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V. 262. Three thoufand viares, etc.] The number of
the horfcs and mares of Erichthonius may feem incre-
dible, were we not affured by Herodotus that there were
in the ftud of Cyrus at one time (befides thofe for the
fervicc of war) eight hundred horfes and fix thoufand
fix hundred mares. Euftathius.
V. ?64. Boreas enamour d, etc.] Homer has the hap-

Book XX. H O M E R's I L I A D. SI

"With voice diflcmbled to his loves lie neigh 'd.
And cours'd the dappled beauties o'er the mead:
Hence fprung twelve others of unrival'd kind,
Swift as their mother mares, and father wind.
Thefe lightly Hamming, when they fwcpt the plain, 270
Nor ply'd the grafs, nor bent the tender grain ;

pinefs of making the leafl: drcumflance confiderable ; the
fubje(5t grows under his hands, and the plainefl: matter
fhines in his drefs of poetry : another poet would have
faid thefe horfes were as fwift as the wind, but Homer
tells you that they fprung from Boreas the god of the
wind ; and thence drew their fwiftnefs.

V. 270. T/:e/e lightly skimmir.g^ a? they fnvept the
plai;i,'] The poet illi.lbatcs the fwiftnefs of thefe horfes
by defcribing them as running over the (landing corn,
and furface of waters, without jnaking any impreffion.
Virgil has imitated thefe lines, and adapts what Homer
fays of thele horfes to the Iv/iftneis of Camilla, JEru
7. V. 809.

Jlla vel tntaft>x fegetU per famma volar ct
Gramina ; nee tenet as curfu Iccf-jfet artjlas :
Vel mare per mediiuriyfiHClu fafpenfa tuinenti
Ferret iter^ celcres nee ttngeret aquore pi ant as.

The reader will eafily perceive that Virgil's is ulmoft a
literal tranflation : he has imitated the very run of the
verfes, which flow nimbly away in dactyls, and as fwift
as the wind they defcribe.

I cannot but obfer\e one thing in favour of Homer,
that there can no greater commendation be given to him,
than by confidering the condud of Virgil : who, thou oh
undoubtedly the greatell poet after him, feldora ventures
to vary much from his original in the paffages he takes
from him, as in a defpair of improving, and contented
if he can but equal them,


52 H O M E R's r L I A D. Book XX.

And when along the level feas they flew.
Scarce on the furface curl'd the briny dew.
Such Erlchthonius was : from him there came
The facred Tros, of whom the Trojan name. 275

Three fons renown'd adorn'd his nuptial bed,
llus, Aflaracus, and Ganymed :
The raatchlefs Ganymed, divinely fair,
"Whom heav'n enamour'd fnatch'd to upper ar,
To bear the cup of Jove (asthereal gueft) 280

The grace and glory of th' ambrofial fea'i.
The two remaining fons the line divide :
Firfl rcfe Laomedon from Ilus' fide ;
From him Tithonus, now in cares grown old,
And Priam, (bled: with Hedlor, brave and bold:) 285
Clytius and Lanipus, ever-honour'd pair ;
And Hicetaon, thunderbolt of war.
From great AfTaracus fprung Capys, He
B.?gat Anchifes, and Anchifes me.

v. 280. To hear the cup of Jove 7\ To be a cup-bearer
has in all ages and nations been reckoned an honourable
employment : Sappho mentions it in honour of her bro-
ther Labiclius, that he was cup-bearer to the nobles of
Mitylcne : the fon of Menelaus executed the fame office ;
Hebe and Mercury ferved the gods in the fame flation.
It was the caftom In the Pagan worfliip to employ
noble youths to pour the vv'ine upon the facriflce : in this
office Gan3'^mcde might probably attend upon the altar
of Jupiter, and and from tlaence was fabled to be his cup-
bearer. Euftathius.

Book XX. HOMER'S ILIAD. ^ 55

Such is our race : 'tis fortune gives us birth, 290

But Jove alone endues the foul with worth :

He, fource of pow'r and might ! with boundlefs fway,

All human courage gives, or takes away.

Long in the field of words we may contend.

Reproach is infinite, and knows no end, 29 S

Arm'd or with truth or falfliood, right or wrong.

So voluble a weapon is the tongue ;

Wounded, we wound ; and neither fide can fail.

For every man has equal ftrcngth to rail :

Women alone, when in the flreets they jar, ■ 306

Perhaps excel us in the wordy war;

Like us they (land, encompafs'd with the croud,

And vent their anger impotent and loud.

Ceafe then Our bufmefs in the field of fight.

Is not to queftion, but to prove our might. 305

To all thofe infults thou haft ofi^er'd here.
Receive this anfwer : 'us my Hying fpear.

He fpoke. With all his force the jav'lin flung,
Fix'd deep, and loudly in the buckler rung.
Far on his outflretch'd arm, Ptlides held ::;iO

(To meet the thund'ring hnce) his dreadful fliield.
That trembled as it ftuck ; nor void of fear
Saw, ere it fell, th' immeafurable fpcar.
His fears were vain ; th' impenetrable charms
Secur'd the temper of th'ssthereal arms, 3^ „

Through two flrong plates the point its pafTi'.ge held.
But flopp'd, and refled, by the third repeii'.t.

E 3


54 H O M E R's I L 1 A D. , Book XX.

Five plates of various metal, various mold,

Conipos'd the fhield, of brafs each outward fold,

Of tin each inward, and the middle gold: 3 320

There ftuck the lance. Then rifing ere he threw.

The forceful fpear of great Achilles flew,

And pierc'd the Dardan fliield's extremeft bound.

Where the fhrill brafs return'd a fliarper found :

Through the thin verge the Pelean weapon glides, 325

And the flight cov'ring of expanded hides.

j^neas his contracfled body bends.

And o'er him high the riven targe extends.

Sees through its parting plates, the upper air.

And atiiis back perceives the quiv'ring fpear: 330

A fate lb. near him, chills his foul with fright.

And fwinis before his eyes the many-colour'd light.

Achilles, rufhing in with dreadful cries,

Draws his broad blade, and at jEneas flies :

Apneas rouzing as the foe came on, 33 f

(With force collefled) heaves a mighty flone :

A raafs enormous ! which in modern days

Not two of earth's deg^n'rate fons could raiie.

But Ocean's God, whofe eartliquakes rock the ground,

Saw the diftrefs, and mov'd the pow'rs around. 340

V. 3;9. But OcearCs Gody etc.] The conduifl of the
poet in making /tineas owe his fafety to Neptune in this
T)lace is remarkable : Neptune is an enemy to the Tro-
jans, yet he dares not fuffer fo pious a man to fall, leftju-
piter ihould be offended : tliis (hews, fays Euftathius,
that piety is always under the protedion of God; and
that favours are fometimcs conferred not out of kindnefs,


Lo ! on the brink of fate .Eneas (lands,
An inftcint viclira to Achilles' hands :
By Phoebus urg'd ; but Phoebus has beftow'd
His aid In vain : the man o'erpow'rs the God.
And can ye fee this righteous cliief atone 34?

With guiltlefs blood, for vices not his own ?
To all the Gods his conftant vows were paid :
Sure, tho' he wars for Troy he claims our aid.
Fate wills not this ; nor thus can Jove refign
The future father of the Dardan line: 35O

The firft great anceftor obtain'd his grace,
And fllll his love defcends on all the race.
For Priam now, and Priam's falthlefs kind,
At length are odious to th' all-feeing mind ;

but to prevent the greater detriment : thus Neptune pre-
ferves i^^^neas, left Jupiter fliould revenge his death upon
the Grecians..

V. 345, And can ye fee this righteous chiefs etc.]]
Though .Eneas is reprefented a man of great courage,
yet his piety is his mod ftiining charadler : this is the
reafon why he is always the care of the gods, and they
favour him conflantly through the whole poem with
their immediate protedion .

It is in this light that VirgilTias prefented him to the
view of the reader: his valour bears but the fecond
place in the iEneis. In the Ilias indeed he Is drawn iri
miniature, and in the iElnels at full length ; but there

are the fame features in the copy, which are in the ori-
ginal, and he is the fame ^neas In Rome as he v/as iij


S6 H O iM E R's I L I A D. Book XX.

On great iEneas fhall devolve the reign 555

And fons fucceeding fons the lafting line fuilain. '

V. 355. On great JEneas fl^all devolve the reign,

And fons fucceedvig fons the lafiing linefuflair2\
The (lory of ^Eneas's founding the Roman empire, gave
Virgil the iinefl- occafion imaginable of paying a comple-
ment to Augudus, and his countrymen, who were fond
of being thought the defcendants of Troy. He has tranl-
lated thefe lines literally, and put them in the nature of
a prophecy ; as the favourers of the opinion of ^5'neas's
{ailing into Italy, imagine flomer's to be.

'Atveuio Zi'yj Tpcoics-iv livcl^&i

Kxi %-X,7^i? TTxT^UV rolKlV f^iTOTTiC^i yivavTxu

Hie domus lEnea cun£iis dominabitur oris,
Et nati naiorum et qui nafcentur ab Hits,

There has been a very ancient alteration made as
Strabo obferves) in thefe two lines, by fubflitudng Wv-
T«ori, in the room of rq^doicrt. It is not improbable but
Virgil might give occafion for it, by his cun^is dominw
bitur oris.

Euflathlus does not intirely difcountenance this {lory :
if it be underflood, fays he, as a prophecy, the poet
might take it from the Sibylline oracles. He farther re-
marks, that the poet artfully interweaves into his poem
not only the things which happened before the com-
mencement, and in the profecution of the Trojan war;
but other matters of importance which happened even af-
ter that war was brought to "a conclufion. Thus for in-
ftance, we have here a piece of hli'tory not extant in any
other author, by which we are informed that the houfe
of ^^neas fucceeded to the crown of Troas, and to the
kingdom of Priam. Euflathius.

This pafTage is very confiderable, for it ruins the fa-
mous cliimcera of tlie Roman empire, and of the family

Book XX. H O M E R's ILIAD. 57

The great earth-fhaker thus : to whom replies '
Th' imperial goddefs with the radiant eyes.

of the Ccefars, who both pretended to deduce their ori-
ginal from Venus by i^neas, alledging that after the tak-
ing of Troy, iEneas came into Italy : and this preten-
fion is hereby adually deftroyed. This teftimony of
Homer ought to be looked upon as an authentic a(5l, the
fidelity and verity whereof cannot be queftioned. Nep-
time, as much an enemy as he is to the Trojans, de-
clares that iEneas, and after him his pofierity, fhall reign
over the Trojans. Would Homer have put this pro-
phecy in Neptune's mouth, if he had not known that
jSneas did not leave Troy, but that he reigned there,
and if he had not feen in his time the defcendants of
that prince reign there likewife ? That poet wrote two
hundred and fixty years, or thereabouts, after the taking
of Troy ; and what is very remarkable, he v/rote in fome
of the towns of Ionia, that is to fay, in the neighbour-
hood of Phrygia, fo that the time and place give fuch a
weight to his depofition, that nothing can invalidate it.
All that the hidorians have written concerning ii^neas's
voyage into Italy, ought to be confidered as a romance,
made on purpofe to deftroy all hidorical truth ; for the
mod ancient is pofterior to Homer by fome ages. Be-
fore Dionyfius of HalicarnaiTus, fome writers being /en-
Cble of the ftrength of this paflage of Homer, undertook
to explain it fo as to reconcile it with this fable ; and
they (aid that ^neas, after having been in Italy, return-
ed to Troy, and left his fon Afcanius there. Diony-
fius of Halicarnaffus, little fatisfied with this folution,
which did not feem to him to be probable, has taken
another method ; he would have it, that by thefe words,
** He fhall reign over the Trojans," Homer meant,
He fhall reign over the Trojans whom he fhall carry
with him into Italy. *• For is it not poflible, fays he,
" that ^neas fhould reign over the Trojans, whom he
" had taken with him, though fettled elfewhere i "


Good as he is, to immolate or fpare

The Dardan prince, O Neptane, be thy care j 360

Pallas and I, by all that Gods can bind.

Have fworn deflru(5lion to the Trojan kind ;

Not ev'n an inftant to protraft their fate.

Or fave one member of the finking flate ;

Till her lafl: flame be quench'd with her laft gore, 365

And ev'n her crumbling ruins are no more.

The king of Ocean to the fight defcends,
Thro' all the whifl-ling darts his courfe he bends.
Swift interpos'd between the warriors iiies.
And cafis thick darknefs o'er Achilles' eyes. 370

That hi{torian, who wrote In Rome itfelf, and in the
Tcry reign of Augufius, was wiling to make his coart
to that prince, by explaining this pafiage of Homer, fo
as to favour the chimasra he was pofiefied with. And
this is a reproach that may with fome juflice be caft on
him ; for poets may by their fictions flatter princes, and
welcome : it is their trade. But for hiftorians to cor-
rupt the gravity and feverity of hiftory, to fubfHtute
fable in the place of truth, is what ought not to be par-
doned. Strabo was much more fcrupulous, for though
he wrote his books of geography towards the beginning
of Tiberius's reign, yet he had the courage to give a
right explication to this pafiage of Homer, and to aver,
that this poet faid, and meant, that ^neas remained at
"Troy, that he reigned therein, Priam's whole race being
extinguiflied, and that he left the kingdom to his chil-
dren after him, lib. 13. You may fee this whole matter
difcufied in a letter from M. Bochart to M. de Segrais,
who has prefixed it to his remarks upon the tranflatioa
of Virgil,

Book XX. H O M E R's 1 L I A D. 59

From great ^Eneas' (hleld the fpear he drew,
And at its maiter's feet the weapon threw.

That done, with force divine he fnatch'd on high
The Dardan prince, and bore him thro' the (ley,
Smooth gliding without (lep, above the heads 375

Of warring heroes, and of bounding fteeds.
Till at the battle's utmoft verge they light.
Where the flow Caucans clofe the rear of fight :

V. 1^78. Where thejlonv Caucans clofe the rear.'] The
Caucones (fays Euftathius) were of Paphlagonian extradl:
and this perhaps was the reafon why they are not diflintSl-
ly mentioni^d in the catalogue, they being included un-
der the geiieral name of Paphlagonians : tho' two lines
are quoted which are faid to have been left out by fome
tranfcriber, and immediately followed this.

Which verfes are thefe.

Or as others read ky^AfinZo?.

0/ TTiPt TfCi^^iViOV TTolx^UaV kXv]u, OU^OtT VOtlO'J^

Or according to others,

Yet I believe thefe are not Homer's lines but rather the
addition of fome tranfcriber ; and it is evident by con-
fulting the paflage from which they are faid to have been
curtailed, that they would be abfurd in that place ; for
the fecond line is atSlually there already ; and as thefe
Caucons are faid to live upon the banks of the Partheni-
ns, fo are the Paphlagonians in the above-mentioned paf-
fage. It is therefore more probable that the Caucons are
included in the Paphlagonians.

6o HO M E R's I L I A D. Book XX.

The Godhead there (his heav nly form confefs'd)
AVith words like thefe the panting chief addrefs'd. 380

AVhat pow'r, O prince, with force inferior far
Urg'd thee to meet Achilles' arm in war !
lienceforth beware, nor antedate thy doom,
Defrauding fate of all thy fame to come.
But when the day decreed (for come it mud) 385

Shall lay this dreadful hero in the duft,
Let then the furies of that arm be known,
Secure, no Grecian force tranfcends thy own.

With that, he left him wond'ring as he lay,
Then from Achilles chas'd the mift away: 390

Sudden, returning with the flream of light,
The fcene of war came rufliing on his fight.
Then thus, amaz'd : what wonders ftnke my mind !
My fpear, that parted on the wings of wind,
Laid here before me ! and the Dardan lord 39S

That fell this infbnt, vanifh'd from my fwordl
I thought alone with mortals to contend.
But powVs celeftial fure this foe defend.
Great as he is, our arm he fcarce will try,
Content for once, with all his Gods, to fly. 400

Now then let others bleed This faid, aloud

He vents his fury, and inflames the croud,

O Greeks (he cries, and ev'ry rank alarms)

Join batde, man to man, and arms to arms !

*Tis not in rae, tho* favour'd by the sky, 405

To mow whole U'oops, and make ^vhole armies fly •:


Book XX. H O M E R's I L I A D. 6i

No God can fingly fuch a hoft engage,

Not Mars himfelf, nor great Minerva's rage.

But whatfoe'er Achilles can irifpire,

Whate'er of aftive force, or ading fire, 4 10

Whate'er this heart can prompt, or hand obey ;

All, all Achilles, Greeks ! is yours to-day.

Thro' yon* wide hoft this ami fhall fcatter fear.

And thin the fquadrons with my fingle fpear.

He faid: nor lefs elate with martial 'joy, 4T5

The godlike Hedtor warm'd the troops of Troy.
Trojans, to war ! think Hevflor leads you on ;
Nor dread the vaunts of Peleus' Iwughty fon.
Deeds mufl decide our f&te. Ev'n thofc with wor^s
Infult the brave, who -trenrole at their fwords : 420

The weakeft atheifl-wretch all heav'n defies, ^

But flirinks and fh udders, when the thunder flies. ^

Nor from yon' boafter flirJl your chief retire.
Not tho' his heart were fteel, his hands were fire ;
That fire, that (leel, your Hedor iliou'd withftand, 425
And brave that vengeful heart, that dreadful hand.

Thus (breathing rage tliro' all) the hero faid;
A wood of lances rifes round his head,
Clamours on clamours temped all the air,
Thev join, they throng, they thicken to the war. 43*0
But Phoebus warns him from high heav'n to fhua
The fingle fight with Thetis' godlike fon ;
More fafe to combate in the mingled band.
Nor tempt too near the terrors of his hand.

Vol. IV. F

62 HO M E R's ILIA D. Book XX.

He hears, obedient to the God of light, 43-j

And pkmg'd within the ranks, awaits the fight.

Then fierce Achilles, fhouting to the Hiies, i

On Troy's whole force with boundlefs fury flies.
iFirll fills Iphytion, at liis army's head ;
Brave was the chief, and brave the hoft he led, 440
From great Otrynteus he deriv'd his blood.
His mother was a Nais of the flood ;
Beneath the fliades of Tmolas, crown 'd with fnow,
From Hyde's walls he rul'd the lands below.
Fierce as he fprings, the fword his head divides ; 44 j
The parted vlfage falls on equal fides :
With loud-refounding arms he ftrikes the plain ;
"While thus Achilles glories o'er the flain.

JLie there, Otryntides ! the Trojan earth
Receives thee dead, tho' Gygx boaft thy birth ; 4J0
Thofe beauteous fields where Hyllus' waves are roll'd,
And plenteous Hermus fwells with tides of gold,

Are thine no more Th* infulting hero faid,

A.nd left him flceping in eternal fliade.
The rolling wheels of Greece the body tore, 45 j

And daih'd their axles with no vulgar gore.
Demoleon next, Antencr's offspring, laid
♦Breathlefs in duft, tlie price of radmefs paid,
Th' impatient (leel with full defcending fway
'Forc'd thro' his brazen helm its furious way, 460

^efifllefs drove the battcr'd fivull before,
And dafli'd and mingled -all .tlie brains with gore.

Book XX. H O M E R's ILIA D. 63

This fees Hippodamas, and fciz'd \vith fright,.

Deferts his chariot for a fwlfter flioht :

The lance arrefts him : an Ignoble wound' 46 J

The panting Trojan rivets to the gronnd.

He groans away his foul : not louder rores

At Neptune's flirlne on Helice's high fliores

The vidlim bull ; the rocks rebellow round.

And Ocean liftens to the grateful found, 47 O

Then fell on Polydore his vengeful rage.
The youngefl: hope of Priam's (looping age :

"V. 467. Xoi louder rarer

At Neptune^s fhrine on Helice's high/I:oresJ}
Iq Heilce, a town of Achaia, three quarters of a league
from the gulph of Corinth, Neptune had a magnificent
temple, where the lonians offered every year to him a
facrifice of a bull ; and it was with thefe people an au-
fpicious fign, and a certain mark, that the facrifice would
be accepted, if the bull belloived as he was led ta tha
altir. After the Ionic migration, which happened a-
bout 140 years after the taking of Troy, the lonians of
Afia aflembled in the fields of Priene to celebrate the
fame feftival in honour of Heliconian Neptune ; and as
thofe of Priene valued themfelves upon being originally
of Helice, they chofe for the king of the facrifice a young
Prienlan, It is needlefs to difpute from whence the poet
has taken his comparifon ; for as he lived 100, or 120
years after the Ionic migration, it cannot be doubted but
he took it in the Allan Ionia, and at Priene itfelf ; where
he had probably often afiifted at that facrifice, and been
witnefs of the ceremonies therein obferved. This poet
always appears ftrongly addided to the cuftoms of the
lonians, which makes fome conjedure that he was an
Ionian himfelf. Euflathius, Dacler.

V. 571. Then fell on Polydore bis vengeful rage,"^

(Whofe feet for fwiftnefs in the race furpafl)
Of all his fons, the deareft, and the laft.
To the forbiddea field he takes his flight 475..

In the firft folly of a youthful knight,
To vaunt his fwiftnefs wheels arotrnd the plain.
But vaunts not long, with all his fwiftnefs fhrn.
Struck where the croiTing belts unite behind.
And golden rings the double back-plate join'd : 4^0
Forth thro' the navel buril the thrilling fteel ;
And on his knees with piercing fhrieks he fell •
The rafhing entrails pour'd upon the ground
His hands colled ; and darknefs wraps him round.
When Hedor view'd, all ghaftly in his gore aSc

TIius fadly llain, th' unhappy Polydore;
A cloud of forrov/ overcaft his fight.
His foul no longer brook'd the ditlant fiaht.
Full in Achilles' dreadful €-ont he came,
And (hook his jav'lin like a waving flame. 450

Euripides in his Hecuba has followed another tradition,
v/hen he makes Polydorus the fon of Priam and of He-
cuba, and flain by Polymneftor king of Thrace, after
the taking of Troy ; for according to Homer, he is not
the fon of Hecuba, but of Laothoe, as he fays in the
following book, and is (lain by Achiiles. Virgil too has
ratjier chofen to follow Euripides than Homer.

V. 489. Fullin Ach'dles^ dreadful front he came.~\ The
great judgment of the poet in keeping the chara(5ler of
his hero, is in this place very evident : when Achilles
was to engage jEneas, he holds a long conference with
him, and with patience bears the reply of jEneas : had
he purfued the fame method with Heftor, he had de-
parted from his ehara<51:er. Anger is the prevailing paf^


The fon of Peleus fees, with joy po/Teft,

His heart high-bounding in his rih'ng bread:

And, lo ! the man, on whom black fates attend;

The man, that flew Achilles, in his friend !

No more fhall Hector's and Pelides' fpear 495

Turn from each other in the walks of war

Then with revengeful eyes he fcan'd him o*er :
Come, and receive thy fate ! he fpake no more.

Hedor, undaunted, thus. Such words eunploy
To one that dreads thee, fome unwarlike boy : 500
Such we could give defying and defy'd.
Mean intercourfe of obloquy and pride !
I know thy force to mine fuperior far ;
But heav'n alone confers fuccefs in war:
?»rean as I am, the Gods may guide my dart, 505^

And give it entrance in a braver heart.

Then parts the lance : but Pallas' hcav'nly breath
fax from Achilles wafts the winged death :
The bidden dart again to Hedlor flies.
And at the feet of its great maftcr Jies. 510

Achilles clofes with his hated foe,
His heart and eyes with flaming fury glow :

fion in Achilles : he left the field In a rage againft Aga-
memnon, and entered it again to be revenged of Hedor:
the poet therefore judiciourty makes him take fire at the
fight of his enemy : he defcribes him as impatient to kill
him, he gives him a haughty challenge, and that chal-
lenge is comprehended in a fingle line : his impatience to
be revengftdj would not fulfer him to delay it by a length
of words.

F 3

66 H O M E R's ILIAD. Book XX.

But prefent to his aid, Apollo fhrouds

The favour'd hero in a veil of clouds.

Thrice ftruck Pelides with indignant heart, J15

Thrice in impaflive air he plung'd the dart r

The fpear a fourth time bury'd in the cloud.

He foams with fury, and exclaims aloud..

Wretch ! thou haft fcap'd again, once more thy flight
Has fav'd thee, and the partial God of light. 520

But long thou fhalt not thy juft fate withftand.
If any power aflifl: Achilles' hand.
Fly then inglorious ! but thy flight this d^y
Whole hecatoinbs of Trojan ghofts (hall pay.

With that, he gluts his rage on numbers flain: 52 J
Then Dryops tumbled to th' enfanguin'd plain,
Pierc'd thro' the neck : he left him panting there*
And ftopp'd Demuchus, great Philetor's heir.

▼. 513. But prefent to his aid, Jfrollo.'] It is a com-
mon obfervation, that a God fliould never be introduced
into a poem but where his prefence is neceflary. And

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