martial troops appear
High on their cars in all the pomp of war ;
Each in refulgent arms Jiis limbs attires, 160

All mount their chariots, combatants and fquires.
The chariots firfl proceed, a fliining train j
Then clouds of foot that fmoke along the plain •
Next thefe the melancholy band appear,
Amidft, lay dead Patroclus on the bier: l^r

O'er all the corfe their fcatter'd locks they throw •
Achilles next, oppreit with mighty woe.

V. 160. iach in refulgent arms^ etc.] It is not to be
fuppofed that this was a general cuflom ufed at all fune-
rals; but Patroclus being a warrior, he is buried like a
foldier, with military honours, Euilathius.

V. 166. O'er all the corfe their fcatter'd locks they
The ceremony of cutting off the hair in honour of the
dead, was pradifed not only among the Greeks, but al-
fo among other nations ; thus Statius Thebaid 6.

• Tergoque et peHore fufayn

Ccefarieviferro minuit^ feBifquejacentls
Obnuhit tenuia ora comis.


Supporting with his hands the hero's head,
Bends o'er th' extended ■body of the dead.

This cuftom is taken notice of In holy fcripture : Eze-
klel defcribing a great lamentation, fays, They Jl^all maks
ihonfelves utterly bald for thee, ch. xxvil. v. 31. 1 be-
lieve it was done not only in token of forrow, but per-
haps had a concealed meaning, that as the hair was cut
from the head, and was never more to be joined to it,
fo was the dead for ever cut off from the living, never
more to return,

I mufl obferve that this ceremony of cutting off the
hair was not always in token of forrow ; Lycophron Iti.
his Cafllmdra, v. 976. defcribing a general lamentation,

^-^ length ofunfborn hair adcrti'd their backs*

And that the ancients fometimes had their hair cut off
in token~of7<j}', is evident from Juvenal, Sat. 12. v. 82.

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