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ferent ornaments.

V. 209. Pa/e lies my friends etc.] It is in the Greek,.
Ihs extended in viy tent nxith his face turned toinardf
the dsor^ u')a w^oS-y^ai' TEr^^c^itjiiivaj, that is to fay, as the.
(choliaft has explained it, having bis feet turned to -
^tvardi the door. For it was thus the Greeks placed their,
dead in the porches of their houfes, as likewife in Italy.,,

In portatn rigidos calces extendit* Perfius.

'Recepltque ad lirnina grejfum

Corpus uhi emnimi pofiium Pallantis Acetes
Servabat fenior' — ' .-

B 7,

i8 H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XIX.

Revenge is all my foul ! no meaner care,

IntVed, or thought, has room to harbour there ; "^

Deflru<51:ion be my feaft, and mortal wounds.

And fcenes of blood, and agonizing founds.

O iirft of Greeks (L^fTes thus rejoin'd) 215

The beft and braveft of the warrior-kind f
Thy praife it is in dreadful camps to fhine.
But old experience and calm wifdom, mine.
Then hear my counfel, and to reafon yield.
The braved foon are fatlate of the field ; 22©

Tho' vaft the heaps that ftrow the crimfon plain.
The bloody harveft brings but little gain :
The fcale of conqueft ever wav'ring lies.
Great Jove but turns it, and the vid:or dies !
The great, the bold, by thoufands daily fall, 225

And endlefs were the grief to weep for all.
JEtemal forrows what avails to fhed ?
Greece honours not with folemn fa(ts the dead :
Enough, when death demands the brave, to pay
The tribute of a melancholy day. 230

Thus we are told by Suetonius, of the body of Auguflus,
■ Equejier ordofufcepit, urbiquit inluiit, atque in

vejiibtth domtis collocavit.

V, 221. Tho' vafl the heaps, etc.] UlyfTes's expreffi-
on in the original Is very remarkable; he calls KccXec^Yiv,
Jiranw or chaffs fuch as are killed in the battle ; and he
calls etjicj)T«y, the cropy fuch as make their efcape. This
is very conformable to the language of holy fcripture,
wherein thofe who perirti are called chaffy and thofe who
are faved are called corn. Dacier.


One chief with patience to the grave refign'd.

Our care devolves on otliers left behind.

Let gen'rous food fupplies of flrength produce,

Let rifing fpirits flow from fprightly juice,

Let their warm heads with fcenes of batde glow, 235

And pour new furies on the feebler foe.

Yet a fliort interval, and none (hail dare

Exped a fecond fummons to the war ;

Who waits for that, the dire effedt fhall find.

If trembling in the fliips he lags behind, 240

Embodied, to the batde let us bend,

And all at once on haughty Troy defcend.

And now the delegates UlyfTes fent.
To bear the prefents from the royal tent:
The fons of Neftor, Pliyleus' valiant heir, 245

Thias and Merion, thunderbolts of war,
With Lycomedes of Creiontian ftrain.
And Melanippus, forrn'd the chofen train.
Swift as the word was giv'n, the youths obey'd ;
Twice ten bright vafes in the midfl they laid; 250

V. 237. ■ ■^ None shall dare

ExpeH a fecond funmions to the luarj^
This is very artful ; Ulyfies to prevail upon Achilles to
let the troops take repaft, and yet in fome fort to fecond
his impatience, g;ves with the fame breath orders for
battle, by commanding the troops to march, and exped
no farther orders. Thus though the troops go to take
repaft, it looks as if they do not lofe a moment's time,
but are going to put themfelves iji array of batde. Da-

2a H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XIX.

A row of fix fair tripods then fucceeds ;

And twice the number of high -bounding fteeds ;

Sev'n captives next a lovely line compofe ;

The eighth Brifeis, like the blooming rofe,

Clos'd the bright band : great Ithacus, before, 255

Firfl: of the train, the golden talents bore ;

The reft in public view the chiefs difpofe,

A fplendid fcene ! then Agamemnon rofe ;

The boar Talthybius held : the Grecian lord

Drew the broad cudace fheath'd befide hisfword : 26©

The ftubbom bridles from the vidlim's brow

He crops, and off 'ring meditates his vow.

His hands uplifted to th' attefting skies,

On heav'n*s broad marble roof were fix'd his eyes.

The folemn words, a deep attention drawj 265

And Greece around fate thrill 'd with facred awe,

Witnefs thou firft ! thou greateft pow'r above 1
All-good, all -wife, and ail-furveying Jove !
And mother earth, and heav'n's revolving light,
And ye, fell furies of the realms of night, 270

Who rule the dead, and horrid woes prepare.
For perjur'd kings, and all' who falfely Rvear I"
The black-ey*d maid inviolate removes.
Pure and unconfcious of my manly loves.
If this be falfe, heav'n all its vengeance (bed, 275

And levell'd thunder ftrike my guilty head !

Widi that, his weapon deep inflids the wound ;
The bleeding favage tumbles to the ground,

Book XIX. H O M E R's ILIAD. 21

The facred herald rolls the vidim ilain

(A feafl for fifh) Into the foaming main. 280

Then thus Achilles. Hear, ye Greeks ! and know
Whate'er we feel, 'tis Jove inflids the woe :
Not elfe Atrides could our rage inflame.
Nor from my arms unwilling, force the dame.
'Twas Jove's high will alone, o'er-ruling all, 285

That doom'd our flrife, and doom'd the Greeks to fall.
Go then, ye chiefs ! indulge the genial rite ;
Achilles waits ye, and expeds the fight.

The fpeedy council at his word adjourn'd :
To their black vefTels all the Greeks return'd. 290
Achilles fought his tent. His train before
March'd onward, bending with the gifts they bore,
Thofe in the tents the fquires Induftrious fpread :
The foaming courfers to the ftalls they led.
To their new feats the female captives move; 295

Brifeis, radiant as the queen of love.
Slow as fhe part, beheld with fad furvey
Where gafh'd with cruel wounds, Patroclus lay,

V. 280. J^olls the viriim into the mai?!.'] For it was
not lawful to eat the flefn of the vi<5liins that were facri-
ficed in confirmation of oaths ; fuch were vidims of
malediction. Euftathius.

V. 281. Hear^ye Greekj, etc.] Achilles, to let them
fee that he is intirely appeafed, juftifies Agamemnon him-
felf, and enters into the reafons with which that prince
had coloured his fault. But in that juftification he
perfectly well preferves his charader, and illuftrates the
advantage he has over that king who offended him,


Prone on the body fdl the heav'niy fair.

Beat her fad bread, and tore her golden hair; 300

All beautiful in grief, her humid eyes

Shining with tears, fhe lifts, and thus fhe cries.

Ah youth ! for ever dear, for ever kind.
Once tender friend of my diftrafled mind !
I left thee freHi in life, in beauty gay ; sor

Now find thee cold, inanimated clay !
What woes my wretched race of life attend ?
Sorrows on forrows, never doom'd to end !
The firii lov'd confort of my virgin bed
Before thefe eyes in fatal battle bled : 310

My three brave brothers in one mournful day
All trod the dark, irremeable way :
Thy friendly hand uprear'd me from the plain,.
And dry'd my forrows for a hufband flain :
Achilles* care you promis'd I Ihould prove, gijf

The firft, the deareft partner of his love*

V. 303 . efc. Tie lamentation ofBrifeis over Pafro^ ©
cIks.'] This fpeech (fays Dionyfius of HalicarnalTus) is
not without its artifice : while Brifeis feems only to be
deploring Patroclus, flie reprefents to Achilles who
ftands by, the breach of the promifes he had made her,
and upbraids him with the negledt he had been guilty of
m refigning her up to Agamemnon. He adds, that
Achilles hereupon acknowledges thejuflice of her corii-
plaint, and makes anfwer that his promifes fhould be
performed : it was a flip in that great critic's memory,
for the verfe he cites is not in this part of the author,
^ {_^'^e} e<^ ;k;>j;W«ric^£i'&;v, Part 2O

v. 3 1 5 , Achilles'' care you promis'dy etc.] In thefe
days when our manners are fo different from thofe of

Book XIX. H O M E R's I L I A D. 23

That rites divine fhould ratify the band,

And make me emprefs in his native land.

Accept thefe grateful tears ! for thee they flow,

For thee, that ever felt another's woe ! 320

Her fifter captives echo'd groan for groan,
Nor mourn'd Patroclus* fortunes, but their own.
The leaders prefs'd the chief on every fide ;
UnmovM, he heard them, and with fighs deny'd.

If yet Achilles have a friend, whofe care 325

Is bent to pleafe him, this requeft forbear :
Till yonder fun defcend, ah let me pay
To grief and anguiih one abftemious day,

the ancients, and we fee none of thofe difmal cataftro-
phes which laid whole kingdoms waft, and fubjedted
princefTes and queens to the power of the conqueror ;
it will perhaps feem aftonilhing, that a princefs of Bri-
feis's birth, the very day that her father, brothers, and
husband were killed by Achilles, fhould fuffer herfelf to
be comforted, and even flattered with the hopes of be-
coming the fpoufe of the murderer. But fuch were the
manners of thofe times, as ancient hiitory teftifies : and
a poet reprefents them as they v/ere ; but if there was a
neceffity for juftifying thera, it might be faid that flavery
was at that time fo terrible, that in truth a princefs like
Brifeis, was pardonable, to chufe rather to become A-
chilies's wife than his flave. Dacier.

V. 322. Nor mourn'' d P at roctus'' fortunes ^ but their
e'wn'\ Homer adds this touch to heighten the charadter
of Brifeis, and to fliew the difference there was between
her and the other captives. Brifeis, as a well-born
princefs, really bewailed Patroclus cut of gratitude; but
the others, by pretending to bewail him, wept only out
<©f intereft, Dacier.

24 H O M E R*s I L I A D. Book XIX.

He Ipoke, and from the warriors turn'd his face :
Yet ftill the brother-kings of Atreus' race, 3 50

Neftor, Idomeneus, Ulylfes fage,
And Phoenix, ih ive to calm his grief and rage :
His rage they calm not, nor his grief controul ;
He groans, he raves, he forrows from his foul.

Thou too, Patrockis ! (thus his heart he vents) 33;
Once fpread th' inviting banquet in our tents :
Thy fweet fociety, thy winning care,
Once ftay'd Achilles, ruOiing to the war.
But now alas ! to death's cold arms refign'd.
What banquet but revenge can glad my mind? 340
What greater forrow could affli(5l my bread.
What more, if hoary Pcleus were deceas'd ?
Who now, perhaps, in Phthia dreads to hear
His fon's fad fate, and drops a tender tear.
What more, (hould Neoptoleraus the brave 345

(My only offspnng) fink into the grave ?
If yet that offspring lives, (I diftant far.
Of all negledful, wage a hateful war)
I cou'd not this, this cruel (Iroke attend ;
Fate claim*d Achilles, but might fpare his friend. 350

V. 335. Thou too, Patroclus / etc.] This lamentation
Is finely introduced : while tlie generals are perfuading
him to take fome refrefhment, it naturally awakens in
his mind the remembrance ofPatroclus,whohadfo foften
brought him food every morning before they went to
batde : this is very natural, and admirably well conceals
the art of drawing the fubje(^of his difcourfe from the
th ings that prefent themfel ves . Spoadanus .

I hop'd


I hop'd Patroclus might furvlvc, to rear

My tender orphan with a parent's care,

From Scyros ifle conduct him o'er the main,

And glad his eyes v/lth his paternal reign.

The lofty palace, and the large domain. ^355

For Pcleus breathes no more the vital air ; >

Or drags a wretched life of age and care.

But till the news of my fad fate invades

His haftening foul, and finks him to the fhades.

Sighing he faid : his grief the heroes join'd, 360
Each ftole a tear for what he left behind.
Their mingled grief the fire of heav'n furvey'd,
And tlius, with pity, to his blue ey'd maid.

Is then Achilles now no more thy care.
And dofl: thou thus defcrt the great in Avar ? 365

Lo, where yon' fails their canvas wings extend,
All comfortlefs lie fits, and wails his friend :
Ere third: and want his forces have opprcft,
Hade and infufe ambrofia in his bread:.

He fpoke, and fudden as the word of Jo^e, 570

Sliot the defccnding goddcfs from above.

V. 3'5i. I hop^d Patroclus vi'tght furvhey etc. J Pa-
troclus was young, and Achilles who had but a fiiort
time to live, hoped that after his death his dear friend
would be as a father to his fon, and put him into the
pofleflion of his kingdom : Neoptolemus would in Pa-
troclus find Peleus and Achilles; v/hcreas when Patroclus
was dead, he mud: be an orphan indeed. Homer is par-
ticulailv admirable for the fentiments, and always fol-
lows nature. Dacier,

Vol. IV. • G

26 HOM ER's ILI AD. Book XIX.

So fwift thro' xihev the fhrill flarpye fprings,

The wide air floating to her ample wings.

To great Achilles Hie lier flight addrefl.

And pour'd divine ambrofia in his breaft, gyj;

"With neclar fweet, (refedion of the Gods !)

Then, fwift afcending, fought the bright abodes.

Now ifllied from the fliips the warrior train.
And like a delnge pour'd upon the plain.
As when the piercing blafls of Boreas blow, 380

And fcatter o'er the fields the driving fnow;
From dufl<y clouds the fleecy winter flies,
Wbofe dazling luflre whitens all the fl<ies :
So helms fucceeding helms, fo fliields from fliields
Catch the quick beams, and brighten ail the fields; 385'
JBroad glitt'ring brealt-plates, fpears with pointed rays
'Mix in one fl:ream, refleding blaze on blaze :
7liick beats the centre as the courfers bound,
"With fplendour flame the fKies,and laugh the fields around.

V. 384. So hehfu fucceeding heb»s, fo jJnelds from

Catch the quick beams ^ and brighten aH the

"It is probable the reader may think the words,, fJjini/jg,
fplendidy and others derived from the luflre of arms, too
'frequent in thefe books. My author is to anfwer for
it ; but it may be allcdged in his cxcufe, that when it
was the cufbra for every fo'Idier to ferve in armcur, and
^vhen thofe arms were of brafs before die ufe of iron be-
came common, thefe images of kifire were lefs avoidable,
and more necefiarily frequent in defcriptlons of this nar


Full' in the midft, high tow'ring o'er the reft, 390
His limbs in arms divine Achilles drefl ;
Arms which the father of the fire beftow'd,
For'^'d on th' eternal anvils of the God.
Grief and revenge his furious heart infpire,
His glowing eye-balls roil with living fire; 395

'-He grinds his teeth, and furious with delay
O'eriooks th' embattled hoU, and hopes the bloody day.

The iilver cuiihes firll: his thighs infold :
Then o'er his bread was brac'd the hollow gold :
The brazen fword a various baldric ty'd, 400

That, itarr'd with gems, hung glitt'ring at his fide ;
And like the moon, the broad refulgent fliield
Blaz'd with long rays, and gleam'd athwart the field.

_ - So to night- wand'ring failors, pale with fears,
^Vide o'er the wat'ry walte, a light appears, 405

Which on the far-feen mountain blazing high.
Streams from fonie lonely watch-tow'r to the /]>:y :
With mournful eyes they gaze, and gaze again ;
Loud howls the itorm, and drives them o'er the main, -

V. 390. Achilles arming himfelf^ etc.] There is a
wonderful pomp in this defcription of Achilles's arming
himfelf ; every reader without being pointed to it, vvill
fee the extreme grandeur of all thefc images ; but what
is particular, is, in what a noble fcale they rife one a-
bove another, and how the liero is fet ftill in a {honger
point of light than before ; till he is at lafl: in a manner
covered over v/ith glories : he is at firfl: likened to the
moon-light, then to the Hames of a beacon, then to %
comet, and la(lly to the fun itfelf.

C 2

28 H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XIX.

Next, his high head the hehiiet grac'd ; behind 410
The fweepy crefl: hung floating in the wind :
Like the red ftar, that from his flaming hair
Shakes dawn difeafes, peftilence and war ;
So ftrcam'd the golden honours fro m his head.
Trembled the fparkling plumes, and the loofc gloiies (hcd.

The chief beholds himfelf with wond'ring eyes ; 416
His arms he poifes, and his motions tries ;
Buoy'd by fome inward force, he feems to fwim,
And feels a pinion lifting ev'ry limb.

And now he fhakes his great paternal fpear, 430
Pond'rous and huge ! which not a Greek could rear.
From Pelion's cloudy top an afh entire
Old Chiron f ell'd, and (hap'd it for his fire ;
A fpear which flern Achilles only wields,
The death of heroes, and the dread of fields : 425

Automedon and Alcimus prepare
Th' immortal courfers, and the radiant car,
(The filver traces fweeping at their fide)
Their fiery mouths refplendent bridles ty'd,
The iv'ry-ftudded reins, retum'd behind, 430'

Wav'd o'er their backs, and to the chariot join'd.
The charioteer then whirl'd the lafli around.
And fwift afcended at one adive bound.
All bright in heav'nly arms, above his fquire
Achilles mounts, and fets the field on fire; 43 J

Not brighter Phoebus in th' ethereal way,
flames from hh cJiariot, and reflores the day.

Book XIX. HOM ER's I L I A D. 29

High o'er the hoft, all terrible he (tands,

And thunders to his deeds thefe dread commands.

Xanthus and Biilius ! of Podarges' drain, 440

(Unlefs ye boafl that heav'niy race in vain)
Be fwift, be mindful of the load ye bear,
And learn to make your mafter more your care :
Thro' falling fquadrons bear my flaught'ring fword.
Nor, as ye left Patroclus, leave your lord. 445

The gen'rous Xanthus, as the words he faid,
Seem'd fenfible of woe, and droop'd his head.
Trembling he flood before the golden wain,
And bow'd to duft the honours of his mane,
When, ftrange to tell ! (fo Juno will'd) he broke 45^
Eternal iilence, and portentous fpoke.

V. 45:0, JVhen ft range to ielll (,fiJtino luill^d) he
Eternal filencet and portentous fpoke. ~\
It is remarked, in excufe of this extravagant fidion of ar
horfe fpeaking, that Homer was authorized herein by
fable, tradition, and hiftory. Livy makes mention of
two oxen that fpoke on different occafions, and recites,
the fpeech of one, which was, Roma cave iibi, Pliny
tells us, thefe anini?Js were particularly gifted this way,
1. 8. c. 45:. Eft frequens in prodigUs prifcorum, hoverfi
locutum. Befides Homer had prepared us for expeding
fomething miraculous from thefe horfes of" Achilles, by
repr-efenting them to be immortal. We have feen tJiem al-
ready fenfble, and weep'ng at the death of Patroclus : and
we muft add to all this, that a goddefs is concerned in wor-
king this wonder: it is Juno that does it. Oppian alludes
to this in a beautiful paiTage of his iirft book : not hav-
ing th^ original by me, I fiiall quote (what I believe is do
lefs becaitifuj) Mr. Fenton's tranilation of it,

C 3

30 HO M E R's ILIA D. Book XIX.

Achilles ! yes ! this day at leafl: we bear

Thy rage in fafety through the files of war :

But come it will, the fatal time mud come.

Nor ours the fault, but God decrees thy doom. 45:5

Not through our crime, or flownefs In the courfe.

Fell thy Patroclus, but by heav'nly force ;

The bright far-fhooting God who gilds the day,

(Confeft we faw him) tore his arms away.

No could our fwlftnefs o'er the winds prevail, 460

Or beat the pinions of the weftern gale.

Of all the prone creation^ none difplay
A friendlier fenfe of man's fuperior fioay :
Some in the f dent pomp of grief co?}:plain.
For the brave chief by doom of battle fain:
And ^when young Peleus in his rapid car
Rufh'd on^ to rouze ths thunder of the war.
With human voice in/pir'^d^ his feed deplor''d
The fate impending dreadful o'er his Lord.

Cyneg. lib. i.

Spondanus and Dacier fail not x.o bring up Balaam's
afs on this occafion. But methinks the commentators are
at too much pains to difcharge the poet from the impu-
tation of extravagant fiction, by accounting for wonders
of this kind : I am afraid, that next to the extravagance
of inventing them, is that of endeavouring to reconcile
fttch fictions to probability. Would not one general an-
fwer do better, to fay once for all, that the above-cit-
ed authors lived in the age of ^wonders : The tafte of
the world has been generally turned to the miraculous ;
wonders were what the people would have, and what not
only the poets, but the priefts, gave them.

Book XIX. llO M E R'S I L I AD. 31

All were in vain— -the fates thy death demand,
Due to a mortal and immortal hand.

Then ceas'd for ever, by the Furies ty'd.
His fateful voice. Th' intrepid chief reply 'd 465

With unabated rage So let it be !

Portents and prodigies are loft on me.

I know my fites : to die, to fee no more

IVIy much-lov'd parents, and my native fliore— —

Enough — ^when heav'n ordains, I fink in night; 470

Now perifli Troy ! he faid, and ri^fh'd to fight.

V. 464. Then ceas'd for ever^ by the furies tfa,
His fate-ful voice » ■ - J

The poet had offended againfi probability if he had made
JuRO take av/ay the voice ; for Juno (which fignifies the
air) is the caufe of the voice. Befides, the poet was wil-
ling to intimate that the privation of the voice is a thing
fo difmal^and melancholy, that none but the Furies caa
take upon them fo cruel ^ employment. Eudathius,

'} 9. ''





The battle of the Gods, and the -aJ^z of Achilles,

JUPITER upon Achilles' s return to the bat thy calls
a council of the gods^ and permits them to ajjijl ei-
ther party. The terrors of the combat e defer ibedy
*when the deities are engaged, Apollo encourages
JEneas to ??ieet Achilles, After a long converfation^
thefe tnvo heroes encounter; hut JEueas is preferved
by the ajjiflance of Neptune, Achilles falls upon the
rejl of the Trojans^ and is upon the point of killing
Memory hut Apollo conveys him anvay in a cloud. A-
chilles purfues the Trojans ivith a great f aught er»

The fame day continues % The fcene is in the field be*
fore Troy,

^ I ^ H U S round Pelides breathing war and blood,

"*" Greece flieath'd in arms, befide her veflels flood ;
While near impending from a neighb'ring height,
Troy's black battalions wait the fiiock of fight.
Then Jove to Themis gives command, to call 5

The Gods to council in the (tarry hall ;

V. 5, Then Jove to Themis gives command , etc,]] The
poet is now to bring his hero again into adion, and he


Swift o'er Olympus' hundred hills (he flies,

And fummons all the fenate of the skies.

Thefe fhining on-, in long proceffion come

To Jove's eternal adamantine dome. 10

Not one was abfent, not a rural pow'r,

That haunts the verdant gloom, or rofy bov/V,

Each fair-hair'd dryad of the fliady wood.

Each azure lifter of the filver flood ;

All bat old Ocean, hoary fire ! who keeps 15

His ancient feat beneath the facred deeps.

introduces him with the utmofi pomp and grandeur : the
gods are afFcmbled only upon this account, and Jupiter
permits feveral deities to join with the Trojans, and hin-
der Achilles from over-ruling dediny itfelf.

The circuraihnce cf fending Themis to aflemble the
gods is very beautiful ; {he is the goddefs of juftice j
the Trcjans by the rape of Helen, and by repeated per-
juries having broken her laws, Ihe is the propered nielTen-
ger to fummon a fynod to bring them to punifliment.

Proclus has given a farther explanation of this. The-
mis or Juftice (fays he) is made to afl^emble the gods
round Jupiter, becaufe it is from him that all the powers
of nature take their virtue, and receive their orders ; and
Jupiter fends them to the relief of both parties, to fliew
that nothing falls out but by his permiflion, and that nei-
ther angels, nor men, nor the elements, aft but accord-
ing to the power v/hich is given them.

V. 15.. y^// lut old Ocean.~\ Euftathius gives two rea-
fbns why Oceanus v/as abfent from this aflembly : the
one is becaufe he is fabled to be the original of all the
gods, and it would have been a piece of indecency for
him to fee the deities, who were all his defcendants, war
upon one another by joining adverfe parties : the other
reafon he draws from the allegory of Oceanus, which

Book XX. H O M E R's I L r A D. 35

On marble ^irones with lucid columns crown'd,
{The work of Vulcan) fate the pow'rs around.
Ev'n * he whofe trident fways the wat'ry reign,
Heard the loud fiimmons, and forfook the main, 20

Aflum'd his throne amid the bright abodes.
And queftion'd thus the iire of men and Gods.

What moves the God who heav'n and earth commands.
And grafps the thunder in his awful hands,
Thus to convene the whole asthereal (late? 25

Is Greece an^ Troy the fubje6l in debate ?
Already met, the low'ring hods appear,
And death ftands ardent on the edge of war.

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