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the like incidents ; but doubtlefs he was touched with

I30 HO M E R's ILIA D. Book XXIL

Juft when he holds or thinks he holds his prey, 185
Obliquely wheeling thro' th' aerial way;
"Widi open beak and (hrilling cries he fprings,
And alms his claws, and fhoots upon his wings:

this epifode, as with one of thofe which interefl us mod
of the whole Iliad, by a fpeftacle it once fo terrible, and
fo deplorable, I muft alfo add the fuflTr-ge of Aridoile,
Avho was fo far from looking upon this pafiage as ridi-
culous or blameable, that he efteemed it marvellous and
admirable. ** The ivc/jderfn/i fays he, ought to have
" place in tragedy, but ft ill more in epic poetry, which
** proceeds in this point even to the unreafonable : for
*' as in epic poem, one fees not the perfons acting, fo
'* whatever pafTes the bounds of reafon is proper to pro-
'' duce the admirable and the marvellous. For exara-
* * pie, v/hat Homer fays of Hedor purfued by Achilles,
" would appear ridiculous on the (tage ; for the ipedia-
" tors could not forbear laughing to fee on one fide the
♦* Greeks ftanding without any motion, and on the 0-
" ther Achiilies purfuing Hedor, and making figns to
** the troops not to dart at him. But all this does not
'* appear when we read the poem : for what is v/onder-
" fui is always agreeable, and as a proof of it, we find
•* that they who relate any thing, ufuaily add fomething
" to the truth, that it may the better pleafe thofe who

'« Hear it."

The fame great critic vindicates this pafTage m the
chapter following. ''A poet, fays he, is inexcufable
*' if he introduces fuch tilings as are impoffible accord-
*' ing to the rules of poetry : but this ceafes to be a
" fault, if by thofe means he attains to die end propof-
«< ed ; for he has dicn brought about what he intended :
" for example, if he renders by it any part of his poem
«« more allonilhing or admirable. Such is the place ia
«' the Iliad, where Achilles purfues Heaor." Anft,
poet. chap. 25, 26.

Book XXII. HOME R^s I LI AD. 131

No lefs fore-light the rapid chace they held,

One urg'd by fury, one by fear impell'd : 190

Now circUng round the walls their courfe maintain.

Where the high watch-tow'r overlooks the plain ;

Now where the fig-trees fpread their umbrage broad,

/A wider compafs) fmoke along the road.

Next by Scamander's doable fource they bound, 19^

Where two fani'd fountains burft the parted ground ;

V. i()6. Where t'wo f am' d fountains r\ Strabo blames
Homer for faying that one of the fources of Scamander
was a warm fountain ; where as (fays he) there is but
one fpring, and that cold, neither is this in the place
where Homer fixes it, but in the mountain. It is ob-
ierved by Euftathius, that though this was not true in
Strabo's days, yet it might in Homer's, greater changes
liaving happened in lels time than that which paffed
between thofe two authors, Sandys, who was both a
geograplier and critic of gi'eat accuracy, as well as a tra-
veller of great veracity, affirms as an eye-vv^itnefs, that
there are yet fome hot-water fprings in that part of the
country, oppofite to Tenedos. I cannot but think that
gendeman muft have been particularly diligent and
curious in his inquiries into the remains of a place fo
celebrated in poetry ; as he was not only perhaps the
mofl: learned, but one of the bed: poets of his time : I
am glad of this occafion to do his memory fo mucli
judice as to fay, the Englifh verfification owes much of
its improvement to his tranflations, and efpecially that
admirable one of Job. What chiefly pleafes me in this
place, is to fee the exacS landfliip of old Troy ; we have
a clear idea of the town itfelf, and of the roads and
country about it ; the river, the fig-trees, and every part
h fet before our eyes.

152 H O M E R's ILIAD. Boole XXIf.

This hot thro' fcorching clefts is feen to rife.

With exhalations (learning to the skies ;

That the green banks in fiimmers heat o'erilows,

Like cryflal clear, and cold as winter- feows. 200

Eac"h f^ufhinjT fount a marble ciftern fills,

Whofe poiifh'd bed receives the falling rills ;

Where Trojan dames (ere yet alarm'd by Greece)

Wafh'd their fair garments in the days of peace.

By thefe they part, one chafing, one in flight, 205

(The mighty fled, pnrfu'd by flronger might)

Swift was the courfe ; no vulgar prize they play*

No vulgar vidlim muft reward the day,

(Such as in races crown the fpeedy Qrife)

The prize contended was great He(rcor's life. 210

As when fome hero's funVcds are decreed
In grateful honour of the mighty dead ;
Where high rewards the vig'rous youth inflame,
(Some golden tripod, or fome lovely dame)
The panting courfcrs fwifdy turn the goal, 2i J

And with diem turns the rais'd fpeftator's foul.
Thus three times round the Trojan wall they fly ;
The gazing Gods lean forward from the fky :

V-. 2 1 3 » The gaz'tng Gods lean for^ward from the Jliv?\
We have licre an inftance of the great judgment of
Homer, l^he death of Heflor being the chief adion of
the poem ; he affembles the god^, and calls a council in
heaven concerning It : it is for the fame realon that he
represents Jupiter witli the greatefl: folemnity weighing
io his fcaks the fates of the two heroes : I have before


Book XXri. HOME R's ILIA D. 133

To wlionij while eager on the chacethey look-,

The fire of mortals and inimortais fpoke. 220

Unworthy fight ! the man, belov'd of heav^'n.
Behold, Inglorious round yon' city dtivp !
IVIy heart partakes the gcn'rous Hector's pain ;
}Ie(ftor. whofe zeal whole hecatombs has ilain,
\Vhofe grateful fumes the Gods receiv'd with joy, 225
From Ida's fumniits, and the towVs of Troy :
No.v fee lilm flying ! to his fears refign'd,
And fate, and fierce Achilles, clofe behind.
Confalt, ye pow'rs ! ('tis wordiy your debate)
Whether to fnatch him trom impending fate, 250

^obferved at large upon the lafl circumftance In a preced-
ing note, fo that there is no occadon to repeat it.

I wonder that none of the comm.entators have taken
notice of this beauty ; in my opinion, it is a very necef-
fary obfervation, and (liews the art and judgment oftlj^
poet, that he has made the greatefl: and linifliing accion
of t!ie poem of fuch Importance that it engages the gods
in debates.

V. 226. Fro7n IdasfiuJimlts j It v.aS tiie cuftom

of the Pagans to facrlfice to the gods upon the hills and
mountains, in fcripture language upon the high placst
for they were perfuaded that the gods in a particular
manner inhabited fuch eminences : wherefore God order-
ed his people to deftroy all thofe high places, which the
nations had prophaned by tbeir idolatry. Tou (loall ut-
terly deftroy all the placet 'wherein the nations 'which
you fljall pcjefs fervsd their godsy upoji the high vioun-
tains y and upon the hills ^ and U72der every green tree,
Deut. xii. 2. It is for thisreafon that fo many kings arc
reproached in fcripture for not taking a^way the high
places. Dacier.

V L. IV. M

754 HO MER's I L I AD. BookXXlI.

Or let him bear, by ftern Pelides flain,

(Good as he is) the lot impos'd on man ?

Then Pallas thus : fhall he whofe vengeance forms

The forky bolt, and blackens heav'n with florras,

Shall he prolong one Trojan's forfeit breath ! 235

A man, a mortal, pre-ordain'd to death I

And will no murmurs fill the courts above?

No Gods indignant blame tlieir partial Jove ?
Go then (return'd th^ fire) without delay,

Exert thy will: I give the fates their way. 240

Swift at the mandate pleas'd Tritonia flies,
And ftoops impetuous from the cleaving fl<ies.
As thro' the forefl:, o'er the vale and lawn
The well-breath'd beagle drives the flying fawn :
In vain he tries the covert of the brakes, 24 J

Or deep beneath the trembling thicket (hakes ;
Sure of the vapour in the tainted dews,
The certain hound his various maze purfues.
Thus (lep by ftep, where'er the Trojan wheel'd,
There fwift Achilles compafs'd round the Bdd, 2^0

V. 249. Thtisjl^p hyftsfy, etc J There is fome diffi-
culty in this paflage, and it feems ftrange that Achilles
could not overtake Hedor whom he excelled fo much in
fwiftnefs, efpecially when the poet defcribes him as run-
ning in a narrower circle than Hector. Euftathius gives
us many folutions from the ancients ; Homer has already
told us that they run for the life of He6lor ; and confe-
quently He(ft:or would exert his utmofl: fpeed, whereas
Achilles might only endeavour to keep him from enter-
ing the city : befidcs, Achilles could not diredly purfue
him., bccaufe he frcaueiiily made efforts to fliclter him-

Book XXII. H O M E R's ILIAD. 135

Oft' as to reach the Dardan gates he bends,

And hopes th' affidance of his pitying friends,

(Whofe fliow'ring arrows, as he cours'd below,

From the high turrets might opprefs the foe)

So oft' Achilles turns him to die plain : " 255-

He eyes die city, but he eyes in vain.

As men In flumbers feem with fpeedy pace

One to purfue, and one to lead the chace,

Iheir finking limbs die fancy 'd courfe forfake,

Nor this can fly, nor that can overtake. 260

felf under the wail^ and he being obliged to turn hlni
from it, he might be forced to take more (teps than Hec-
tor. But the poet, to take away all grounds of an ob-
jedion, tells us afterwards, that Apollo gave him a (u-
per natural fwiftnefs.

V. 257. Js men in /lumbers '] This beautiful com-
parifon has been condemned by fome of the ancients,
even ib far as to judge it unworthy of having a place in
the lUad: they fay the didion is mean, and the firaili-
tude itfeif abfurd, becaule it compares the fwiftnefs of
the heroes to men afleep, v/ho are in a (late of red and
inaddvity. But there cannot be a more groundlefs cri-
ticifm : the poet is fo far from drawing his comparifon
from the repofe of men afleep, that he alludes only to
their dreams : it is a race in fancy that he defcribes ; and
fiirely the imaginanon is nimble enough to illuftrate the
greateft degree of fwiftnefs : befides, the verfes themfelves
run with the utmod rapidity, and imitate the fwiftnefs
they defcribe. Euflathius.

What fufhciently proves thefe verfes to be genuine. Is,
that Virgil has imitated them, ^n. 12.

j^c vsluti infomnis ■ ■

M 3

n6 HO M E R's I L I A D. Book XXir.

No lefs the lab 'ring heroes pant and drain ;
While that but flies, and this purfues in vain.

What God, O mufe ! affiikd Hedlor's force,
With fate itfelf fo long to hold the courfe I
Phcsbus it was ; who, in his lated hour, 265

Endu'd his knees with flrength, his nerves with pow'j: :
And great Achilles, left fome Greek's advance
Should fnatch the glory from his lifted lance,
Sign'd to the troops, to yield his foe the way.
And leave untouch'd the honours of the day. 270

V. 269. S'lgnd to the troops, etc.] The differencQ
which Homer here makes between He6tor and Achilles
deferves to be taken notice of; Hedlor is running away
towards the walls, to the end that the Trojans who are
upon them may overwhelm Achilles with their darts ;
and Achilles in turning Hedor towards the plain, makes
a fign to his. troops, not to attack him. Tliis fhews the
great courage' of Achilles. Yet tliis action which ap-
pears fo generous has been very much condemned by
the ancients 5 PJutarc'.i in th£ life of Pompey gives us to
, understand, that it v/as looked upon as the action of a %
fool to:) greedy of glory: indsei this is not a fingle
cjiibate of Achilles agaiaft Fleftor, (for in that cafe
Achilles would have done very ill not to hinder his
troops from affaulting him) this was a rencounter in a
batde> and fo Achilles might, and ought to take all ad-
vantages to rid himfelf, the readietl: and the fureft way,
of an enemy v/Jiofe death would procure an entire vic-
tory to his party. Wherefore does he leave this vic-
tory to -chance ? Why expofe himfelf to the hazard of
lofing it*? Why does he prefer his private glory to the
public weal, and the fifety of all the Greeks, which he
puts to the venture by delaying to conquer, and en-
dangering his own periuii ? I grant it is a fliult, but it

Book XXIf. H O M E R's I L I A D, l^?

Jove lifts the golden balances, that fhow
The fates of mortal men, and things below :
Here each contending hero's lot he tries,
And weighs, with equal hand, their dedinies.
Low finks the fcale furcharg'd with Hedor's fate; 275:
Heavy with death it finks, and hell receives the weight.

Then Phoebus left him. Fierce Minerva flies
To (lern Pelides, and triumphing, cries :
Oh lov'd of Jove ! this day our labours ceafe.
And conqueil blazes with full beams on Greece. 280
Great He(5lor falls ; that Hedor fam'd fo far,
Drunk with renown, infatiable of war,
Falls by thy hand, and mine 1 nor force, nor fliglit
Shall more avail him, nor his God of light.

mufl be owned to be the fault of a hero. Euflathius,

V. 277. Then Phcebut left him ~\ This is a very

beautiful and poetical manner of defcribing a plain cir-
cumftance : the hour of Hedlor's death was pow come,
and the poet expreffes it by faying that Apollo, or Defti-
tiy, forfakes him ; that is, the fates no longer proted him,

V. Id. Fierce Mhterva flies to flern P elides, tlc.'\

The poet may feem to diminifh the glory of Achilles, by
afciibing the vidory over He61or to the alfidance of
Pallas ; whereas in truth he fell by the hand only ©f
Achilles: but poetry loves to raife every thing into a
wonder ; it (reps out of the common road of narration,
and aims to furprize; and the poet vv'ould firther jo-
jlnuate that it is a greater glory to i^chilles to be be-
loved by the gods, than to be only excellent in valour:
for many men have valour, but few the favour of heaven,

M 3

1^3 homer's ILIAD. Book XXIf.

See, where in vain he fuppllcates above, 2S§

Rcll'd at the feet of unrelenting Jove 1
Red here : myfelf will lead the Trojan on,
i^nd urge to meet the fate he cannot fliun.

Her voice divine, the chief with joyful mind
Obey'd; and reded, on his lance reclin'd. 290

While like Deiphobus the martial dame
(Her face, her gefture, and her arms the fame)
In (how an aid, by haplefs Hedor's fide
.^pproach'd, and greets him thus with voice bely'd.

Too long, O He6lor I have I born the light 295

Of this diftrefs, and forrow'd in thy flight ;
It fits us now a noble (land to make,
And here, as brothers, equal fates partake.

Then he. O prince ! ally'd in blood and fame, ,

Dearer than all that own a brother's name ; 300

Of all that Hecuba to Priiim bore.
Long try'd, long lov'd; much lov'd, but honour'd more !

V. 290. Oh/ J; and rejled.'] The whole pafTage x
where Pallas deceives HetStor is evidently an allegory:
Achilles perceiving that he cannot overtake Heclor, pre-
tends to be quite fpent and wearied in the purfuit ; the
flratagem takes effed, and recalls his enemy : this the
poet expreffes by faying that Pallas, or W ifdom, came
to aflid Achilles. Hedor obferving his enemy ftay to
left concludes that he is quite fatigr.ed, and immediate-
ly takes courage, and ad\ ances upon iiim ; he thinks he
has him at an advantage, but at lail finds himfelf deceiv-
ed : thus making a wrong judgment, he is betrayed in-
to his death ; fo that his own faijc judg7ne7it is the
treacherous Pallas that deceives him. Eufhithius.


Since you of ail our nuni'rous race, alone
Defend my life, regardiefs of your own.

Again the Goddcfs. Much my father's pray'r, 305
And much my mother's, preft me to forbear :
My friends embrac'd my knees, adjur'd my (ta)^,
But (b-onger love impell'd, and I obey.
Come then, the glorious conflict let us try,
Let the fleel fparkle, and the jav'lin fly; 3 10

Or let us ftretch Achilles on the field,
Or to his arm our bloody trophies yield,

Fraudful Ihe faid; then fwiftly march'd before;
The Dardan hero fliuns his foe no more.
Sternly they met. The lilence Hedor broke ; 315

liis dreadful plumage nodded as he fpoke.

Enough, O fon of Peleus ! Troy has vicw'd
Her walls thrice circled, and her chief purfa'd.

V. 317. Tbefpeechss ofHeclor and of Achilles 7\ There
is an oppofition between thefe fpeeches excellently adapt-
ed to the cliai atlers of both the heroes : that of Heif tor
is full of courage, but mix'd with humanity: that of A-
chilles, of refentment and arrogance : we fee the great
He(5lor difpoling of his own remains, and that thirft of
glory which has made him live with honour, now bids
him provide, as Euftathius obferves, that what once
was Hedlor may not be difhonoured ; thus we fee a fe-
d^te, calm courage, with a contempt of death, in the
fpeeches of ]:ie(5tor. But in that of Achilles there is a
Jjerle, and an infolent air of lupcriority ; his magnani-
mity makes him fcorn to fleal a vidory, he bids him pre-
pare to defend himfelf with all his forces : and that va-
lour and refenin^ent which made hun defirous that he
might revenge himfelf upon Hc(5lor with his own hand.

149 H O M E R*s I L I A D. Book XXIU

Bat now fonie God within me bids me try ■

Thine, or my fate : I kill thee, or I die. 320

Yet on the verge of battle let us (lay.

And for a moment's fpace fufpend the day ;

Let heav'n's high pow'rs be call'd to arbitrate

The juft conditions of this ilern debate,

(Eternal witnefTes of all below, . 325

And faithful guardians of the treafar'd vow f)

To them I fwear ; if vi<ftor in the ftrife,

Jove by thefe hands (hall fhed thy noble life.

No vile diflionour fiiall thy corps purfue;_

Stript of its arms done (the conqu'ror's due) 330

The reft to Greece uninjur'd V\\ reftore :

Now plight thy mutual oath, I afk no more.

Talk not of oaths (the dreadful chief replies,
While anger fiaftVd from his difdainful eyes)
Detefted as thou art, and ought to be, 335

Nor oath nor pad: Achilles plights v;ith thee :

and forbade the Greeks to interpofe, now dire£ls him
not to take any advantage over a brave enemy. I think
both their charaders are admirably fuftained, and though
Achilles be drawm with a great violence of features, yet
the picture is undoubtedly like him, and it had been the
utmoft abfurdity to have foftened one line upon this oc-
cafion, when the foul of Achilles was all on fire to re-
venge the death of his friend Patroclus. I muft defire
the reader to carry this obfervation in his memory, and
particularly in that place, where Achilles fays he could
eat the very fiefn of Hedor ; (though I liave a little
foftened it in the tranfiation,) v. 438,

Book XXII. H O M E R's ILIAD. 14I

Such pa<^s, as Iambs and rabid wolves combine.

Such leagues, as men and furious lions join.

To fuch I call the Gods ! one conftant Itate

Of lafting rancour and eternal hate : 34*

No thought but rage, and never. ceafing ftrife,

'Till death extinguilh rage, and thought, and life.

Rouze then thy forces this important hour.

Collect: thy foul, and call forth all thy pow'r.

No farther fubterfuge, no farther chance ; 345

'Tis Pallas, Pallas gives thee to my lance.

Each Grecian ghoft by thee depriv'd of breath.

Now hovers round, and calls thee to thy death.

He fpoke, and lanc'd his jav'lin at the foe;
But Hector ihuna'd the meditated blow : 3 JO

He lloop'd, while o'er his head the flying fpear
Sung innocent, and fpent its force in air :
Minerva watch'd it falling on the land,
Then drew, and gave to great Achilles' hand,
Unfeen of Hedor, wiio, elate with joy, 35^

Now fiiakes his lance, and braves the dread of Troy.

The life you boafled to that jav'lin giv'n.
Prince ! you have raid. My fate depends on heav'n.
To thee (prefumptuous as thou art) unknown
Or what muft prove my fortune, or thy own. 360

Boafting is but an art, our fears to blind, -V '

And with falfe terrors fiick another's mind, 4-

But know, whatever fate I am to try.
By no difhoned wound fliall Hector die ;


I fhall not fall a fugitive at leafl:, 365

My foul ihall bravely IfTue from my breaft.

But firft, try thou my arm ; and may this dart

End all my country's woes, deep buried in ihy heart !

The weapon iiew, its courfe unerring held,
Unerring, but the heav'niy {hield i-epell'd 370

The mortal dart ; refulting with a bound
From off the ringing orb, it flruck the ground,
Hedlor beheld his jav'lin fall in vain,
Nor other lance, nor other hope remain ;
He calls Deiphobus, demands a fnear, ^J$

In vain, for no Deiphobus was there.
All comfortlefs he ftands : then, with a figh,
'Tis fo — — heav n wills it, and my hour is nigh 1
I deem'd Deiphobus had heard ray call,
But he fecure lies guarded in the wall. 380

A God deceiv'd me ; Pallas, 'twas thy deed.
Death, and black fate approach'! 'Tis I mufl bleed.
No refuge now, no fuccour from above.
Great Jove deferts me, and the fon of Jove,
Propitious once, and kind ! then welcome fate ! 3B5
'Tis true I perifli, yet I perifn great :
Yet in a mighty deed I fliall expire.
Let future ages hear it, and admire !

Fierce, at the word, his weighty fword he drew.
And, all collefled, on Achilles flew. 390


So Jove's bold bird, high balanc'd in the air,
Stoops from the clouds to trufs the quiv'ring hare,
Nor lefs Achilles his Tierce foul prepjires,
Before his bread the flaming Ihield he bears,
Refulgent orb ! above his fourfold cone 395

The gilded horfe-hair fparkled in the fun.
Nodding at ev'ry ftep : (Vulcanian frame !)
And as he mov'd his figure feem'd on flame.
As radiant Hefper fliines with keener light,
Far-beaming o'er the filver hoH: of night, 400

When all the ftarry train emblaze the fphere :

So fhone the point of great Achilles' fpear.

In his right hand he waves the weapon round,

Eyes the whole man, and meditates the wound;

But the rich mail Patroclus lately wore, 4C5

Securely cas'd the warrior's body o'er.

One place at length he fpies, to let in fate.

Where 'twixt the neck and throat the jointed plate

Gave entrance : thro' that penetrable part

Furious he drove the well-directed dart: 41

V. 391. So Jove^s bold bird y etc.] The poet takes up
forae time in defcribing the two great heroes before they
clofe in fight. The verfcs are pompous and magnificent^
and he illuftrates his defcription with two beautiful fimi*
les : he makes a double ufe of this condudl, which not
only raifes our imagination to attend to fo momentous an
action, but by lengthening his narration keeps the mind.
in a pleafing fufpence, and divides it between ^opes and
fears for the fate of He6lor or Achilles.

v. 4C9. Thro' that penetrable pari furious he drove,
€tc,] It was nectifary tliat the poet fliculd be very par-

144 H O M E R's ILIAD. Book XXII.

Nor pierc'd the wind-pipe yet, nor took the pow'r
Of fpeech, unhapp}^ ! from thy dying hour.
Prone on the field the bleeding warrior lies,
"While thus triuraphinor ftern Achilles cries.


At lal'c is Hec%r ftretch'd upon the plain, • 415
"Who fear'd no vengeance for Patroclus flain :
Then, prince ! you (hould have fear'd, what now you feel;
Achilles abfent, was Achilles ftill.
Yet a fhort fpace the great avenger ftay'd,
Then low in di\i\ thy ftrength and glory lay'd. 420
Peaceful he fleeps , with all our rites adorn'd,
For ever honour'd, and for ever mourn'd :
While caft to all the rage of hoitiie pow'r.
Thee, birds fliall mangle, and the dogs devour.

Then Hetftor fainting at th' approach of death. 425;
By thy own foul ! by thofe who gave fliee breath I
By all the facred prevalence of pra^'V ;
Ah, leave me not, for Grecian dogs to tear!
The common rites of fepulture bedow.
To foothe a father's and a mother's woe ; . - 45G

ticular in this poiqt, becaufe the anus that He-itor wore,
were the arms of Achilles, taken from Patroclus ; and
' confequently as they v/ere the \vork of Vulcan, they
would preferve HcvElor from the poflibility of a wound :
the poet therefore to give an air of probability to his
ftory, tells us that they were Patroclus' arms, and as they
were not made for Heftor, they might not exaftly fit his
body : 'ib that it is not improbable but dicre might be
fame place about the neck of Uc&or fo open, as to ad-
mit the fpear of Achilles. Euftatliius.


Book XXIT. HOME R's 1 L I A D. 145

Let their large gifts procure an urn at lead,
And Heclor's aflies in his cotfntry reft.

No, wretch accurii: ; relentlefs he replies,
(Flames, as he fpoke, fhot flaftiing from his eyes)
Not thofe who gave me breath fiiouldbid me fpare, 435
Nor all the facred prevalence of pray'r.
Could I myfelf the bloody banquet join !
No— to the dogs that carcafe I refign.
Should Troy, to bribe me, bring forth all her ftore.
And giving thoufands, oiTer thoufands more ; 44^5

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Online LibraryHomerThe Iliad of Homer (Volume 4) → online text (page 9 of 22)