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Swift as their mother mares, and father wind.
Thefe lightly (kimming, when they (wept the plain, 2 70
Nor ply'd the grafs, nor bent the tender grain ;

■pinefs of making the leaf! circumftance confiderable ; the
fubjecl grows under his hands, and the plaineft matted
mines in his drefs of poetry : another poet would h.ve
faid thefe horfes were as fwift as the wind, but Homer
telis you that they fprung from Boreas the god of the
wind; and thence drew their fwTfmefs.

)>. 270. Thefe lightly fk'mmiog, as they /wept the
plain.'] The poet iiIuP»raies the fwiftnefs of thefe horfes
by defcribing. them as running over the (landing corn,
and furface of waters, without making any iropreflion.
Virgil has imitated thefe lines, and adapts what Homer
fays of thefe horfes to the fwiftnefs of Camilla. Mn.
7 . 809.

Ilia vel intaclae fegetis per fumma volar et
Gramina ; nee teneras titrjii laefiffet arifta\ :
Vel ma- e per medium, fluclu fufpsnfa tumenti
Ferret Uer } celeres nee tingeret cequore plantas.

The render will eafily perceive that Virgil's is almoft a
literal tranflation: he has imitated the very run of the
verfes, which flow nimbly away in dacftyls, and as fwift
as the wind they defcribe.

I cannot but obferve one thing in favour of Homer,
that there can no greater commendation be given to
him, than by confidering the conduct of Virgil: vJio,
though undoubtedly the greatett poet after him, feldom
ventures to vary much from his original in the paffages
he takes from him, as in a defpair of improving, and
contented if he can but equal them.
E 2



52 HOME R's ILIAD. Book XX.

And when along the level feas they flew,

Scarce on the furface curlM the briny dew.

Such Erichthonius was : from him there came

The facred Tros, of whom the Trojan name. 27$

Three fons renown'd adorn'd his nuptiul bed,

Uus, Affaracus, and Ganymed:

The matchlefs Ganymed, divinely fair,

Whom heav'n enamour'd fnatch'd to upper air,

To bear the cup of Jove (asthereal gueft) 280

The grace and glory of th* ambrofial feafL

The two remaining fons the line divide :

JPirft rofe Laomedon from Ilus* fide ;

From him Tithonus. nov/ in cares grown old,

And Priam, (bleft u ith He<ftor, brave and bold ;) 284

Clytius and Laropus, ever-honour'd pair;

And Hicetaon, thunderbolt of war.

From great AfTaracus fprung Capys, He

Begat Anchifes, and Anchifes me.

f. 280. To hear the cup of Jove 7] To be a cupbearer
has in all ages and nations been reckoned an honourable
employment: Sappho mentions it in honour of her
brother Labichus, that he was cup-bearer to the nobles
of Mitylene: the fon of Menelaus executed the fame of-
fice; Hebe and Mercury ferved the gods in the fame
ftation.

It was the cuflom in the Pagan worfhip to employ
noble youths to pour the wine upon the facrificc: in this
office Ganymede might probably attend upon the altar
of Jupiter, and from thence was fabled to be his cup-
bearer, Euftathius.



Book XX. HOME R's I L I A D. ^3

Such is our race: 'tis fortune gives us birth, 290

But Jove alone endues the foul with worth:

He, fource of pov/r and might ! with boundlefs fway,

All human courage gives, or takes away.

Long in the field of words we may contend,

Reproach is infinite, and knows no end, 295

Arm'd or with truth or falihood, right or wrong,

So voluble a weapon is the tongue ;

Wounded, we wound ; and neither fide can fail.

For every man has equal ftrength to rail :

Women alone, when in the ftreets they jar, goo

Perhaps excel us in this wordy war;

Like us they ftand, encompafs'd with the croud,

And vent their anger impotent and loud.

Ceafe then — Our bufmefs in the field of fight

Is not to question, but to prove our might. 3©5

To all thofe infults thou haft ofTer'd here,

Receive this anfwer : 'tts my flying fpear*

He fpoke. With all his force the jav'lin flung,
Fix'd deep, and loudly in the buckler rung.
Far on his out-ftretch'd arm, Pelides held 310

(To meet the thund'ring lance) his dreadful fijield,
That trembled as it ftuck; nor void of fear
Saw, ere it fell, th 5 immeafurable fpear.
His fears were vain ; impenetrable charms,
Secur'd the temper of th' asthereal arms. 315

Thro' two ftrong plates the point its paftage held^
But ftopp'd, and refted, by the third repelTd ^

£3



54 H O M E R's I L I A D, Book XX.

Five plates of various metal, various mold, O

Compos'd the fhield, of brafs each outward fold,V

Of tin each inward, and the middle gold : \ 32©

There ftuck the lance. Then rifing ere he threw,

The forceful fpear of great Achilles flew,

And pierc'd the Dardan fhield's extremeft bound,

Where the fhrill brafs retum'd a fharper found:

Thro' the thin verge the Pelean weapon glides, 30$

And the flight covering of expanded hides.

/Eneas his contracted body bends,

And o'er him high the riven targe extends,

Sees thro' its parting plates, the upper air,

And at his back perceives the quiv'ring fpear: 33©

A fate fo near him, chills his foul with fright,

And fwims before his eyes the many-col our'd light.

Achilles, rufhingin with dreadful cries,

Draws his broad blade, and at iEneas flies :

jEneas rouzing as the foe came on, 33 c

(With force collected) heaves a mighty ftone :

A mafs enormous ! which in modern days

No two of earth's degen'rate fons could raife.

But Ocean's God, whofe earthquakes rock the ground,

Saw the diftrefs, and mov'd the pow'rs around. 340

y/. 339. But Ocean's God, etc.] The conduct of the
poet in making JEneas owe his fafety to Neptune in this
place is remarkable: Neptune is an enemy to the Tro-
jans, yet he dares not luffer fo pious a man to fall, left
Jupiter mould be offended : this fhews, fays Euftathius,
that piety is always under the protection of God ; and
th:it favours are fometimes conferred not out of kindnefs,



Book XX. H O M E R's I L I A D, 55

Lo ! on the brink of fate iEneas (lands,
An inftant victim to Achilles' hands:
By Phoebus urg'd ; but Phcebus has beftow'd
His aid in vain : the man o'erpow'rs the God.
And can ye fee this righteous chief atone 345

With guiltlefs blood, for vices not his own ?
To all the Gods his conftant vows were paid :
Sure, tho' he wars for Troy, he claims our aid.
Fate wills not this ; nor thus can Jove refign
The future father of the Dardan line : 350

The firft great anceftor obtained his grace,
And ftill his love defcends on all the race.
For Priam now, and Priam's faithlefs kind,
At length are odious to th' all-feeing mind;

but to prevent a greater detriment; thus Neptune pre-
ferves ^Eneas, left Jupiter mould revenge his death up-
on the Grecians.

f. 345. And can ye fee this righteous chief, etc.J
Though yEneas is represented a man of great courage,
yet his piety is his moft mining character: this is the
reafon why he is always the care of the gods, and they
favour him conftantly through the whole poem with
their immediate protection.

It is in this light that Virgil has prefented him to the
view of the reader : his valour bears but the fecond
place in the ^neis. In the Ifias indeed he is drawn in
miniature, and in the ^Eneis at full length; but there
are the fame features in the copy, which are in the ori-
ginal, and he is the fame i£neas in R.ome as he was ia
Troy.



56* HOMER's ILIAD. Book XX,

On great ^neas fhall devolve the reign, 355

And fons fucceeding Tons the lading line fuftain.

f. 355. On great JEneas fiall devolve the reign.

And fons fucceeding fons the la fling linefu/lain.']
The dory of iEneas's founding the Roman empire, gave
Virgil the fined occafion imaginable of paying a com-
plement to Auguftus, and his countrymen, who were
fond of being thought the defendants of Troy. He
has tranflated thefe two lines literally, and put them in
the nature of a prophecy ; as the favourers of the opi-
nion of iEneas's failing into Italy, imagine Homer's
to be.

... -._.. httuxi €t'r TpcSta-<riv dvci%(t

Kal flr«7^£f iraiSuv roUtv fitrcrtaQt yivvvTcct.

Hie domus JEnea cunftis dominabitur oris,
Et nati natcrum et qui nafcentur ab illis.

There lias been a very ancient alteration made (as
Strabo obferves) in thefe two lines, by fubdituting *-dv»
-rtovh in the room of t^W*. It is not improbable but
Virgil might give occafion for it, by his cunfiis domina-
bitur oris.

Euftathius does not intirely difcountenance this dory:
if it be underdood, fays he, as a prophecy, the poet
might take it from the Sibylline oracles. He farther
remarks, that the poet artfully interweaves into his
poem not only the things which happened before the
commencement, and in the pretention of the Trojan
war; but other matters of importance which happened
even after that war was brought to a concludes. Thus
for inftancc, we have here a piece of hiftory not extant
in any other author, by which we are informed that the
houfe of iEReas fucceeded to the crown of Troas, and
to the kingdom of Priam. Euftathius.

This paflage is very confiderable, for U ruins the fa-
mous chimxra of the Roman empire, and of the family



BookXX. H O M E ITs I L I A D. 57

The great earth -fhaker thus : to whom replies
Th' imperial Goddefs with the radiant eyes.

of the Csefars, who both pretended to deduce their ori-
ginal from Venus by tineas, alleging that after the tak-
ing of Troy, jfcneas came into Italy: and this preten-
fion is hereby actually deftroyed. This teftimony of
Homer ought to be looked upon as an authentic act, the
fidelity and verity thereof cannot be queftioned. Ne-
ptune, as much an enemy as he is to the Trojans, de-
clares that _>Eneas, and after him his pofterity, (hall reign
over the Trojans. Would Homer have put this pro-
phecy in Neptune's mouth, if he had not known that
jEneas did not leave Troy, but that he reigned there,
and if he had not feen in his time the defendants of
that prince reign there likewife ? That poet wrote two
hundred andfixty years, or thereabouts, after the taking
of Troy ; and what is very remarkable, he wrote in fome
of the towns of Ionia, that is to fay, in the neighbour-
hood of Phrygia, fo that the time and place givefuch a
weight to his depofition, that nothing can invalidate it.
All that the hiftorians have written concerning Alneas's
voyage into Italy, ought to be confidered as a romance,
made on purpofe to deftroy all hirtorical truth ; for the
mod ancient is pofterior to Homer by fome ages. Be-
fore Dionyfius of HalicarnafTus, fome writers being fen-
fible of the ftrength of this paffage of Homer, undertook
to explain it fo as to reconcile it with this fable; and
they faid that ,£neas, after having been in Italy, return*
ed to Troy, and left his fon Afcanius there. Diony-
fius of HalicarnafTus, little fatisfied with this folution,
which did not feem to him to be probable, has taken
another method : he would have it, that by thefe words,,
" He (hall reign over the Trojans," Homer meant,
He fhall reign over the Trojans whom he (hall carry
With him into Italy. " For is it not poffible, fays he*
" that JEneas mould reign over the Trojans, whom he
" had taken with him, though fettled elfewhere?"



58 HOME R's ILIAD. Book XX.

Good as he is, to immolate or fpare
The Dardan prince, O Neptune, be thy care; 36©

Pallas and I, by all that Gods can bind,
Have fworn deftru&ion to the Trojan kind;
Not ev'n an inftant to protract their fate,
Or fave one member of the finking (late ;
Till her lad flame be quench'd with her Jaft gore, 365
And ev'n her crumbling ruins are no more,
The king of Ocean to the fight defcends,
Thro' ail the whittling darts his courfe he bends,
Swift interpos'd between the warriors flies,
And cads thick darknefs o'er Achilles' eyes. 370

That hi/lorian, who wrote in Rome itfelf, and in the
very reign of Auguftus, was willing to m^ke his court
to that prince, by explaining this paifage of Homer, fo
«s to favour the chimaera he was pofleflied with. And
this is a reproach that may with fome juftice be cart on
him ; for poets may by their ficlions flatter princes, and
welcome: it is their trade. But for hiftorians to cor-
rupt the gravity and feverity of hiflory, to fubftitute
fable in the place of truth, is what ought not to be par-
doned. Strabo was much more fcrupulous, for though
he wrote his books of geography towards the beginning
of Tiberius's reign, yet he h:.d the courage to give a
right explication to this paffage of Homer, and to aver,
that this poet faid, and meant, that iEneas remained at
Troy, that he reigned therein, Priam's whole race being
extinguifhed, and that he left the kingdom to his chil-
dren after him, lib. 13. You may fee this whole matter
difcuffed in a letter from M. Bochart to M. de Sagrais,
who has prefixed it to his remarks upon the tranflatioa
of Virgil.



Book XX. H O M E R's I L I A D. 59

From great Eneas' fhield the fpear he drew,
And at its matter's feet the weapon threw.
That done, with force divine he fnatch'd on high
The Dardan prince, and bore him thro' the fky,
Smooth gliding without ftep, above the heads 375

Of warring heroes, and of bounding fteeds.
Till at the battel's utmoft verge they light,
Where the flow Caucans clofe the rear of fight:

jfr. 378. Where the flow Caucans clofe the rear. ~\ The
Caucones (fays Euftathius) were of Paphtagonian ex-
tract : and this perhaps was the reafon why they are
not diftinclly mentioned in the catalogue, they being
included under the general name of Paphlagonians:
though two lines are quoted which are faid to have been
left out by fome tranfcriber, and immediately followed
this,

Which verfes are thefe,

Kaux&vaf cclr lyi jtoXuxXeoc u»{ 'ApifiOV,

Or as others read it, 'ApuGoc

Ol xepl xap&ivioi xolxpov xXu7« iu^ar httioi.

Or according to others,

Kara SufjictT Uaioi,

Yet I believe thefe are not Homer's lines, but rather the
addition of fome tranfcriber; and it is evident by con-
futing the pafTage from which they are faid to have been
curtailed, that they would be abfurd in that place; for
the fecond line is actually there already ; and as thefe
Caucons are faid to live upon the banks of the Par-
thenius, fo are the Paphlagonians in the above-mention-
ed palTage. It is therefore more probable that the
Caucons are included in the Paphlagonians.



6o H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XX.
The Godhead there (his heav'nly form confefs'd)
With words like thefe the panting chief addrefs'd. 383

What pow'r, ° prince, with force inferior far
Urg'd thee to meet Achilles* arm in war !
Henceforth beware, nor antedate thy doom,
Defrauding fate of all thy fame to come.
But when the day decreed (for come it muft) 385;

Shall lay this dreadful hero in the dun 1 ,
Let then the furies of that arm be known,
Secure, no Grecian force tranfeends thy own.

With that, he left him wond'ring as he lay,
Then from Achilles chas'd the mift away : 393

Sudden, returning with the ftream of light,
The fcene of war came rufhing on his figlit.
Then thus, amaz'd : what wonders ftrike my mind !
My fpear, that parted on the wings of wind,
Laid here before me ! and the Dardan lord 395

That fell this inftant, vanifh'd from my fword !
1 thought alone with mortals to contend,
But powers celeftial fure this foe defend.
Great as he is, our arm he fcarce will try,
Content for once, with all his Gods, to fly. 400

isfow then let others bleed This faid, aloud

He vents his fury, and inflames the croud,

O Greeks' (he cries, and ev'ry rank alarm 3)

Join battel, man to man, and arms to arms !

'Tis not in me, tho' favoured by the Iky, 405

To mow whole troops, and make whole armies fly :

No



BookXX. H O M E R's ILIAD. 6l

No God can fmgly fuch a hoft engage,

Not Mars him (elf, nor great Minerva's rage.

But whatfoe'er Achilles can infpire,

"Whate'er of a&ive force, or acting (Ire, 4 io

Whate'er this heart can prompt, or hand obey;

All, all Achilles, Greeks ! is yours to-day.

Thro' yon' wide hod this arm (hall fcatter fear,

And thin the fquadrons with my (ingle (pear.

Hefaid: nor lefs elate with martial joy, 415

The god-like Hector warm'd the troops of Troy.
Trojans, to war ! think Hector leads you on ;
Nor dread the vaunts of Peleus' haughty fon.
Deeds mud decide our fate. Ev'n thofe with words
Infult the brave, who tremble at their fwords : 42©

The weakeft atheift- wretch all heav'n defies,
But mrinks and fhudders, when the thunder flies.
Nor from yon' boafter (hall your chief retire,
Not tho' his heart were (feel, his hands were fire;
That fire, that (leel, your Hector mould withftand, 425
And brave that vengeful heart, that dreadful hand.

Thus (breathing rage thro' all) the hero faid ;
A wood of lances rifes round his head,
Clamours on clamours tempeft all the air,
They join, they throng, they thicken to the war. 430
But Phoebus warns him from high heav'n to fhun
The (Ingle fight with Thetis' god-like fon ;
More fafe to combate in the mingled band,
Nor tempt too near the terrors of his hand.

Vol. IV. F



62 H O M E R's I L I A D, Book XX.

He hears, obedient to the God of light^ 43 c.

And plung'd within the ranks, awaits the fight.

Then fierce Achilles, fliouting to the fides,
On Troy's whole force with boundlefs fury flies.
Flrft falls Iphytion, at his army's head ;
Brave was the chief, and brave the holt he led, 440
From great Otrynteus he deriv'd his blood,
His mother was a Nais of the flood ;
Beneath the fhades of Tmolus, crown'd with fnow,
From Hyde's walls he rul'd the lands below,
Fierce as he fprings, the fword his head divides; 44J
The parted vifage falls on equal fides:
With loud- refounding arms he flrikes the plain;
While thus Achilles glories o'er the flain.

Lie there, Otryntides ! the Trojan earth
Receives thee dead, tho' Gygae boaft thy birth ; 45*
Thofe beauteous fields where Hyllus' waves are roll'd,
And plenteous Hermus fwells with tides of gold,

Are thine no more Th' infulting hero faid,

And left him fleeping in eternal (hade.

The rolling wheels of Greece the body tore, 455

And dafli'd their axles with no vulgar gore.

Demoleon next, Antenor's offspring, laid
Breathlefs in duft, the price of rafhnefs paid.
Th' impatient fteel with full defcending fway
Forc'd thro' his brazen helm its furious way, 46$

Kefiftlefs drove the batter'd fkull before,
And ddh'd and mingled all the brains with gore.



Book XX. H O M E R's I L I A D. 63

This fees Hippodamas, and feiz'd with fright,

Peferts his chariot for a fwifter flight :

The lance arrefts him : an ignoble wound 465

The panting Trojan rivets to the ground.

He groans away his foul : not louder rores

At Neptune's fhrine on Helice's high fhores

The vi&im bull -, the rocks rebellow round,

And Ocean liftens to the grateful found. 470

Then fell on Polydore his vengeful rage,
The youngeft hope of Priam's ftooping age :

f t 467, Net louder rores

At Neptune s fhrine on Helice's high fam, etc.]
In Helice, a town of Achaia, three quarters of a league
from the gulph of Corinth, Neptune had a magnificent
temple, where the Ionian s offered every year to him a
Sacrifice of a bull ; and it was with thefe people an au-
spicious fign, and a certain mark, that the facrifke would
be accepted, if the bull bellowed as he was led to the
altar. After the Ionic migration, which happened a-
bont 140 years after the taking of Troy, the Ionian s of
Afia aflembled in the fields of Priene to celebrate the
fame feftival in honour of Heliconian Neptune ; and as
thofe of Priene valued themfelves upon being originally
of Helice, they chofe for the king of the facrifke a
young Prienian. It is needlefs to difpute from whence
the poet has taken his comparifon ; for as he lived 100,
or 121 years after the Ionic migration, it cannot be
doubted but he took it in the Afian Ionia, and at Priene
itfelf ; where he had probably often affifted at that fa-
crifice, and been witnefs of the ceremonies therein ob-
ferved. This poet always appears ftrongly addicted to
the cuftoms of the Ionians, which makes fome conje-
cture that he was an Ionian himfelf. Euftathius. Dacier.

f. 571. Then fell on Polydore bis vengeful rage. ,]
F 2



64 H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XX.

( VVhofe feet for fwiftnefs in the race furpafl)

Of all his fons, the deareft, and the laft.

To the forbidden field he takes his flight 475

In the firft folly of a youthful knight,

To vaunt his fwiftnefs wheels around the plain,

But vaunts not long, with all his fwiftnefs (lain.

Struck where the crofling belts unite behind,

And golden rings the double back-plate join'd : 480

Forth thro' the navel burft the thrilling fteel ;

And on his knees with piercing (hrieks he fell;

The ruihing entrails pour'd upon the ground

His hands collect ; anddarknefs wraps him round.

"When Heclor view'd, all ghaftly in his gore 485

Thus fadly (lain, th' unhappy Polydore;

A cloud of forrow overcaft his fight,

His foul no longer brook'd the diftant fight,

Full in Achilles' dreadful front he came,

And (hook his jav'lin like a waving flame. 490

Euripides in his Hecuba has followed another tradition,
when he makes Polydorus the fon of Priam and of He-
cuba, and fiain by Polymneftor king of Thrace, after
the taking of Troy ; for according to Homer, he is not
the fon of Hecuba, but of Laothoe, as he fays in the
folio wing book, and is llain by Achilles. Virgil too
.has rather chofen to follow Euripides than Homer.

^.489. Full in Achilles' dreadful front became."] The
great judgment of the poet in keeping the character of
his hero, is in this place very evident: when Achilles
was to engage iEneas, he holds a long conference with
him, and with patience bears the reply of ^neas: had
he purfued the fame method with Hedor, he had de-
parted from his character. Anger is the prevailing paf-



Book XX. H O M E R>s I L I A D. <5$

The fon of Peleus fees, with joy pofTeft,

His heart high-bounding in his rifing breaft:

And, \o ! the man, on whom black fates attend ;

The man, that flew Achilles, in his friend !

No more (hall Hetfor's and Pelides' fpeas 495

Turn from each other in the walks of war

Then with revengeful eyes he fcan'd him o*er :
Come, and receive thy fate i he fpake no more.

Hector, undaunted, thus. Such words employ
To one that dreads thee, fome unwarlike boy : 500
Such we could give, defying and defy'd,
Mean intercourfe of obloquy and pride!'
I know thy force to mine fuperior far;.
But heav'n alone confers fuccefs in warr.
Mean as I am, the Gods may guide my dart,, je$

And give it entrance in a braver heart.

Then parts the lance: but Pallas' heav'nly breath-
Far from Achilles wafts the winged death i
The bidden dart again to Hector flies,
And at the feet of its great matter lies>. $»»

Achilles ciofes with hfs hated fee,
Hs heart and eyes with flaming fury glow s

Con in Achilles :: he left the field in a rage agamflr Aga-
memnon, and entered it again to be revenged of Hec-
tor: the poet therefore judicioufly makes him take fire
at the fight of his enemy : he describes him as impatient
to kill him, he gives him a haughty challenge, and that
challenge is comprehended in a fingle line : his impa-
tience to be revenged, would' not fuflfer hisn.tQ dela^ it
by a length of words.



66 H O M E R's I L 1 A D. Book XX.

But prefent to his aid, Apollo fhrouds

The favour'd hero in a veil of clouds.

Thrice {truck Pelides with indignant heart, $ 1 5

Thrice in impafllve air he plung'd the dart:

The fpear a fourth time bury'd in the cloud,

He foams with fury, and exclaims aloud.

Wretch ! thou haft fcap'd again, once more thy flight
Has fav'd thee, and the partial God of light. 520

But long thou (halt not thy juft fate witbftand,
If any power aflift Achilles' hand.
Fly then inglorious ! but thy flight this day
Whole hecatombs of Trojan ghofts fhall pay.

With that, he gluts his rage on numbers flain: 525
Then Dryops tumbled to th' enfanguin'd plain,
^iere'd thro' the neck : he left him panting there,
And ftopp'd Demuchus, great Philetor's heir,

^.513. But prefent to his aid> Apollo."] It is a com-
mon obfervation, that a God fhouid never be introduced
into a poem but where his pretence is necefTary. And
it may be aiked why the life of Hector is of fuch im-
portance that Apollo fhouid refcue him from the hand
of Achilles here, and yet fuffer him to fall fo foon after?
Euftathius anfwers, that the poet had not yet fufficiently
exalted the valour of Achilles, he takes time to enlarge
upon his atchievements, and rifes by degrees in his cha-
racter, till he completes both his courage and refentment
,at one blow in the death of Hector. And the poet,
adds he, pays a great compliment to his favourite coun-


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