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inner part of the palace: Jhe mounts up to the waffs,
beholds her dead husband. She fvjoons at the f pelade.
Her excefs of grief and lamentation.

The thirtieth day flill continues. The fcene lies under the
walls, and on the battlements of Troy.

HTHUS to their bulwarks, fmit with panic fear,
The herded llians rufi: like driven deer;

It is impoffible but the whole attention of .he r^ • !er
mull be awakened in this buok; the Lroes of :hc two*



n6 H O M E R's ILIAD. Book XXII.

There fafe, they wipe the briny drops away,

And drown in bowls the labours of the day.

Clofe to the walls advancing o'er the fields, 5

Beneath one roof of well compacted fhields,

March, bending on, the Greeks embody'd pow'rs,

Far-ltretching in the made of Trojan tow'rs.

Great Hector flngly (hy'd; chain'd down by fate,

There fixt he ftood before the Scaean gate; 10

Still his bold arms determin'd to employ,

The guardian ftill of long-defended Troy.

Apollo now to tir'd Achilles turns ;
(The pow'r confeit in all his glory burns)
And what (he cries) has Peleus' fon in view, 35

"With mortal fpeed a Godhead to purfue ?
For not to thee to know the Gods is giv'n,
UnfkiU'd to trace the latent marks of heav'n.
What boots thee now, that Troy forfook the plain ?
Vain thy paft labour, and thy prcfent vain : 20

armies are now to encounter; al! the foregoing battels
have been but fo many preludes and under- actions, in
order to this great event, wherein the whole fate of •
Greece and Troy is to be decided by the fword of A-
chiiles and Hector.

This is the book, which of the whole Iliad appears
to me the mo(t charming. It affembles in it all that
can be imagined of great and important on the one hand,
and of tender and melancholy ¥ on the other: Terror and
Pity are here wrought up in perfection ; zxd if the reader
is not fenfible of both in a high decree, either he is ut-
terly void of all tafte, or the tranfla-or of ali lkill, in
poetry.



Book XXII. H O M E R's ILIAD. 117
Safe in their walls are now her troops beilow'd,
While here thy frantic rage attacks a God.

The chief incens'd Too partial God of day !

To check my conquefts in the middle way :

How few in iKon elfe had refuge found ? 25

What gafping numbers now had bit the ground ?

Thou robb'fl: me of a glory juftly mine,

Pow'rful of Godhead, and of fraud divine:

Mean fame, alas ! for one of heav'nly drain,

To cheat a mortal who repines in vain. 30

Then to the city terrible and ftrong,
With high and haughty fleps he towr'd along.
So the proud courier, viclor of the prize,
To the near goal with double ardour flies.
Him, as he blazing (hot acrofs the field, 35

The careful eyes of Priam firft beheld.
Kot half fo dreadful rifes to the light
Thro' the thick gloom of fome tempefhous night

f. 37. Not half fo dreadful rifts, etc.} With how
much dreadful pomp is Achilles here introduced ! how
noble, and in what bold colours hath he drawn the blaz-
ing of his arms, the rapidity of his advance, the terror
of his appearance, the defolation round him; but above
all, the certain death attending all his motions and his
very looks ; what a croud of terrible ideas in this one
fimile !

But immediately after this, follows the moving image
of the two aged parents, trembling, weeping, and im-
ploring their fon : that is fucceeded again by the dread-
} ful gloomy piclure of Heclor, all on fire, obftinately bent
• on death, and expecting Achilles ; admirably painted in
the fimile of the fnake rolled up in his den, and collecV



n8 H O M E R's ILIAD. Book XXII.

Orion's dog (the year when Autumn weighs)

And o'er the feebler (tars exerts his raysj 40

Terrific glory ! for his burning breath

Taints the red air with fevers, plagues, and death.

So flam'd his fiery mail. Then wept the fage ;

He ftrikes his rev'rend head now white with age :

He lifts his wither'd arms; obtefts the fkies; 4$

He calls his much-lov'd fon with feeble cries ;

The fon, refolv'd Achilles' force to dare,

Full at the Scsearl gates expeels the war :

While the fad father on the rampart (lands,

And thus adjures him with extended hands. 50

Ah ftay not, flay not ! guardlefs and alone ;
Heeler ! my lov'd, my deareft braved fon !

ing his poifons: and indeed, through the whole book,
this wonderful contrail* and eppofition of the moving
and of thtferriltle, is perpetually kept up, each heighten-
ing the other : I cannot find words to exprefs how fo
great beauties affect me.

^.51. The /peech of Priam to He ft or. ~] The poet has
entertained us all along with various fcenes of Daughter
and horror: he now changes to the pathetic, and fills
the mind of the reaeer with tender forrows. Euftathius
obferves that Priam preludes to his words by aelions
exprefiive of mifery : the unhappy orator introduces his
fpeech to Heftor with groins and tears, and rending his
hoary hair. The father and the king plead with Hector
to preferve his life and his country. He reprefents his
own age, and the lofs of many of his children ; and adds,
that if Heftor falls, he mould then be inconfolable, and
the empire of Troy at an end.

It is a piece of great judgment in Homer, to mike
the fall of Troy to depend upon the death of Hector:



Book XXII. H O M E R's I L I A D. 119

Methinks already I behold thee flain,
And ftretch'd beneath that fury of the plain.
Implacable Achilles! might'ft thou be
To all the Gods no dearer than to me !
Thee, vultures wild mould fcatter round the more
And bloody dogs grow fiercer from thy gore.
How many valiant fons I late enjoy'd,
Valiant in vain! by thy curfl: arm deftroy'd: 60

Or, worfe than flaughter'd, fold in diftant ifles
To fhameful bondage and unworthy toils.
Two, while I fpeak, my eyes in vain explore, }
Two from one mother fprung, my Polydore, S»
And lov'd Lycaon; now perhaps no more! J 65

Oh ! if in yonder hoflile camp they live,
What heaps of gold, what treafures would I give?
(Their grandfire's wealth, by right of birth their own,
Confign'd his daughter with Lelegia's throne)
'But if (which heav'n forbid) already loft, 70

All pale they wander on the Stygian coaft;
"What forrows then muft their fad mother know,
What anguifli I ? unutterable woe !
Yet lefs that anguifh, lefs to her, to me,
Lefs to all Troy, if not depriv d of thee, 7$

the poet does not openly tell us, that Troy was taken
by the Greeks; but that the reader might not be unac-
quainted with what happened after the period of his
poem, he gives us to underfrand in this fpeech, that the
city was taken, ar.d that Priam, his wives, his fons, and
daughters, were either killed or made fiaves,



120 H M E R's I L I A D. BookXXIL

Yet fhun Achilles ! enter yet the wall;

And fpare thy felf, thy father, fpare us all !

Save thy dear life ; or if a foul fo brave

Neglect that thought, thy dearer glory fave.

Pity, while yet I live, thefe filver hairs; 80

While yet thy father feels the woes he bears,

Yet curft with fenfe ! a wretch, whom in his rage

(Ail trembling on the verge of helplefs age)

Great Jove has plac'd, fad fpectacle of pain !

The bitter dregs of fortune's cup to drain : 3$

To fill with fcenes of death his clofing eyes,

And number all his days by miferies !

My heroes flain, my bridal bed o'ertnrn'd,

My daughters ravifh'd, and my city burn'd,

My bleeding infants dauYd againft the floor; 9$

Thefe 1 have yet to fee, perhaps yet more !

y. J 6. Enter yet the wall, And fpare, etc.] The ar-
gument that Priam ufcs (fays Euftathius) to induce
Hector to fecure himfelfin Troy is remarkable: be
draws it not from Hector's fears, nor does he tell him
that he is to fave his own life: but he infifts upon
ftroRger motives.: he tells him he may prcferve his fel-
low-citizens, his country, and his father; and farther
perfuades him not to add glory to his mortal enemy by
his fall.

y. 90. My bleeding in fonts daflfd again/1 the floor \]
Cruelties which the Barbarians ufually exercifed in the
facking of towns. Thus Ifaiah foretells to Babylon
that her children fnail be dafiied in pieces before her
eyes by the Medes. Infantes eorum allidentur in oculis
eorum, xii. 16. And David ftys to the fame city, bapjj
Jhatl he be that taketh anddajhetb thy little 'ones again fi the

flonem



Book XXII. H O M E R's ILIA D. 121
Perhaps ev'n I, referv'd by angry fate
The lad fad relick of ray ruin'd ftate,
(Dire pomp of fov'reign wretchednefs !) mud fall,
And dain the pavement of my regal hall; or

Where famim'd dogs, late guardians of my door,
Shall lick their mangled matter's fpatter'd gore.
Yet for my fons I thank ye Gods ! 'twas well ;
Well have they periuYd, for in fight they fell.
Who dies in youth, and vigour, dies the belt, ico

-Struck thro' with wounds, A\ honed on the bread.
But when the fates, in fulnefs of their rage,
Spurn the hoar head of unrefidii^ age,
In dud the rev'rend lineaments deform,
And pour to dogs the life-blood fcarcely warm ! ioj
This, this is mifery i the lad, the word,
That man can feel ; man, fated to be curd !

ftones. Pfal. cxxxvii. 9. And in the prophet Hofea,
xiii. 16. Their infants Jhtdl be dajhed in pieces. Dacier.

f. 102. But when the fates> etc.] Nothing can be
more moving than the image which Homer gives here,
in comparing the different effects produced by the view
of a young man, and that of an old one, both bleeding,
and extended on the dud. The old man, it is eer
touches us mod, and feveral reafons may be given for
it; the principal is, that the young man defended him-
fe!f, and his death is glorious; whereas an old man
no defence but his weoknefs, prayers and tears. !
mud be very infenfible of what is dreadful, and hav
tade in poetry, who omit this paffage in a tranfta
and fubditute things of a trivial and infipid nati
Dacier.

Vol. IV. L



122 H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XXII.

He faid, and acting what no words could fay,
Rent from his head the filver locks away.
With him the mournful mother bears a part; no

Yet all their forrows turn not Hector's heart:
The zone unbrac'd, her bofom (he difplay'd ;
And thus, faft-falling the fait tears, fhe faid.

Have mercy on me, O my fon ! revere
The words of age ; attend a parent's pray'r I 115

If ever thee in thefe fond arms I preft,
Or ftill'd thy infant clamours at this breaft;

$. T14. The fpecch of Hecuba, ,] The fpeech of He-
cuba opens with as much tendemefs as that of Priam:
the circumftance in particular of her (hewing that breaft
to her fon which had fultained his infancy, is highly
moving: it is a filent kind of oratory, and prepares the
heart to liflen, by prepofTeffing the eye in favour of the
fpeaker.

Euftathius takes notice of the difference between the
speeches of Priam and Hecuba : Priam diffuades him from
the combate, by enumerating not only the lofs of his.
own family, but of his whole country: Hecuba dwells
entirely upon his fingle death; this is a great beauty in
the poet, to make Priam a father to his whole country ;
but to defcribe the fondnefs of the mother as prevailing
over all other considerations, and to mention that only
which chiefly affects her.

This puts me in mind of a judicious (broke in Mil-
ton, with regard to the feveral characters of Adam and
Eve. When the angel is driving them both out of
paradife, Adam grieves that he mud leave a place where
he had converfed with God and his angels; but Eve
laments that fhe fhall never more behold the flowers of
Eden. Here Adam mourns like a man, and Eve like a
woman.



Book XXII. H O M E R's I L I A D.

Ah do not thus our helplefs years forego,

But by our walls fecur'd, repel the foe.

Againfl: his rage if fingly thou proceed, 120

Should'fl: thou (but heav'n avert it!) ihouldTtthou bleed*

Nor mutt thy corps lie honour'd on the bier,

!s'or fpoufe, nor mother, grace thee with a tear;

Far from our pious rites, thofe dear remains

Mud fealt the vultures on the naked plains. 125

So they, while down their cheeks the torrents roll ;
But fix'd remains the purpofe of his foul:
Refolv'd he (lands, and with a fiery glance
Expects the hero's terrible advance .
So roll'd up in his den, the fwelling fnake 130

Beholds the traveller approach the brake ;
"When fed with noxious herbs his turgid veins
Have gather'd half the poifons of the plains;
He burns, he ftiffens with collected ire,
And his red eye-balls glare with living nre. 1 3 j

Beneath a turret, on his fhield reclin'd,
He flood, and queftion'd thus his mighty mind.

Where lies my way ? to enter in the wall ?
Honour and fhame th' ungen'rous thought recall :

>>. 138. The Soliloquy of Hector. 1 There is muclr
greatnefs in the fentiments of this whole foliloquy. Hec-
tor prefers death to an ignominious life: he knows how
to die with glory, but not how to live with dilhonour.
The reproach of Polydamas affects him; the fcandals of
the meaneft people have an influence on his thoughts.

It is remarkable that he does not fay, he fears the in-
fults of the braver Trojans, but of the moft worthies.



124 H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XXII.
Shall proud Polydamas before the gate 140

Proclaim, his counfels are obey'd too late,

only. Men of merit are always the mod candid ; but
others are ever for bringing all men to a level with them*
felves. They cannot bear that any one mould be fo
bold as to excel, and are ready to pull him down to
them, upon the leaft mifcarriage. This fentiment is
perfectly fine, and agreeable to the way of thinking, na-
tural to a great and fenfible mind.

There is a very beautiful break in the middle of this
fpeech. Hector's mind fluctuates every way, he is call-
ing a council in his own bread, and confulting what
method to purfue : he doubts if he mould not propofe
terms of peace to Achilles, and grants him very large
concedions ; but of a Hidden he checks himfelf, and
leaves the fentence unfinifhed. The paragraph runs
thus ; " If, fays Hector, I mould offer him the largefl
u conditions, give all that Troy contains" — There he
flops, and immediately fubjoins, " But why do I delude
" myfelf, etc.

It is evident from this fpeech, that the power of mak-
ing peace was in Hector's hands: for unlefs Priam had
Transferred it to him, he could not have made thefe
proportions. So that it was Hector who broke the
treaty in the third book (where the very fame conditions
were propofed by Agamemnon.) It is Hector therefore
that is guilty, he is blameable in continuing the war, and
involving the Greeks and Trojans in blood. This con-
duct in Homer was ncceffary ; he obferves a poetical
juftice, and (hews that Hector is a criminal, before he
brings him to death. Euftathius.

j/. 140. Shall proud Polydamas, etc.] Hector alludes
to the counfel given him by Polydamas in the eighteenth
book, whicii he then neglected to follow: it was, to
withdraw to the city, and fortify thcmfclves there, be-
fore Achilles returned to the battel,



, Book XXII. H O M E R's ILIAD. %s$

Which timely follow'd but the former night,
What numbers had been fav'd by Heftor's flight?
That wife advice rcjeded with difdain,
I feel my folly in my people (lain. ,,,.

Methinks my fufPring country's voice I hear,
But mod, her worthlefs fons infult my ear,
On my raft courage charge the chance of war,
And blame thofe virtues which they cannot (hare.

Ko if I e'er return, return I muft 150

Glorious, my country's terror laid in dnft :

Or if I perifh, let her fee me fall

In field at lead:, and fighting for her wall.

And yet fuppofe thefe meafures I forego,

Approach unarm 'd, and parley with the foe, 155

The warrior-fhieid, the helm, and lance lay down,

And treat on terms of peace tofave the town:

The wife with-held, the treafure ill-detain'd,

(Caufe of the war, and grievance of the land)

With honourable juftice to reftore ; 160

And add half Ilion's yet remaining (lore,

Which Troy (hall, ftvorn, produce ; that injur'd Greece

May (hare our wealth, and leave our walls in peace.

But why this thought? unarm'd if I mould go, >

What hope of mercy from this vengeful foe, 16 j

But woman-like to fall, and fall without a blow I J



M-



126 H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XXII.
"We greet not here, as man converting man,
Met at an oak, or journeying o'er a plain:



;



$, 167. We greet not here, as man converfing man,

Met at an oak, or journeying o'er a plain , etc.]
The words literally are thefe, " There is no talking with
Achilles, dro <J>v9? wT ath st/t^, from an oak y or from a
rock, [or about an oak or a rock] as a young man and a
maiden talk together. It is thought an obfcure paflage,
though I confefs I am either too fond of my own ex-
plication in the above cited verfes, or they make it a
very clear one. " There is no converfing with this
u implacable enemy in the rage of battel; as when
tl fauntring people talk at leifure to one another on the
u road, or when young men and women meet in a
" field." I think the expofition of Euflathius more
far-fetched, though it be ingenious; and therefore I
mnft do him the juflke not to fupprefs it. It was a com-
mon practice, fays he, with the heathens, to expofe fuch
children as they either could not, or would not educate:
the places where they depofued them, were ufually in
the cavities of rocks, or the hollow of oaks : thefe chil-
dren being frequently found and preferved by flrangers,
were faid to be the offspring of thofe oaks, or rocks
vhere they were found. This gave occalion to the
poets to feign that men were born of oaks, and there was
a famous fable too of Deucalion and PyrrhVs repairing'
mankind by cafting [tones behind them : it grew at laft
into a proverb, to fignify idle tales ; fo that in the pre-
fect pafTage it imports, that Achilles will not lijlen to
fuch idle tales as may pafs with filly maids and fond lovers.
for fables and (lories (and particularly fuch (lories as
the preservation, (Irange fortune, and adventures ofex-
pofed children) are the ufual converfation of young
men and maidens. Euftathius's explanation may be
corroborated by a parallel place in the OdyiTey ; where
the poet fays,



BockXXII. H O M E R's ILIAD. 127

Ko feafon now for calm familiar talk,

Like youths and maidens in an ev'ning walk: 170

War is our bufinefs, but to whom is giv'n

To die, or triumph, that, determine heav'n !

Thus pond'ring, like a God the Greek drew nigh ;

His dreadful plumage nodded from on high ;

The Pelian jav'lin, in his better hand, 175

Shot trembling rays that glitter'd o'er the land ;

And on his breaft the beamy fplendours (hone

Like Jove's own lightening, or the rifing fun.

As Hedlor fees, unufual terrors rife,

Struck by fome God, he fears, recedes, and flies. j8o

Ov yap a.7ro Spvog 'icr^i ^ccXaitparv, «^' dxo XiTpn$.

The meaning of which pafTage is plainly this, Tell me
of what race you are, for undoubtedly you had a father and
mother; you are not, according to the old ft on, defended
from an oak or a rock. Where the word raxeupeiru (hews
that this was become an ancient proverb even in Ho-
mer's days.

f. 180. Struck by feme God, he fears, recedes, and
fiies.~] I doubt not mod readers are mocked at the flight
of Heeler: it is indeed a high exaltation of Achilles
(who was the poet's chief hero) that fo brave a man
as He<ftor durft not (tend him. While Achilles was
at a diftance he had fortified his heart with noble refolu-
tions, but at his approach they all vanifh, and he flies.
This (as exceptionable as fome m3y think it) may yet
be allowed to be a true portrait of human nature ; for
diftance, as it Mens all objects, fo it does our fears : but
where inevitable danger approaches, the ftouteft hearts
will feel fome apprehenfions at certain fate. It was the
faying of one of the braveft men in this age, to one who
told him he feared nothing, Shew me but a certain dan-



j 2 S H O M E R's ILIA "D. BookXXIL-
He leaves the gates, he leaves the walls behind;
Achilles follows like the winged wind.

per, and 1 Jhall he as much afraid as any if you. I do not ,
abfolutely pretend tojuftify this pafTage in every point,
but only to have thus much granted me, that Heclor
was in this defoerate circumftance.

Fir ft 9 It: W *H not - c ^ oun d in the whole Iliad, that
Hector ever thought himfelf a match for Achilles. Ho-
mer (to keep this in our minds) had juft now made
Priam tell him, as a thing known (for certainly Priam
would not infult him at that time) that there was no
companion between his own ftrength, and that of his
anragonift :



■iTTEtn rfoXv tp-cpTipog triv.



Secondly, We may obferve with Dacier, the degrees
by which Homer prepares this incident. In the 18th
book the mere fight and voice of Achilles unarmed, has
terrified and put the whole Trojan army into diforder..
In the 19th the very found of the celeftial arms given
him by Vulcan, has affrighted his own Myrmidons as
they (land about him. In the 20th, he has been upon
the point of killing JEneas, and Hector himfelf was not
faved from him but by Apollo's interpofing. In that
and the following book, he makes an incredible (laughter
of all that oppofe him, he overtakes mod of thofe that
fly from him, and Priam himfelf opens the gates of Troy
to receive the reft.

Thirdly, Hector ftays, not that he hopes to overcome
Achilles, but becaufe fhame and the dread of reproach
forbid him to re-enter the city ; a fhame (fays Euftathius)
which was a fault that betrayed him out of his life, and
ruined his country. Nay, Homer adds farther, that he
only ftayed by the immediate will of heaven, intoxicated'
and irrefiftibiy bound down by fate.



HKTopa y «JUfr3 fct7y«i Ikon potf hiSr,rts






Book XXII. HOME R's ILIAD. 129
Thus at the panting dove a falcon flies,
! (The fwifteft racer of the liquid fkies)

Fourthly, He had juft: been reflecting on the injufrice
of the war he maintained ; his fpirits are deprefled by
heaven, he expects certain death, he perceives himfelf
abandoned by the Gods, (as he directly fays in > r \ 300,
|etc. of the Greek, and 38$;. of the tranflation) fo that
he might fay to Achilles what Turnus does to Apneas,

Dii me fervent, et Jupiter hojl'ts.

This indeed is the flrongeft reafon that can be offered
for the flight of Hector. He flies not from Achilles as
a mortal hero, but from one whom he fees clad in im-
penetrable armour, feconded by Minerva, and one who
had put to flight the inferior Gods themfelves. This is
not cowardice, according to the conftant principles of
Homer, who thought it no part of a hero's character to
be impious, or to fancy himfelf independent on the
fupreme being.

Indeed it had been a grievous fault, had our author
fuffered the courage of Hector intirely to forfake him
even in this extremity: a brave man's foul is ftill capa-
ble of rouzing itfelf, and acting honourably in the laft
ftruggles. Accordingly Hector, though delivered over
to his deftiny, abandoned by the gods, and certain of
death, yet ftops and attacks Achilles ; v.hen he lofes his
fpear, he draws his Avord: it was impoflible he fliould
conquer, it was only in his power to fail glorioufly ; this

! he did, and it was all that man could do.

If the reader, after all, cannot bring himfelf to like
this paflage, for his own particular; yet to induce him

I to fufpend his abfolute cenfure, he may conlider that

I Virgil had an uncommon efteem for it, as he has tefli-
fied in transferring it almoft intirely to the death of

i Turnus ; where there was no necefllty of making ufe of
the like incidents ; but doubtlefs he was touched with



1 30 H O M E R's I L I A D. BookXXIJ.
Juft when he holds or thinks he holds his prey, 185
Obliquely wheeling thro' th' aerial way;
With open beak and fhrilling cries he fprings,
And aims his claws, and (hoots upon his wings :

this epifode, as with one of thofe which intereft us mod
of the whole Iliad, by a fpectacle at once fo terrible, and
fo deplorable. I rauft alfo add the fuifrage of AriftotleJ
who was fo far from looking upon this pafTage as ridity
culous or blameable, that he efteemed it marvellous and
admirable. " The wonderful, fays he, ought to have
" place in tragedy, but (till more in epic poetry, which
" proceeds in this point even to the unreafonable: for
" as in epic poems one fees not the perfons acting, fo
<l whatever paiTes the bounds of reafon is proper to pro-
(< duce the admirable and the marvellous. For exam-
te pie, what Homer fays of Hector purfued by Achilles,
" wouid appear ridiculous on the ftage; for the fpecta-
" tors could not forbear laughing to fee on one (ice the
" Greeks Handing without any motion, and on the o-
" ther Achilles purfuing Hector, and making iigns to
" the troops not to dart at him. But all this does not


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