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phifa (fays he) you find the tomb of Theodoras, who was
the mofl excellent actor of his time for tragedy; and en
the hanks you fee two flaiues, one of Mnefimachus, and the
other of his fen, who cut off his hair in honour of the rivers:
for that this was in all ages the cuflcm of the Greeks, may
te inferred from Homer's poetry, where Pe/eus promifs by-
afchmn vow to confecrate to the river Sperchius the hair
of his fen, if he returns fafe from the Trojan war. This
cuftom was likewife in Jggjftj where Phiioltratus tells
us, that Memnon confecrated his hair to the Kile. This
practice of Achilles was imitated by Alexander at the
Mineral of Hephsftion. Spondanus,


Full fifty rams to bleed in facrifice,

Where to the day thy filver fountains rife,

And where in made of confecrated bow'rs

The altars (land, perfum'd with native flow'rs ! 185

So vow'd my father, but he vow'd in vain ;

No more Achilles fees his native plain ;

In that vain hope thefe hairs no longer grow,

Patroclus bears them to the mades below.

Thus o'er Patroclus while the hero pray'd, 19a

On his cold hand the facred lock he laid.
Once more afrefli the Grecian forrows flow :
And now the fiin had fet upon their woe ;
But to the king of men thus fpoke the chief.
Enough Atrides ! give the troops relief: 105

Permit the mourning legions to retire,
And let the chiefs alone attend the pyre ;

The pious care be ours, the dead to burn .

He faid: the people to their mips return:

While thofe deputed to interr the flain, 200

Heap with a rifing pyramid the plain.

A hundred foot in length, a hundred wide,

The growing flrufture fpreads on ev'ry fide ;

High on the top the manly corfe they lay,

And well-fed ftieep, and fable oxen flay : 205

Achilles cover'd with their fat the dead,

And the pil'd victims round the body fpread.

Then jars of honey, and of fragrant oil

Sufpends around, low-bending o'er the pile. .

Book XXIII. H M E R's ILIAD. 179

Jour fprightly courfers, with a deadly groan 210

Pour forth their lives, and on the pyre are thrown'.

Of nine large dogs, domeftic at his board,

Fall two, felected to attend their Lord.

Then lad of all, and horrible to tell,

Sad facrifice ! twelve Trojan captives fell. 21 j;

On thefe the rage of fire victorious preys,

Involves and joins them in one common blaze.

Smear'd with the bloody rites, he (lands on high,

And calls the fpirit with a dreadful cry.

All hail, Patroclus ! let thy vengeful ghoft 220

Hear, and exult on Pluto's dreary, coaft.
Behold, Achilles' promife fully paid,
Twelve Trojan heroes offer 'd to thy (hade;
But heavier fates on Hector's corfe attend,
Sav'd from the flames, for hungry dogs to rend. 225

So fpake he, threat'ning: but the Gods made vain
His threat, and guard inviolate the (lain :
Celeftial Venus hover'd o'er his head,
And rofeate unguents, heav'nly fragrance! (lied:

f. 22S. Celeflhl Venus, etc.] Homer has here intro-
duced a /tries of allegories in the compafs of a few lir°- :
the body of Hector may be fuppofed to continue beauti-
ful even after he was (lain ; and Venus being the pre-
fident of beauty, the poet by a natural fiction tells us
it was preferved by that goddefs.

Apollo's covering the body with a cloud is a very
natural allegory: for the fun (fays Euftathius) has a
double quality which produces contrary effects; the
heat of it caufes a drynefs, but at the fame time it ex-
hales the vapours of the earth, from whence the clouds

1S0 HOME R's I L I A t>. BookXXIlT,

She watch'd him all the night, and all the day, 230
And drove the bloodhounds from their deftin'd prey.
Nor facred Phoebus lefs employ'd his care;
He pour'd around a veil of gather'd air,
And kept the nerves undry'd, the flefli intire,
Againft the foiar beam and Sirian fire. 23$

Nor yet the pile where dead Patroclus lies,
Smokes, nor as yet the fullen flames arifej
But faft befide Achilles flood in pray'r,
Invok'd the Gods whofe fpirit moves the air,
And vi&ims promts 'd, and libations caft, 249

To gentle Zephyr and the Boreal blaft :
He call'd th' aerial pow'rs, along the fides
To breathe, and whifper to the fires to rife.
The winged Iris heard the hero's call,
Arid inftant haften'd to their airy hall, 24*

Where, in old Zephyr's open courts on high,
Sate all the bluil'ring brethren of the fky.
She flione amidd them, on her painted bow;
The rocky pavement glitter'd with the fhow.
All from the banquet rife, and each invites jci

The various Goddefs to partake the rites.
Not fo, (the dame reply'd) I hade to go
To facred Ocean, and the floods below :

of heaven are formed. This allegory may be founded
upon truth- there might happen to be a cool feafon
while Hetfor lay unburied, and Apollo, or the fun, raif-
ing clouds which intercept the heat of his beams, by a
very cafy fiction in poetry may be introduced in perfon
to preferve the body of Heclor.

3ook XXIII. HOME R's ILIAD. 181

iv'n now our folemn hecatombs attend,

;\nd heav'n is feafting on the world's green end, 2$ >

With righteous TEthiops (uncorrupted train!)

Far on th' extremeft limits of the main.

But Peleus' fon intreats, with facrifice,

The Weftern Spirit, and the North to rife ;

Let on Patroclus' pile your bind be driv'n, 260

And bear the blazing honours high to heav'n.

Swift as the word, (he vanifh'd from their view ;
Swift as the word the winds tumultuous flew;

f. 263. The allegory of the winds. ~] A poet ought
to exprefs nothing vulgarly; and fure no poet ever tref-
paffed lefs againft this rule than Homer; the fruitful-
lefs of his invention is continually railing incidents new
md furpriling. Take this- pa-ilage out' of its poetical
drefs, and it will be no more than this: a ftrong gale
of wind blew, and fo increafed the flame that it focn
onfumed the pile. But Homer introduces the gods of
the winds in perfon : and Iris, or the rain-bow, being
^as Euftathius obferves) a fign not only of mowers, but
of winds, he makes them come at her fummons.

Every circumftance is well adapted : as foon as the
winds fee Iris, they rife; that is, when the rainbow ap-
pears, the wind rifes: (lie refufes to (it, and immediate-
ly returns ; that is, the rainbow is never feen long at
one time, but foon appears, and foon vanifnes : me re-
turns over the ocean; that is, the bow is compofed of
Raters, and it would have been an unnatural Action to
fi&ve defcribed her as palling by land.

The winds are all together in the cave of Zephyrus,
which may imply that they were there as at their gene-
ral rendezvous; or that the nature of all the winds is
the fr.me; or that the weftern wind is in that country the
moft conftant, and consequently it may be faid that at

Vol. IV. Q,

182 H O M E R's I L I A D, BookXXIII.

Forth burft the ftormy band with thund'ring rore,

And heaps on heaps the clouds are toft before. 265

To the wide main then {looping from the fkies,

The heaving deeps in wat'ry mountains rife :

Troy feels the biaft along her making walls,

'Till en the pile the gather'd temped falls.

The ftru&ure crackles in the roaring fires, 270

And all the night the plenteous flame afpires.

All night Achilles hails Patroclus' foul,

With large libation from the golden bowl.

As a poor father, helplefs and undone,

Mourns o'er the aflies of an only fon, 27$

Takes a fad pleafure the lafl bones to burn,

And pour in tears, ere yet they clofe the urn :

So ftay'd Achilles, circling round the more,

So watch'd the flames, 'till now they flame no more.

'Twas when, emerging thro' the fhades of night, 280

The morning planet told th' approach of light j

fuch feafons all the winds are afTembled in one corner,
or rendezvous with Zephyrus.

Iris will not enter the cave: it is the nature of the
rainbow to be ftretched intirely upon the furface, and
therefore this ficlion is agreeable to reafon.

When Iris fays that the gods are partaking heca-
tombs in iEthiophia, it is to be remembered that the
gods are reprefented there in the firft book, before the
fcenes of war were opened ; and now they are clofed,

they return thither. Euftathius.- -Thus Homer

makes the anger of his hero fo important, that it roufed
heaven to arms, and now when it is almoft appeafed,
Achilles as it were gives peace to the gods.

bookXXUI. H O M E R's ILIAD. 183

And faft behind, Aurora's warmer ray

\yev the broad ocean pour'd the golden day :

Then funk the blaze, the pile no longer burn'd,

iAnd to their caves the whittling winds return'd: 2S5

Acrofs the Thracian feas their courfe they bore;

The ruffled feas beneath their pafTage rore.

Then parting from the pile he ceased to weep,
And funk to quiet in th' embrace of fleep,
Exhaufted with his grief: meanwhile the croud 290
Of thronging Grecians round Achilles flood;
The tumult wak'd him : from his eyes he fhook
Unwilling (lumber, and the chiefs befpoke.

Ye kings and princes of th' Achaian name !
Firft let us quench the yet remaining flame 295

With fable wine; then, (as the rites d-retf)
The hero's bones with careful view feled:
(Apart, and eafy to be known they lie,
Amidft the heap, and obvious to the eye:
The reft around the margins will be feen, 3°°

Promifcuous, fteeds, and immolated men)
Thefe wrapt in double cawls of fat, prepare;
And in the golden vafe difpofe with care ;
There let them reft with decent honour laid,
'Till I mail follow to th' infernal (hade. 3°5

Meantime ere& the tomb with pious hands,
A common ftrutfure on the humble fands ;


/ 3*Q

184 HOME R's ILIA D. BookXXIH,
Hereafter Greece fome nobler work may raife,
And late pofterity record our praife.

The Greeks obey; where yet the embers glow
"Wide o'er the pile the fable wine they throw,
And deep fubfides the amy heap below. J

Next the white bones his fad companions place
"With tears collected, in the golden vafe.
The facred relicks to the tent they bore; 31 j

The urn a veil of linen cover'd o'er.
That done, they bid the fepnlchre afpire,
And cafl the deep foundations round the pyre;
High in the midft they heap the fweliing bed
Of rifing earth, memorial of the dead. 320

The {warming populace the chief detains,
.And leads amidft a wide extent of plains ;

f. 308. Hereafter Greece a nobler pile /ball raiJ&M
We fee how Achilles confults his own glory ; the defire
of it prevails over his tendernefs for Patroclus, and he
will not permit any man, not even his beloved Patro*
clus, to mare an equality of honour with himfeif, even
in the grave. Euftathius.

• ^321. The games for Patroclus^] The conduct of
Homer in inlargi ng upon the games at the funeral of
Patroclus is very judicious : there had undoubtedly been'
fuch honours paid to fcveral heroes during this war, as
appears from a pafTage in the ninth book, where Aga-
memnon to enhance the value of the horfes which he
offers Achilles, fays, that any perfon would be rich that
had treafures equal to the vnlue of the prizes they had
won; which races mud have been run during the fiegei
for had they been before it, the horfes would now have
been too old to be of any value, this being the tenth

Book XXIII. H O M E R's I L I A D. iS$

; There plac'd 'em round: then from the fhips proceeds
A train of oxen, mules, and ftately deeds,
Vafes and tripods, for the fun'ral games, 325

Refplendent brafs, and more refplendent dames.
Firft flood the prizes to reward the force
Of rapid racers in the dufty courfe.
A woman for the firft, in beauty's bloom,
Skill'd in the needle, and the lab'ring loom ; 33©

And a large vafe, where two bright handles rife,
Of twenty meafures its capacious fize.
The fecond victor claims a mare unbroke,
Big with a mule, unknowing of the yoke;

year of the war. But the poet pafTes all thofe games
lover in fiience, and referves them for this feafon ; not
only in honour of Patroclus, but alfo of his hero A-
chilles; who exhibits games to a whole army; great
generals are candidates for the prizes, and he himfelf
fits the judge and arbitrator : thus in peace as well as
war the poet maintains the fuperiority of the character
of Achilles.

But there is another reafon why the poet deferred to
relate any games that were exhibited at any preceding
funerals : the death of Patroclus was the moft eminent
period) and confequently the moft proper time for fuch

It is farther obfervable, that he chufes this peculiar

time with great judgment. When the fury of the war

raged, the army could not well have found leifure for

the games, and they might have met with interruption

from the enemy : but Hetfor being dead, atf Troy was

in confufion : they are in too great a confternation to

; make any attempts, and therefore the poet could notpof-

I fcbly have chofen a more happy opportunity. Euftathbs*


186 HOMER'sILlAD, BookXXin.

The third, a charger yet untouch'd by flame; 33 $

Four ample meafures held the mining frame :

Two golden talents for the fourth were plac'd;

An ample double bowJ contents the laft.

Thefe in fair order rang'd upon the plain,

The hero, rifing, thus addreft the train. 340

Behold the prizes, valiant Greeks ! decreed
To the brave rulers of the racing fteed ;
Frizes which nonebeiide ourfelf could gain,
Should our immortal courfers take the plain ;
(A race unrivall'd, which from Ocean's God 345

Peleus receiv'd, and on his fon befiow'd.)
But this no time our vigour to difplay,
Nor fuit, wiih them, the games of this fad day:
JLofi: is Patroclus new, that wont to deck
Their flowing manes, and fleek their gloffy neck. %$<,

y. 349. Lojl is Patroclus now, etc] I am not igno-
rant that Homer has frequently been blamed for fuel
little cigreffions as thefe; in this pafTage he gives us tfy
genealogy of his horfes, which he has frequently tolc
us in the preceding part of the poem. But Euftathui-
juftifles his condiuft, and fays that it was very prooer tt
commend the virtue of thefe horfes upon this occafion;
"when horfes were to contend for viaory : at the farm
time lie takes an opportunity to make an honourabli
mention of his friend Fatrocius, in whofe honour thefi
games were exhibited.

It may be added as a farther justification of Flomoe
that this laft: circumftance is very natural; Achilles
while he commends his horfes, remembers how carefa
Patroclus had been of them : his love for his friend ii
& gsiea^ that the minutelt circumHance recalls, him «

Book XXIII. HO M E R's ILIAD. 287
Sad, as they fhar'd in human grief, they (land,
And trail thofe graceful honours en the fand !
Let others for the noble talk prepare,
Who trufl: the courfer, and the flying car.

Fir'd at his word, the rival racers rife;, 355.

But far the firft, Eumelus hopes the prize,
Fam'd thro' Pieria for the fleetefc breed,
And fkill'd to manage the high-bounding fteed'.
With equal ardour bold Tydides fwell'd
The deeds of Tros beneath his yokfe compell'd, 360
^Which late obey'd the Dardan chief's command,
W T hen fcarce a God redeem'd him from his hand.)
Then Menclaus his Podargus brings,
And the fam'd courfer of the king of kings :r
Whom rich Echepolus, (more rich than brave) 365.
To Tcape the wars, to Agamemnon gave,

his mind ; and fueh little digretfions, fuch avocations of
thought as thefe, very naturally proceed from the over-
' flows of love and forrow,

f. 365. Whom, rich Echepolus >ztc.~] One would think
that Agamemnon might be accufed of avarice, in dif-
penfmg with a man from going to the war for the fake
of a horfe;. but Ariflotle very well obferves, that this
prince is praife-worthy for having preferred a horfe to
a perfon fo cowardly, and fo uncapable of fervice. It
may be aifo conjectured from this pafTag?, that even in
thofe elder times it was the cuflom, that thofe who
were willing to be excufed from the war, fhould give
either a horfe or a man, and often both. Thus Scipio
going to Africa, ordered the Sicilians either to attend
him, or to give him horfes or men : and Agefilaus being
at Ephefus and wanting cavalry, made a proclamation,


(jEthe her name) at home to end his days,

Bafe wealth preferring to eternal praife.

Next him Antilochus demands the courfe,

With beating heart, and chears his Pylian horfe. 370

Experienc'd Keftor gives his fon the reins,

t>irects his judgment, and his heat retrains;

that the rich men who would not ferve in the war
fhould be difpenfed with, provided they furnifhed a man
and a horfe in their (lead : in which, fays Plutarch, he
wifely followed the example of king Agamemnon, who>
excufed a very rich coward from ferving in perfon, for
a prefent of a good mare. Euftathius. Dacier.

^.371. Experienced Neftor, etc/] The poet omits
no opportunity of paying honour to his old favourite
Neftor, and I think he is no where more particularly
complemented than in this book. His age had difabled
him from bearing any fnare in the games ; and yet he
artfully introduces him not as a mere fpectator, but as
an actor in the fports. Thus he as it were wins the
prize for Antilochus; Antilochus wins not by thefwift-
nefs of hishorfes, but by the wifdom of Neftor.

This fatherly tendernefs is wonderfully natural: we
fee him in all imaginable inquietude and concern for his
fon; he comes to the barrier, (lands befide the chariot,
animates his fon by his nraifes, and directs him by his
leifons: you think the old man's foul mounts on the
chariot with his Antilochus, to partake the fame dangers,
and run the fame career.

Nothing can be better adapted to the character than
this fpeech; he expatiates upon the advantages ofwiP
dom over (trength, which is a tacit complement to him*
felf: and had there been a prize for wifdom, undoubt-
edly the old man would have claimed it as his right.

Book XXIII. H O M E R's ILIAD. 1891
Nor idly warns the hoary fire, nor hears
The prudent fon with unattending ears.

My fon, tho' youthful ardour fire thy bread, 375
The Gods have lov'd thee, and with arts have bled.
Neptune and Jove on thee conferr'd the (kill,
Swift round the goal to turn the flying wheel.
To guide thy conduct, little precept needs;
But (low, and pad: their vigour, are my Heeds. 380

Fear not thy rivals, tho' for fwiftnefs known,
Compare thofe rivals judgment, and thy own:
It is not drength, but art, obtains the prize,
And to be fwift is lefs than to be wife ;
'Tis more by art, than force of num'rous drokes, 385
The dext'rous woodman Pnapes the dubborn oaksj
By art the pilot, thro' the boiling deep
And howling temped, fleers the fearlefs (hip ;
And 'tis the artid wins the glorious courfe,
Not thofe, who trud in chariots, and in horfe. 39©
In vain un(ki!ful to the goal they drive,
And fhort, or wide, th' ungovenvd courfer drive:
while with fure (kill, tho' with inferior Reeds,
# The knowing racer to his end proceeds ;
Fix'd on the goal his eye fore-runs the courfe, 395.
His hand unerring deers the deacly horfe,
And now contracts, or now extends the rein,
Obferving dill the foremod on the plain.
Mark then the goal, 'tis eafy to be found ;
Yon' aged trunk, a cubit from the ground ; 400

i 9 a H O M E R's I L I A D, Book XXIII,

Of fome once (lately oak the laft remains,

Or hardy fir, unperifh'd with the rains.

Inclos'd with ftones confpicuous from afar,

And round, a circle for the wheeling car.

(Some tomb perhaps of old, the dead to grace; 405

Or then, as now, the limit of a race)

Bear clofe to this, and warily proceed,

A little bending to the left hand fteed ;

But urge the right, and give him all the reins ;

While thy ftrict hand his fHlo w's head retrains, 41c

And turns him fliort; 'till, doubling as they roll,

The wheel's round naves appear to brum the goaJ,

Yet (not to break the car, or lame the horfe)

Clear of the ftony heap direct the courfe ;

Left thro' incaution tailing, thou may'ft be 413

A joy to others, a reproach to me.

So fhalt thou pafs the goal, fecure of mind,

And leave unfkilful fwifftiefs far behind.

Tho' thy fierce rival drove the matchlefs fteed

Which bore Adraftus, of celeftial breed ; 42c

Or the fam'd race thro' all the regions known,

That whirl'd the car of proud Laomedon.

Thus, (nought unfaid) the much-advifing fage
Concludes ; then fate, ftifTwith unwieldy age.
Next bold Meriones was feen to rife, 42J

The laft, but not lead ardent for the prize.

$ook XXIII. H O M E R's I L I A D. 191

They mount their feats ; the lots their place difpofe;

(Roll'd in his helmet, thefe Achilles throws.)

Young Neftor leads the race : Eumelus then;

And next the brother of the king of men : 430

Thy lot, Meriones, the fourth was caft ;

And far the braved, Diomed, was laft.

f. 427. The lots their place difpofe."] According to
thefe lots the charioteers took their places ; but to know
whether they flood all in an equal front, or one behind
another, is a difficulty: Euftathius fays, the ancients
were of opinion that they did not (land in one front;
becaufe it is evident that he who had the firft lot, had
a great advantage of the other charioteers : if he had
not, why mould Achilles caft lots ? Madam Dacier is
of opinion that they all ftood a-breaft at the barrier,
and that the firft would ftill have a fufficient advantage,
as he was nearer the bound, and ftood within the reft;
whereas the others muft take a larger circle, and confe-
quently were forced to run a greater compafs of ground.
Phoenix was placed as an infpeclor of the race, that is,
fays Euftathius, he was to make report whether they had
obferved the laws of the race in their feveral turnings.

Sophocles obferves the fame method with Homer in
relation to the lots and infpeclors, in his Eletf ra.

Oj TtrayfAivtt (Zpx(it"e

K\vpot{ *xy)\kv y.ocl x.xT(ri)<reiv J»V/>ov.

The conflicted judges ajfigncd the places according to the lot/.
The ancients fay that the charioteers ftarted at the Si-
gaeum, where the mips of Achilles lay, and ran towards
the Rhseteum, from the (hips towards the ftiores. But
Ariftarchus affirmed that they run in the compafs of
ground bvefladia, which lay between the wall and the
tents toward the more. Euftathius.

192 HOMER's ILIA D. BookXXIIf.

They (land in order an impatient train ;

Pelides points the barrier on the plain,

And fends before old Phoenix to the place, 435

To mark the racers, and to judge the race.

At once the courfers from the barrier bound ;

The lifted fcourges all at once refound ;

Their heart, their eyes, their voice, they fend before ;

And up the champain thunder from the more: 440

Thick, where they drive, the dufty clouds arife,

And the loft courfer in the whirlwind flies ;

Loofe on their shoulders the long manes reclin'd,

Float in their fpeed, and dance upon the wind:

The fmoaking chariots, rapid as they bound, 44 f

Now feem to touch the fky, and now the ground.

While hot for fame, and conqueft all their care,

(Each o'er his flying courfer hung in air)

ErecT: with ardour, pois'd upon the rein,

They pant, they ftretch, they (hout along the plain. 450

Now, (die lall compafs fetch'd around the goal)

At the near prize each gathers all his foul,

Each burns with double hope, with double pain,

Tears up the (hore, and thunders tow'rd the main.

Firft flew Eumelus on Pheretrian fteeds ; 455

With thofe of Tros, bold Diomed fucceeds :

Clofe on Eumelus' back they pufF the wind,

And feem juft mounting on his car behind ;

in 4^8- And feem juft mounting on his car behind 7\ A
more natural image than this could not be thought of.
The poet makes us fpeclators of the race, we fee Dio-


Full on his neck he feels the fultry breeze,

And hov'ring o'er, their ftretching fhadows fees. 462

Then had he loft, or left a doubtful prize ;

But angry Phoebus to Tydides flies,

Strikes from his hand the fcourge, and renders vain

His matchlefs horfes labour on the plain.

Rage fills his eye with anguifb, to furvey 46$

Snatch 'd from his hope, the glories of the day.

ed prefTing upon Eumelus fo clofely, that his chariot
feerr.s to climb the chariot of Eumelus.

$. 465. Rage fills his eye with arigmfh to furvey , etc.]
We have feen Diomed furrounded with innumerable
dangers acting in the moft perilous fcenes of blood and
death, yet never (bed one tear : and new he weeps on a
fma'il occafion, for a mere trifle: this muft be afc/ibed to
the nature of mankind, who are often tranfported with
trifles ; and there are certain unguarded moments in e-
very man's life ; fo that he who could meet the greateft
dangers' with intrepidity, may through anger be betrayed
into an indecency. Euftathius.

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