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tryman; by (hewing that nothing but the intervention
of a God could have faved tineas and Hector from the
band of Achilles.

Book XX. H O M E R's I L I A D. *7

Gigantic chief! deep gafb'd th' enormous blade,

And for the foul an ample paffage made. 5 30

Laogonus and Dardanus expire,

The valiant fons of an unhappy fire;

Both in one inftant from the chariot hurl'd,

Sunk in one inftant to the nether world ;

This diff'rence only their fad fates afford, 535

That one the fpear deftroy'd, and one the fword.

Nor lefs unpity'd, young Alaftor bleeds ;
In vain his youth, in vain his beauty pleads:
In vain he begs thee with a fuppliant's moan,
To fpare a form, an age fo like thy own ! 54©

Unhappy boy ! no pray'r, no moving art,
E'er bent that fierce, inexorable heart!
While yet he trembled at his knees, and cry'd,
The rutblefs falchion ope'd his tender fidej

f. 54 1 . Ni pra/r, no moving art

E'er bent that fierce, inexorable heart f]
I confefs it is a fatisfaelion to me, to obferve with what
art tli e poet purfues his fubjedt: the opening of the
poem profeffes to treat of the anger of Achilles; that
anger draws on all the great events of the (lory : and
Homer at every opportunity awakens the reader to an
attention to it, by mentioning the effe&s of it: fo that
when we fee in this place the hero deaf to youth and
companion, it is what we expect: mercy in him would
offend, becaufe it is contrary to his character. Homer
propofes him not as a pattern for imitation; but the
moral of the poem which he defigned the reader mould
draw from it, is, that we mould avoid anger, fince it is
ever pernicious in the event.

68 H O M £ R's I L I A D. Book XX.

The painting liver pours a flood of gore 545

That drowns his bofom till he pants no more.

Thro' Mulius' head then drove th' impetuous fpear,
The warrior falls, transfix'd from ear to ear.
Thy life, Echeclus ! next the fword bereaves.
Deep thro' the front thepond'rous faulchion cleaves ; $£0
Warm'd in the brain the fmoaking weapon lies,
The purple death comes floating o'er his eyes.
Then brave Deucalion dy'd : the dart was flung
"Where the knit nerves the pliant elbow ftnangj,
He dropt his arm, an unaffifting weight,. 55^

And flood all impotent, expecting fate:.
Full on his neck the falling faulchion fped,
From his broad moulders hew'd his crefted heads
Forth from the bone the fpinal marrow flies,
And funk in duft, the corps extended lies. 563

Rhigmus, whofe race from fruitful Thracia came,,
(The fon of Pireus, an iHuftrious name,)
Succeeds to fate : the fpear his belly rends ;
Prone from his car the thund'ring chief defcends :
The fquire, who faw expiring on the ground $6$

His proftrate matter, rein'd the fteeds around 1
His back fcarce turn'd the Pelian jav'lin gor'd y
And ftretch'd the fervant o'er his dying lord*
As when a flame the winding valley fills,
And runs on crackling mrubs between the hilts 5 570
Then o'er the ftnbbleup the mountain flies,
Fires the high woods, and blazes to the fldes^.

Book XX. H O M E R's I L I A D. 69

This way and that, the fpreading torrent rores;

So fweeps the hero thro' the wafted fhores ;

Around him wide, immenfe deftruction poors, 575

And earth is delug'd with the fanguine fhow'rs.

As with autumnal harvefts cover'd o'er,

And thick beftrown, lies Ceres' facred floor,

When round and round, with never- weary'd pain,

The trampling fteers beat out th' un-number'd grain . $ 80

f. 580. The trampling fleers beat out th' un-number'd
grain.'] In Greece, inftead of threshing the corn as we
do, they caufed it to be trod out by oxen ; this was
likewife pracYifed in Judaea, as is feen by the law of God,
who forbad the Jews to muzzle the ox who trod out
the corn. Non ligabis os bovis ter cutis in area fruges
tuas. Deut. xxv. Dacier.

The fame practice is ftill preferved among the Turks
and modern Greeks.

The fimiles at the end.] It is ufual with our author to
heap his fimiles very thick together at the conclufion
of a book. He has done the fame in the feventeenth :
it is the natural difcharge of a vaft imagination, heated
in its progrefs, and giving itfelf vent in this croud of

1 cannot clofe the notes upon this book, without
obferving the dreadful idea of Achilles, which the poet
leaves upon the mind of the reader. He drives his
chariot over fhields, and mangled heaps of flain: the
wheels, the axle-tree, and the horfes are ftained with
blood, the hero's eyes burn with fury, and his h-rnds
are red with {laughter. A painter might form rom
this pafTage the picture of Mars in the fullnefs of his
terrors, as well as Phidias is faid to have dra>vn fcrom
another, that of Jupiter in all his majefty.

7 o H O JVI E R's I L I A D. Book XX.

So the fierce courfers, as the chariot rolls,

Tread down whole ranks, and crufh out heroes fouls.

Dafh'd from their hoofs while o'er the dead they fly,

Black, bloody drops the fmoaking chariot dye :

The fpiky wheels thro' heaps of carnage tore; 585

And thick the groaning axles dropp'd with gore.

High o'er the fcene of death Achilles flood,

All grim with duft, all horrible in blood :

Yet dill infatiate, dill with rage on flame 5

Such is the luft of never dying fame i 59©

C 7i 3




The battel in the river Scamander.

THE Trojans fly before Achilles, fome towards the tow;?,
' others to the river Scamander : he falls upon the latter
with great /laughter, takes twelve captives alive, to
facrificeto the /bade of Patroclus; and kills Lycaon and
Afteropaus. Scamander attacks him with all his waves:
Neptune and Pallas atfifl the hero; Simois joins Sea-
menders at length Vulcan, by the inftigation of Juno,
almoft dries up the river. This combat e ended, theo-
ther Cods engage each other. Meanwhile Achilles
continues the /laughter, drives the reft intoTroy : Agemr
only makes a ft and, and is conveyed away in a cloud by A-
polio; who (to delude Achilles) takes upon him Agcnor's
flape, and while he purfies him in that difguife, gives
the Trojans an opportunity of retiring into their city.
fhe fame day continues. Thefcene is on the banks and tti
the fir earn of Scamander.

AND now to Xanthus' gliding dream they drove,

Xanthus, immortal progeny of Jove,
The river here divides the flying train.
Part to the town fly diverfe o'er the plain,

This book is intirely different from all the forego-
ing: though it be a battel, it is intirely of a new and

72 H O M E R's I L I A D, Book XXL
Where late their troops triumphant bore the fight, 5
Now cbas'd, and trembling in ignoble flight:
(Thefe with a gather'd mid Saturnia fhrouds,
And rolls behind the rout a heap of clouds)
Part plunge into the ftream: old Xanthns rores,
The flaming billows beat the whiten'd mores : 10

"With cries promifcuous all the banks refound, O

And here, and there, in eddies whirling round, >

The flouncing fteeds and mrieking warriors drown'd. _>

furprizing kind, diverfified with a vaft variety of ima-
gery and defcription. The fcene is totally changed:
he paints the combate of his hero with the rivers, and
defcribes a battel amidfl: an inundation. It is obferva-
ble, that though the whole war of the Iliad was upon the
banks of thefe rivers, Homer has artfully left out the
machinery of river-gods in all the other battels, to ag-
grandize this of his hero. There is no book of the
poem that has more force of imagination, or in which
the great and inexhaufted invention of our author is
more powerfully exerted. After this defcription of an
inundation, there follows a very beautiful contrafl: in
that of the drought : the part of Achilles is admirably
fuftained, and the new flxokes which Homer gives to his
picture are fuch, as are derived from the very fource of
bis character, and finifh the intire draught of this hero.

How far all that appears wonderful or extravagant
in this epifode, may be reconciled to probability, truth
and natural reafon, will be confidered in a diftincl note
on that head: the reader may find it on f. 447.

f. 2. Xanthus, immortal progeny of 'Jove, .] The river
is here faid to be the fon of Jupiter, on account of its
being fupplied with water* that fall from Jupiter, that
is, from heaven. Euftathius.

iBookXXI. H O M E R's ILIAD. 73
As the fcorch'd locufts from their fields retire,
While faft behind them runs the blaze of fire; 15

iOriv'n from the land before the fmoaky cloud,
The cluft'ring legions rum into the flood:
So plung'd in Xanthus by Achilles' force,
Roars the refounding furge with men and horie.

3^.14. As the fcorch'd hcufts, etc.~] Euftathius ob-
ferves that feveral countries have been much infefted
with armies of locuits; and that, to prevent their de-
ftroying the fruits of the earth, the countrymen by
kindling large fires drove them from their fields ; the lo-
•cufts to avoid the intenfe.heat were forced to call them-
felves into the water. From this oblervation the poet
draws his allufion, which is very much to the honour of
Achilles, fince it reprefents the Trojans with refpect to
Tiim as no more than {o many infects.

The fame commentator takes notice, that becaufe
the ifland of Cyprus in particular was ufed to praclife
this method with. the locufls, fome authors have con-
jectured that Homer was of that country. But if this
were a funicient reaion for fuch a fuppofition, he might
be faid to be born in almoft ail the countries of the world,
fince he draws his obfervations frcm the cuftoms of
them all.

We may hence account for the innumerable armiejs
of thefe locuits, mentioned among the plagues of /Fgypr,
without having recourle to an immediate creation, as
fome good men have imagined, whereas the miracle in-
deed confifts in the wonderful manner of bringing them
upon the ^Egyptians. I have often obferved with ^lea-
fure the fimilitude which many of Homer's expreffions
bear with the holy fcriptures, and that the mofr ancient
heathen writer in the world, often fneaks in the idiom
ofMofes: rhusasthelocuftsin Exodus ar\? faid to be driven
into the fea, fo in Homer they are forced into a river.

Vol. IV. G *

7 4 H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XXI.

His bloody lance the hero cafts afide, 20

(Which fpreading tam'rifks on the margin hide)

Then, like a God, the rapid billows braves,

Arni'd with his fword, high-brandifn'd o'er the waves:

Now down he plunges, now he whirls it round,

Deep groan'd the waters with the dying found; 25

Repeated wounds thered'ning river dy'd,

And the warm purple circled on the tide.

Swift thro' the foamy flood the Trojans fly,

And clofe in rocks or winding caverns lie.

So the huge dolphin tempefting the main, go

In fhoals before him fly the fcaly train.

Confus'dly heap'd they feek their inmoft caves,

Or pant and heave beneath the floating waves.

Now tir'd with flaughter, from the Trojan band

Twelve chofen youths he drags alive to land ; 35

f, 30. So the huge Dolphin, etc] It is obfervable
with what juftnefs the author diverfifies his comparifons
according to the different fcenes and elements he Is en-
gaged in : Achilles has been hitherto on the land, and
compared to land-animals, a lion, etc. Now he is in
tl' water, the poet derives his images from thence, and
likens him to a dolphin. Euftathius.

^.34. Now tir'd with flaughter.'} This is admirably
wellfuited to the character of Achilles, his rage bears'
him headlong on the enemy, he kills all that oppofe
him, and flops not, until nature itfelf could not keep
pace with his anger; he had determined to referve
twelve noble youths to facrifice them to the Manes of
Patroclus, but his refentment gives him no time to think
ot them, until the hurry of his paflion abates, and he is
tired with flaughter: without this circumftance, I think

Book XXI. H O M E R's ILIAD. 75

With their rich belts their captive arms conftrains,
(Late their proud ornaments, but now their chains.)
Thefe his attendants to the (hips convey'd,
Sad victims ! deftin d to Patroclus' (hade.

an objection might naturally be raifed, that in the time
of a purfuit Achilles gave the enemy too much leifureto
efcape, while he bufied himfelf with tying thefe pri-
foners : though it is not abfolutely necetfary to fuppofe
he tyed them with his own hands.

f, 35. Twelve chef en youth s.~] This piece of cruelty
in Achilles has appeared (hocking to many, and indeed
is what I think can only be excufed by confidering tne
ferocious and vindictive fpirit of this hero. It is how-
ever certain that the cruelties exercifed on enemies in
war were authorifed by the military laws of thofe times;
nay, religion itfelf became a fanction to them. It is
not only the fierce Achilles, but the pious and religious
JEneas, whofe very character is virtue and compafTion,
that referves feveral young unfortunate captives taken
jn battel, to facrifice them to the Manes of his favourite
hero. jEn. 10. f. 517.

■Sulmone creatos

Quatuor hie juvenes,totidem quos e due at Ufens
Viventes rapit ; inferias quos immolet umbris,
Captivoque rogi perfundat fanguine flammas.

And ^n. 11. $. 81.

Vinxerat et pofi terga /nanus, quos mitteret umbris,
Jnferias, cafo fparfuros fanguine flammam.

And (what is very particular) the Latin poet exprefles
no difapprobation of the action, which the Grecian does
in plain terms, fpeaking of this in Iiiad 23. f. 176.


:6 H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XXfc
Then, as once more lie plung'd amid the flood, m*
The young Lycaon in his pahage flood ;
The Ton of Priam, whom the hero's hand
But hte made captive in his father's land,
(As from a fycamore, his founding fteel
Lopp'd the green arms to fpoke a chariot-wheel) a£
To Lemnos ifle he fold the royal ilave,
Where Jafon's fon the price demanded gave ;
But kind Eetion touching on the more,
The ranfom'd prince to fair Ari&e bore.
Ten days were pair, fince in his father's reign 5*

lie felt the fwects of liberty again;

f, 41. The young Lye aon, etc.] Homer has a won-
derfuJ art and judgment in contriving fuch incidents as
let the characterise qualities of his heroes in the higheft
point of light. There is hardly any in the whole Iliad
more proper to move pity than this circumftance of
Lycaon; or to raife terror, than this view of Achilles,
It is alfp the fineft piclure of them both imaginable: we
fee the different attitude of their perfons, and the dif-
ferent paffions which appeared in their countenances *
at firfl Achilles ftands ereel, with furprize in his looks,
at the fight of one whom he thought it impofiible to,
find there; while Lycaon is in the pofture of a fuppliant,
with looks that plead for companion; with one hand ■
holding the hero's lance, and his knee with the others
afterwards, when at his death he lets go the fpear, and-
places h.mfclf on his knees with his arms extended, to
receive the mortal wound, how lively and how ftrongly
)• this p mted ! I believe every one perceives the beaut*
of this P a( hge and allows that poetry (at leaft in Ho, I
nu-r) is truly a fpeaking piclure,.

JBodk XXI. H O M E R's I L I A D. 77

The next, that God whom men in vain withftand,

Gives the fame youth to the fame conqu'ring hand ;

> T ow never to return ! and doom'd to go

A fadder journey to the (hades below. 55

His well known face when great Achilles ey'd,

(The helm and vifor he had caft afide

With wild affright, and drop'd upon the field

His ufelefs lance and unavailing mield.)

As trembling, panting, from the ftream he fled, 60

And knock'd his fault'ring knees, the hero faid.

Ye mighty Gods ! what wonders ftrike my view !
Is it in vain our conqu'ring arms fubdue ?
Sure I mall fee yon* heaps of Trojans kiil'd,
Rife from the (hades, and brave me on the field : 6$
As now the captive, whom fo late I bound
And (old to Lemnos, (talks on Trojan ground !
Not him the fea's unmeafur'd deeps detain,
That barr fuch numbers from their native plain:
Lo! he returns. Try then, my flying fpcar! 7°

Try, if the grave can hold the wanderer ;
If earth at length this aftive prince can feize,
Earth, whofe ftrong grafp has held down Hercules.

Thus while he fpake, the Trojan, pale with fears
Loth as he was to yield his youthful breath,
And his foul fhiv'ring at th' approach of death.
AchiUes rais'4 the fpear, prepar'd to wound ;
HekifsVfhis feet, extended on the ground:

7$ H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XXI.
And while above the fpear fufpended flood, So

Longing to dip its thirfty point in blood,
One hand embrac'd them clofe, one ftopt the dart ;
While thus thcfe melting words attempt his heart.

Thy well-known captive, great Achilles ! fee,
Once more Lycaon trembles at thy knee. 8$.

Some pity to a fuppllanfs name afford,
Who fnar'd the gifts cf Ceres at thy board ;
Whorti lata thy conqu'ring arm to Lemnos bore,
!Far from his father, friends, and native fhore;

>\ 84. Thefpeeches of Lye con and Ac hi lies. 2 It is im-
pofiible for any thing to be better imagined than thefe
two fpeeches: that of Lycaon is moving and compaf-
fionate ; that of Achilles haughty and dreadful ; the one
pleads with the utmoft tendernefs, the other denies with
the utmoft ftemnefs : one would think it impofRble to-
amafs fo many moving arguments in fo few words as
ihofe of Lycaon: he forgets no circumftance to foften.
his enemy's anger, he flatters the memory of Patroclus,
5s afraid of being thought too nearly related to Hector,
and would willingly put himfelf upon h'm as a fupplianr,
and confeqeentiy as an inviolable peifoii: but Achilles
3s immoveable, his refentment makes him deaf to in-
ireaties, and it muft be remembered that anger, not
mercy, is his character.

I muft confefs I could have wifhed Achilles had fpar-
td him: there are (o many circumflances that fpeak in
his favour, that he defervtd bis life, had he not afked it.
in terms a little too abject.

There is an air of greatnefs in the conclusion of the
fpeech of x^chille?, which flrikes me very much : he
fpeak s r'y unconcernedly of his own death, and up-
braids his enemy for afking life fo earneiily, a life that
Was oi fo much kfs importance than his own*

Book XXI. H O M E It's I L I A D. 79
A hundred oxen were his price that day, 90

Now Turns immenfe thy mercy (hall repay.
Scarce refpited from woes I yet appear,
And fcarce twelve morning funs have feen me here;
Lo ! Jove again fubmits me to thy hands,
Again, her victim cruel fate demands ! 95

I fprung from Priam, and Laothce fair,
(Old Alte's daughter,, and Lelegia's heir;
Who held in Pcdafus his fam'd abode,
And rul'd the fields where fifver Satnio fiow'd)
Two fons (alas ! unhappy fons) fhe bore ; IOO

For ah ! one fpear (hall drink each brother's gore>^
And I fucceed to flaughter'd Polydore. ^

How from that arm of terror fhall I fly ?
Some daemon urges ! 'tis my doom to die !
If ever yet foft pity touch'd thy mind 5 , 105

Ah ! think not me too much of Hector's kind !
Not the fame mother gave thy fuppliant breath,
, With his, who wrought thy lov'd Patroclus' death.
Thefe words, attended with a fhow'r of tears,
The youth addreft to unrelenting ears: . IIQ

Talk not of life, orranfom, (he replies)
Patroclus dead, whoever meets me, dies r
In vain a fingle Trojan fues for grace ;
But leaft, the fons of Priam's hateful race.
Die then, my friend ! what boots it to deplore ? 115
The great, the good Patroclus is no more !
He, far thy better, was foredoom'd to die,
* And thou > doit thou, bewail morultey ?

See'ft thou not me, whom nature's gifts adorn,
Sprung from a hero, from a Goddefs born j 120

The day (hall come (which nothing can avert)
When by the fpear, the arrow, or the dart,
By night, or day, by force or by defign,
Impending death and certain fate are mine.

Die then he faid ; and as the word he fpoke, 125

The fainting (tripling funk, before the ftroke :

His hand forgot its grafp, and left the fpear ;

While all his trembling frame confeft his fear.

Sudden, Achilles his broad fword difplay'd,

And buried in his neck the recking blade. 130

Prone fell the youth ; and panting on the land,

The gufhing purple dy'd the thirfty fand :

The victor to the dream the carcafs gave,

And thus infults him, floating on the wave.

Lie there, Lycaon ! let the fifh furround 13 c

Thy bloated corfe, and fuck thy goary wound :
There no fad mother mall thy fun'rals weep,
But fwift Scamander roll thee to the deep,
Whofe ev'ry wave fome wat'ry monfter brings,
To feafl: unpunifh'd on the fat of kings. 146

f . 121. The day Jhall come-

When by the fpear, the arrow, or the dart.
This, is not fpoken at random, but with an air of fu-
periority; when Achilles fays he (hall fall by an arrow,
a dart or a fpear, he infmuates that no man will have
the courage to approach him in a clofe fight, or engage
him hand to hand. Euftathius.

Book XXI. H O M E R's I L I A D. 8l

So perifh Troy, and all the Trojan line !

Such ruin theirs, and fuch companion mine.

What boots ye now Scamander's worfhip'd dream,

His earthly honours, and immortal name !

In vain your immolated bulls are (lain, 145

Your living courfers glut his gulphs in vain:

Thus he rewards you, with this bitter fate ;

Thus, till the Grecian vengeance is compleat;

Thus is aton'd Patroclus' honour'd (hade,

And the fhort abfence of Achilles paid. 15©

Thefe boaftful words provoke the raging God;
"With fury fwells the violated flood-

if. 146. Tour living courfers glut his gulphs in vain.]
It was an ancient cuflom to caft living horfes into the
Tea, and into rivers, to honour, as it were, by thefe
viclims, the rapidity of their dreams. This practice con-
tinued a long time, and hiftory fupplies us with exam-
ples of it: Aurelins Victor fays of Pompey the younger,
Cum marl feliciter uteretur, Neptuni fe filium confeffiis ejl y
eumque bobus auratis et equo placavit. He offered oxen
in- facriflce, and threw a living horfe into the fea, as ap-
pears from Dion, which is perfectly conformable to this
of Homer. Euftathius. Dacier.

if. i.$2. With fury f\v ells the violated food.'] The
poet has been preparing us for the epifode of the river
Xanthus ever fince the beginning of the laft book; and
here he gives us an account why the river wars upon
Achilles: it is not only becaufe he is a river of Troas,
but, as Euftathius remarks, becaufe it is in defence of a
man that was descended from a brother river-God : he
was angry too with A'ch ; l!es on another account, becaufe
he had choaked up his current with the bodies of hk
countrymen, the Trojans..

fc2 HOME R's ILIA D. Book XXI.

What means divine may yet the pow'r employ,

To check Achilles, and to refcue Troy ?

Meanwhile the hero fprings in arms, to dare 155

The great Afteropeus to mortal war;

The Ton of Pelagon, whofe lofty line

Flows from the fource of Axius, dream divine !

(Fair Peribaea's love the God had crown'd,

"With all his refluent waters circled round) 160

On him Achilles rufli'd : he fearkfs flood,

And fliook two fpears, advancing from the flood 5

The flood impell'd him, on Pelides' head

T* avenge his waters choak'd with heaps of dead,

Kear as they drew, Achilles thus began. 16$

What art thou, boldefl of the race of man ?
Who, or from whence ? Unhappy is the fire,
Whofe fon encounters our refiftlefs ire.

O fon of Peleus ! what avails to trace
(Reply'd the warrior) our illuftrious race ? 1 70

From rich Pasonia's valleys I command
Arms with protended fpears, my native band ;

f. 171. From rich Pyemia's etc.] In the cata-
logue Pyrechmes is faid to be commander of the Paeo-
nians, where they are defcribed as bow-men ; but here
they are faid to be armed with fpears, and to have Afte-
ropaeus for their general. Euftathius tells us, fome cri-
tics aflerted that this line in the Cat. f* 355.

*Itti\tyovoc 0' vios ntpiSlfyos ' ksipoTtouoq,


Avldp TIvpul^/u.n( uyi Tlaiovcts dyx.v\o1o%v(.

But I fee no reafon for fuch an aflertion. Homer has

Book XXI. HOME R's ILIA D. 83

Now (bines the tenth bright morning fince I came

In aid of Ilion to the fields of fame :

Axius, who fwells with all the neighb'ring rills, 175

And wide around the floated region fills,

Begot my fire, whofe fpear fuch glory won :

Now lift thy arm, and try that hero's fon!

Threat'ning he faid : the hoflile chiefs advance :
At once Afteropeus difcharg'd each lance, 180

(For both his dext'rous hands the lance cou'd wield)
One (truck, but pierc'd not the Vulcanjan fhield ;
One raz'd Achilles' hand ; the fpouting blood
Spun forth, in earth the faften'd weapon flood.
Like lightning next the Pelian jav'lin flies : 1 85

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