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While kindling anger fparkled in his eyes)

y. 706. IVhv.e kindling anger fparkled in his eye%.~] I
believe every reader muft be furprized, as I confefs I
was, to fee Achilles fly out into fo fudden a pafiion,
without any apparent reafon for it. It can fcarce be
imagined that the name of Hector (as Euftathius thinks)
could throw him into fo much violence, when he had
heard it mentioned with patience and calmnefs by Priam
in this very conference : efpecialiy if we remember that
Achilles had actually determined to reftore the body of
Hector to Priam. I was therefore very well pleafed to
find that the words in the original would bear another
interpretation, and fnch a one as naturally folves the
difficulty. The meaning of the pafTage I fancy may be
this: Priam preceiving that his« addrefs had mollified
the heart of Achilles, takes this opportunity to perfuade
him to give over the war, and return home; efpecialiy
fince his anger was furnciently iatrsfied by the fall of
Hector. Immediately Achilles hikes fire at this propofal,
and anfwers. " Is it not enough thai I have determined
" to reftore thy fon ? afi< no more, led I retract that
" refutation." In this view we fee a natural reafon for
the fudden paffion of Achilles.

What may perhaps (lengthen this conjecture is the
word Ttpvrov j and then the fenfe will run thus ; fince I
have found fo much favour in thy fight* as firft to per-
mit me to live, O woulde.t thou ftill inlarge my happi-
nefs, and return home to thy own country 1 etc.



274 H O M E R's I L I A D. BookXXlV.

Nor feek by tears my fteady foul to bend j

To yield thy Hector I myfelf intend :

For know, from Jove my Goddefs-mother came,

(Old Ocean's daughter, filver-footed dame) 710

This opinion may be farther eftablifhed from what
follows in the latter end of this interview, where Achilles
afks Priam, how many days he would requeft for the in-
terment of Hector ? Achilles had refufed to give over
the war, but yet confents to intermit it a few days ; and
then the fenfe will be this : " I will not confent to re-
(< turn home, but alk a time for a cefTation, and it mail
" be granted." And what mod flrongly fpeaks for
this interpretation is the anfv/er of Priam ; I afk, fays
he, eleven days to bury my fon, and then let the war
commence again, fince // mufl be Jo, uvrtp uVufxn; fince
you necefutate me to it ; or fince you will not be perfuad-
ed to leave thefe mores.

f. 706. While kindling cnger f par Bed in his e\es7\
The reader may be pleafcd to obferve that this is the laft
fally of the refentment of Achilles; and the poet judi-
cioufly defcribes him moderating it by his own refle-
ction : fo that his reafon now prevails over his anger,
and the defign of the poem is fully executed.

t > 7^9, 710. For know, from Jove my Goddefs mother
came.'] The injuftice of La Motte's criticifm, (who
blames Homer for reprefenting Achilles fo mercenary,
as to inquire into the price offered for Hector's body
before he would reftore it) will appear plainly from this
palfage, where he makes Achilles exprefly fay, it is not
for any other reafon that he delivers the body, but that
heaven had directly commanded it. The words are
very full.

Aii&cv Sz (x,oi ayfihoc wXfif

Nr,T»p r p. fTEKEv, Bvydrvp XXlOlO yipOVTOf,
Ka< St trt yivua-x.a Ylplu/xi $pur}v, vSi j/,s XtiQiif,
*Q?1t ©f£v rig yyt Qoxs irl v?«f A^aiav.



BookXXIV. H O M E R's ILIAD. 27;
Nor com'ft thou but by heav'n ; nor com'ft alone,
Some God impels with courage not thy own :
No human hand the weighty gates unbarr'd, ^
Nor could the boldeft of our youth have dar'd >
To pafs our out-works, or elude the guard. J) 715

Ceafe ; left neglectful of high Jove's command
I (how thee, king ! thou tread'ft on hoftile land ;
Releafe my knees, thy fnppliant arts give o'er,
And make the purpofe of my foul no more.

The fire obey'd him, trembling and o'er-aw'd. 720
Achilles, like a lion, rufii'd abroad :
Automedon and Alcimus attend,
(Whom moft he honour'd, fince he loft his friend ;)
Thefe to unyoke the mules and horfes went,
And led the hoary herald to the tent ; 725

Next heap'd on high the num'rous prefents bear
(Great He&or's ranfom) from the polifh'd car.
Two fplendid mantles, and a carpet fprcad,
They leave; to cover, and inwrap the dead.
Then call the handmaids with afliftant toil 730

To wafh the body and anoint with oil ;
Apart from Priam, left th' unhappy fire
Provok'd to pafllon, once more rouze to ire
The ftern Pelides ; and nor facred age
Nor Jove's command, mould check the rifing rag-. 75c
This done, the garments o'er the corfe they fpread ;
Achilles lifts it to the fun'ral bed :
Then, while the body on the car they laid,
He groans, and calls on lov'd Patroclus' made.



2j6 H O M E R's ILIAD. Book XXIV.

If, in that gloom which never light mud know, 740
The deeds of mortals touch the ghofts below:
O friend ! forgive me, that I thus fulfill
(Reftoring Heclor) heavVs unqueftion'd will.
The gifts the father gave, be ever thine,
To grace thy manes, and adorn thy (hrine. 74 J

He faid, and ent'ring, took his feat of ftate,
Where full before him rev'rend Priam fate :
To whom, compos'd, the God-like chief begun.
Lo ! to thy pray'r reftor'd, thy breathlefs fon ;
Extended on the fun'ral couch he lies ; H 750

And foon as morning paints the eaflern fides, >
The fight is grantee to thy longing eyes. J

But now the peaceful hours of facred night
Demand refection, and to reft invite:
Kor thop, O father ! thus confum'd with woe, 755

The common cares that nourifh life, forego.
Not thus did Niche, of form divine,
A parent once, whofe forrows eqiull'd thine:

tf.JSJ. Not this dt J Ni 'ote, etc.] Achilles, to com-
fort Priam, tells him a known hijiory , winch was very
proper to work this efTeol. Niobe had loft all her chil-
dren, Priam had fomc remaining. Viobe's had been
nine days extended on the earth, drowned in their
blood, in the fight of .their people, without anyone
prefentiftg him (elf to intert them : H-.?;or has likewife
been twelve days, hut in the midft of his enemies ; there-
fore it is no wonder that no one has paid him the laft
duties. The gods at taft interred Niobe's children, and
the gods likewife are concerned to procure honourable
funerals for Hc&or. Euftathius.

Six



■Book XXIV. H O M E R's ILIAD. 277

Six youthful Tons, as many blooming maids,

In one fad day beheld the Stygian (hades ; 763

Thefe by Apollo's filvcr bow were (lain,

Thofe, Cynthia's arrows ftretch'd upon the plain.

So was her pride chaftiz'd by wrath divine,

Who match'd her own with bright Latona's line;

But two the Goddefs, twelve the queen enjoy 'd; 76;

Thofe boafted twelve th' avenging two deflroy'd.

Steep 'd in their blood, and in the dud outfpread,

Nine days neglected lay expos'd the dead ;

None by to weep them, to inhume them none ;

(For Jove had turn'd the nation all to (lone:) y-;<$

■The Gods themfelves at length relenting, gave

Th' unhappy race the honours of a grave.

Herfelf a rock, (for fuch was heav'n's high will)

Thro' dcfarts wild now pours a weeping rili;

Where round the bed whence Achelous frrings, 775

The wat'ry fairies dance in mazy rings,

There high on Sipytes his fnaggy brow, \

She ftands her own fad monument of woe; ^>

The reck for ever lafts, the tears for ever Sow.

Such griefs, O king ! have other parents known; 78a
Remember theirs, and mitigate thy own.
The care of heav'n thy Hector has appear*d,
Nor (hall lie lie unwept, and uninterr'd;
Soon may thy aged cheeks in tears be drown'd,
And all the eyes of llion (Iream around. 7O,;.

He fait', and rifing, chofe the vicTim ewe

"With (iiver fleece, which his attendants (lew.
Vol. IV. A a



278 H O M E R's I L I A IX Book XXIV.

The limbs they fever from the reeking hide,

With (kill prepare them, and in parts divide :

Each on the coals the fep'rate morfels lays, 790

And hafty, fnatches from the rifing blaze.

With bread the glitt'ring caniders they load,

Which round the board Automedon beftow'd:

The chief himfelf to each his portion plac'd,

And each indulging fhar'd in fweet repair. 795

When now the rage of hunger was repreft,

The wond'ring hero eyes his royal gueft:

No lefs the royal gueft the hero eyes,

His god -like afpecl and majeflic fize;

Here, youthful grace and noble fire engage, 800

And there, the mild benevolence of age.

f. 798. The royal gueft the hero eyes, etc.] The poet
omits no opportunity of praifing his hero Achilles, and
it is obfervable that he now commends him for his more
amiable qualities : he foftens the terrible idea we have
conceived of him, as a warrior, with feveral virtues of
humanity ; and the angry, vindictive foldier is become
calm and companionate. In this place he makes his
very enemy admire his perfomge, and be aflonifhed at
bis manly beauty. So that though courage be his moft
diltinguiming character, yet Achilles is admirable both
for the endowments of mind and body.

'Enixtplo t uL' V . The fenfe of this word differs in this
place from that it ufually bears ; it does not imply
Tp*;^™^ uf/us-jKHV, any reproachful afperity of language,
but hc»yt>aiv ^tutu; <?»'?«, the raifing of a falfe fear in the
old man, that he might not be concerned at his being
lodged in the outermoft part of the tent; and by this
method he gives Priam an opportunity of going away
in the morning without obfervation. Euftathius.



BookXXIV. H O M E R's ILIAD.' 279
Thus gazing long, the filence neither broke,
<A folemn fcene!) at length the father fpoke.
Permit me now, belov'd of Jove ! to deep
My careful temples in the dew of fleep : 805

For fince the day that number'd with the dead
My haplefs fon, the duft has been my bed,
Soft fleep a ftranger to my weeping eyes,
My only food, my forrows and my flghs !
Till now, encourag'd by the grace you give, 810

I {hare thy banquet, and confent to live.

With that, Achilles bad prepare the bed,
With purple foft, and fhaggy carpets fpread ;
Forth, by the flaming lights, they bend their way,
And place the couches, and the covVings lay. 815

Then he: now father fleep, but fleep not here.
Confult thy fafety, and forgive my fear,
Left any Argive (at this hour awake,
To afk our counfel, or our orders take)
Approaching fudden to our open'd tent,
Perchance behold thee, and our grace prevent.

f 819. To afk our counfel, or our orders take.'} The
poet here (hews the importance of Achilles in the army ;
though Agamemnon be the general, yet ail the chief com-
manders apply to him for advice: and thus he promife,
Priam a cefTation of arms for feveral days, purely by h>s
own authority. The method that Achilles took to con-
firm the truth of the cefTation, agrees with the ciiftort
which we ufe at this day, he gave him his hand upon it,

_ '/f 1 ^ yh ^ *

8*x«C* Wv*. Euflathius.

Aa 2



820



2So H O M E R's ILIAD. Book XXIV.

Should fuch report thy honour'd perfon here,

The king of men the ranfom might defer ;

But fay with fpeed, if ought of thy defire

Remains unaflc'd ; what time the rites require 825

T' interr thy Hector ? For, fo long we flay

Our flaught'ring arm, and bid the hods obey.

If then thy will permit (the monarch faid)
To finifti all due honours to the dead,
This, of thy grace accord : to thee are known $30

The fears of Ilion, clos'd within her town,
And at what di-ftance from our walls afpire
The hills of Ide, and forefts for the fire.
Nine days to vent our forrows I requeft,
The tenth (hall fee the fun'ral and the feaft: 83$

The next, to raife his monument be giv'n ;
The twelfth we war, if war be doom'd by heav'n !

This thy requr:ft (reply'd the chief} enjoy r
Till then, our arms fufpend the fall of Troy*

Then gave his hand at parting, to prevent 840

The old man's fears, and turn'd within the tent;
Where fair Brifeis bright in blooming charms
Expects her hero with defiring arms.
But in the porch the king and herald reft,
Sad dreams of care yet wand'ring in their breafc. 845
Kow gods and men the gifts of deep partake j
Induftrious Hermes only was awake,
The king's return revolving in his mind,
To pafs the ramparts, and the watch to blind.



Book XXIV. H O M E R's ILIAD. 281

The pow'r defending hover'd p'er his head : 850

And fleep'ft thou, father! (thus the vifion faid)

Now doft thou fleep, when Hector is reftor'd ?

Nor fear the Grecian foes, or Grecian lord ?

Thy prefence here fhou'd Hern Atrides fee,

Thy ftill-furviving fbns may fue for thee, 855

May offer all thy treafures yet contain,

To fpare thy age; and offer all in vain.

Wak'd with the word, the trembling fire arofc,
And rais'd his friend : the God before him goes,
H^ joins the mules, directs them with his hand, 860
And moves in filence thro' the hoftile land.
When now to Xanthus' yellow ftream they drove,
(Xanthus, immortal progeny of Jove)
The winged deity forfook their view,
And in a moment to Olympus flew. 865

Now flied Aurora round her faffron ray,
Sprung thro' the gates of light, and gave the day :
Charg'd with their mournful load, to Ilion go
The fage and king, majeftically flow.
CaflTandra firft beholds, from Ilion's fpire, 870

The fad proceffion of her hoary fire,
Then, as the peniive pomp advanc'd more near,
Her breathlefs brother ftretch'd upon the bier : ,
A fhow'r of tears o'erflows her beauteous eyes,
Alarming thus all Ilion with her cries. 875

Turn here your fceps, and here your eyes employ,
Ye wretched daughters, and ye fons of Troy !
A a 3



&2 H O M E R's ILIAD. Book XXIV.

If e'er ye rufh'd in crouds, with vaft delight

To haH your hero glorious from the fight ;

Now meet him dead, and let your forrows flow 1 88©

Your common triumph, and your common woe.

In thronging crouds they iilue to the plains,
Nor man, nor woman, in the walls remains,
In ev'ry face the felf fame grief is (hown,
And Troy fends forth one univerfal groan. 885

At Scceu^ gates the} 7 meet the mourning wain,
Hang on the wheels, and grovel -round the (lain.
The wife and mother, frantic with defpair,
Kifs his pale cheek, and rend their fcatter'd hair:
Thus wildly wailing, at the gates they lay; 890

And there had figh'd and forrow'd out the day;
But god-like Priam from the chariot rofe;
Forbear (he cry'd) this violence of woes,
Tiril to the palace let the car proceed,
Then pour your boundlefs forrows o'er the dead. 8o.£

The waves of people at his word divide,
Slow rolls the chariot thro' the following tide;
Xv'n to the palace the fad pomp they wait :
They weep, and place him on the bed of (late.
A melancholy choir attend around, 900

With plaintive fighs, and mufie's folemn found :

f. ceo. A melancholy choir, etc.] This was a cufrom
generally received, and which paiTecl from the Hebrews
to the Greeks, Romans, and Afiatics. There were
weepers by profelBon, of both faces, who fung dolelut
tunes round the clcad. Ecciefiaiticus chap. xii. y. 5.
/; hen a man fiull go into the boufe of bis eternity, there



BookXXIV. H O M E R's ILIAD. 2S3

Alternately they fing, alternate flow

Th' obedient tears, melodious in their woe.

"While deeper forrows groan from each full heart,

And nature fpeaks at ev'ry paufe of art. 905-

Firfl: to the corfe the weeping confort flew ;
Around his neck her milk-white arms me threw,
And oh my Hector! Oh my Lord ! fhe cries,
Snatch'd in thy bloom from thefe defiring eyes !

flail encompafs him weepers. It appears from St. Mat-
thew xi. 17. that children were likewife employed in
this office. Dacier.

■4'. 906, etc. The lamentations over Heclor."] The
poet judicioufly makes Priam to be filent in this general
lamentation ; he has already borne a fufncient (hare in
thefe forrows, in the tent of Achilles, and faid what
grief can dictate to a father and a king upon fuch a
melancholy fubje<5t. But he introduces three women ai
chief mourners, and fpeaks only in general of the la-
mentation of the men of Troy, an exced of forrow be-
ing unmanly : whereas thefe women might with de-
cency indulge themfelves in all the lamentation that
fondnefs and grief could fuggeft. The wife, the mo-
ther of Hector, and Helen, are the three perfons intro-
duced ; and though they all mourn upon the fame occa-
fion, yet their lamentations are fo diflereur, that not a
lenience that is fpoken by the one, could be made ufe
of by the other: Andromache fpeaks like a tender wUe,
- Hecuba like a fond mother, and Helen mourns with
forrow rifmg from felf-accufation: Andromache com-
mends his bravery, Hecuba his manly beauty, and Helen
his pentlenefs and humanity.

Homer is very concife in defcnbing the funeral of
Hector, which was but a neceflary piece of conduct, af-
ter he had been ^o full in that of Patroclus.



284 H O M E R's I L I A D. BookXXIV.
Thou to the difmal realms for ever gone ! 910

And I abandon'd, defolate, alone !
An only fon, once comfort of our pains,

Sad product now of haplefs love remains !

Kever to manly age that fon mail rife,

Or with encreafing graces glad my- eyes: 015

For Ilion now (her great defender flain)

Shall fink a fmoaking ruin on the plain,

Who now protects her wives with guardian care?

"Who faves her infants from the rage of war?

Now hoflile fleets mud waft thofe infants o'er, 020

(Thofe wives mud wait 'em) to a foreign more !

Thou too, my fon ! to barb'rous climes malt go,

The fad companion of thy mother's woe;

Driv'n hence a Have before the victor's fword;

Condemn'd to toil for fome inhuman lord. 925

.Or elfe fome Greek whofe father preft the plain,
Or fon, or brother, by great Hector flain,
In Hector's blood his vengeance mail enjoy,
And hurl thee headlong from the tow'rs of Troy.
For thy ftern father never fpar'd a foe : 030

Thence all thefe tears, and aU this fcene of woe !
Thence, many evils his fad parents bore,
His parents many, but his confort more.
Why gav'il thou not to me thy dying hand ?
And why recciv'd not I thy laft command? 935

f. 934. Why gavjl thou not to iv.e thy dying hand?
And why received net I thy laji command?
I have taker, thefe two lines from Mr. Congreve,
whofe tranflation of this part was one ofinsfirit eilays



Book XXIV. H O M E R's ILIAD. 285

Some Word thou wouldft have fpoke, which fadly dear,
My foul might keep, or utter with a tear ;
Which never, never could be loft in air,
Flx'd in my heart, and oft repeated there !

Thus to her weeping maids (he makes her moan ; 940
Her weeping handmaids echo groan for groan.
The mournful mother next Mains her part.
O thou, the beft, the deareft to my heart !
Of all my race thou moft by heav'n approv'd,
And by th' immortals ev'n in death belov'd 1 94$

While all my other fons in barb'rous bands
Achilles bound, and fold to foreign lands,
This felt no chains, but went a glorious ghoft
Free, and a hero to the Stygian coaft,
Sentenc'd, 'tis true, by his inhuman doom, 950

Thy noble corfe was dragg'd around the tomb,
(The tomb of him thy warlike arm had flain)
Ungen'rous infult, impotent and vain !
Yet glow'ft thou frefn with ev'ry living grace,
No mark of pain, or violence of face ; 955

Rofy and fair ! as Phoebus' filver bow
DifmhVd thee gently to the {hades below.
Thus fpoke the dame, and melted into tears.
' Sad Helen next in pomp of grief appears :

in poetry. He has very joffly rendered the fenfe of
aALv U, dia«mprudens;'Mch is meant or the words
of a dyinP man, or one in fome dangerous exigence ; at
which times what is fpokenisufually fomething oftheut-
moftirn P ortance,anddelivered with theutmoftcare: which
is thetruefignification of theepithet rfcu^ in this place,



2 26 H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XXIV.
Fafl from the mining fluices of her eyes 960

Fall the round cryftal drops, while thus (he cries.

Ah dearefl: friend ! in whom the Gods had join'd
The mildeft manners with the braveft mind ;
Now twice ten years (unhappy years) are o'er
Since Paris brought me to the Trojan more; 965

(Oh had -I perifh'd, ere that form divine
Seduc'd this foft, this eafy heart of mine !)
Yet was it ne'er my fate, from thee to find
A deed ungentle, or a word unkind:
i* When others curfl: the auth'refs of their woe, 970

Thy pity check'd my forrows in their flow :
If fome proud brother ey'd me with didiain, O

Or fcomful fifter with her fweeping train, S.

Thy gentle accents foften'd all my pain. 3

For thee I mourn ; and mourn my felf in thee, 975

The wretched fource of all this mifery !
The fate I caus'd, for ever I bemoan ;
Sad Helen has no friend now thou art gone !
Thro' Troy's wide ftreets abandon'd (hall I roam !
In Troy deferted, as abhorr'd at home ! 980

So fpoke the fair, with forrow -breaming eye :
Diftrefsful beauty melts each ftander-by;
On all around th' infectious forrow grows ;
But Priam check'd the torrent as it rofe.
Perform, ye Trojans ! what the rites require, 985

And fell the forefts for a fun'ral pyre;
Twelve days, nor foes, nor fecret ambum dread;
Achilles grants thefe honours to the dead.



.BookXXIV. H O M E R's ILIAD. 287

He fpoke ; and at his word, the Trojan train
Their mules and oxen harnefs to the wain, 990

Pour thro' the gates, and fell'd from Ida's crown,
Roll back the gather'd forefts to the town.
Thefe toils continue nine fucceeding days,
And high in air a fylvan flruclure raife.
But when the tenth fair morn began to mine, 995
Forth to the pile was born the man divine,
And plac'd aloft : while all, with ftreaming eyes,
Beheld the flames and rolling fmokes arife.
Soon as Aurora, daughter of the dawn,
"With rofy luftre ftreak'd the dewy lawn ; 1 000

Again the mournful crouds furround the pyre,
And quench with wine the yet-remaining fire,
The fnowy bones his friends and brothers place
(With tears collected) in a golden vafe ;
The golden vafe in purple palls they roll'd, 1005

Of fofteft texture, and inwrought with gold.
Lafl: o'er the urn the facred earth they fpread,
And rais'd the tomb, memorial of the dead.
(Strong guards and fpies, till all the rites were done,
Watch'd from the rifing to the fetting fun) 1019

All Troy then moves to Priam's court again,
A folemn, dent, melancholy train :
AfTembled there, from pious toil they reft,
And fadly (har'd the laft fepulchral feaft.
Such honours Ilion to her hero paid, 10 1 5

And peaceful flept the mighty Hector's (hade.

The End of the fourth Volume.



WE have now pad through the Iliad, and feen the
anger of Achilles, and the terrible effects of it, at
an end: as that only was the fubject of the poem, and
the nature of epic poetry v/ould not permit our author
to proceed to the event of the war, it may perhaps be
acceptable to the common reader to give a Ihort account
of what happened to Troy and the chief actors in this
poem, after the conclusion of it.

I need not mention that Troy was taken foon after
the death of Hector, by the ftratagem of the wooden
horfe, the particulars of which are defcribed by Virgil
in the fecond book of the JEneis.

Achilles fell before Troy, by the hand of Paris, by
the (hot of an arrow in his heel, as Hector had prophefi-
ed at his death, lib. 22.

The unfortunate Priam was killed by Pyrrhus the
fon of Achilles.

Ajax, after the death of Achilles, had a conteft with
UlyfTes for the armour of Vulcan, but being defeated in
his aim, he flew himfelf through indignation.

Helen, after the death of Paris, married Deiphobus
his brother, and at the taking of Troy betrayed him, in
order to reconcile herfelf to Menelaus her firft bufband,
who received her again into favour.

Agamemnon at his return was barbaroufly murthered
by iEgyfthus at the mitigation of Clytaemneftra his wife,
who in his abfence had dishonoured his bed with Mr
gyfthus.

D ; omed after the fall of Troy was expelled his own
country, and fcarce efcaped with life from his adulterous
wife iEgiaie ; but at hft was received by Daunus in A-
pulia, and fliared his kingdom : it is uncertain how he
died.

Neflor lived in peace with his children, in Pylos his
native country.

UlyfTes alfo, after innumerable troubles by fea and
land, at lad returned in fafety to Ithaca, which is the
•fubject of Homer's OdyfTes.



I muft end thefe notes by difcharging my duty to two
of my friends, which is the more an indifpenfable piece
of juftice, as the one of them is fince dead : the merit of
their kindnefs to me will appear infinitely the greater, as
the talk they undertook was in its own nature, of much
more labour, than either pleafure or reputation. The
larger part of the extracts from Eufhthius, together
with feveral excellent obfervations, were fcnt me by
Mr. Broome: and the whole efTay upon Homer was
written upon fuch memoirs as I had collected, by the


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