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" appear when we read the poem : for what is wonder-
i( ful is always agreeable, and as a proof of it, we find
" that they who relate any thing, ufuaily add fomething
" to the truth, that it may the better pleafe thofe who
*' hear it."

The fame great critic vindicates this pafTage in the
chapter following. " A poet, fays he, is inexcufable '
" if he introduces fuch things as are impoflible accord-
" ing to the rules of poetry: but this ceafes to be a
" fault, if by thofe means he attains to the end pro-
" pofed ; for he has then brought about what he intend-
" ed: for example, if he renders by it any part of his
u poem more aftonilhing or admirable. Such is the
" place in the T Rad, where Achilles purfues Hector."
Arilt. poet. chap. 25, 26.



Book XXII. H O M E R's ILIAD. 131

No lefs fore-right the rapid chace they held,

One urg'd by fury, one by fear impell'd; 190

Now circling round the walls their courfc maintain,

Where the high watch-tow'r overlooks the plain;

Now where the fig-trees fpread their umbrage broad,

(A wider compafs) fmoke along the road.

Next by Scamandcr's double fource they bound, 195

Where two fam'd fountains burft the parted ground;

f. 196. Where two fam\i fountains."] Strabo blames
Homer for faying that one of the fources of Scamander
was a warm fountain; whereas (fays he) there is but
one fpring, and that cold, neither is this in the place
Where Homer fixes it, but in the mountain. It is ob-
fervcd by Euftathius, that though this was not true in
Strabo's days, yet it might in Homer's, greater changes
having happened in lefs time than that which paffed
between thofe two authors, Sandys, who was both a
geographer and critic of great accuracy, as well as a tra-
veller of great veracity, affirms as an eye-witnefs, that
there are yet fome hot- water fprings in that part of the
country, oppofite to Tenedos. I cannot but think that
gentleman mud have been particularly diligent and
curious in his inquiries into the remains of a place fo
celebrated in poetry; as he was not only perhaps the
mod: learned, but one of the heft p6ets of his time: I
am glad of this occafion to do lis n mery fo much
juftice as to fay, the Englifh verfificati n o\v > much of
its improvement to his tranflations, 2nd efpecially that
admirable one of Job. What chiefly pleafes me in this
place, is to fee the exact landfk'p of old Troy ; we have
I a clear idea of the town itfelf, and of the roads and
country about it ; the river, the fig-trees, and every
part is fet before our eyes.



I 3 2 HOME R's I L I A D. Book XXU,

This hot thro' fcorching clefts is feen to rife,

With exhalations {learning to the Ikies ;

That the green banks in fummer's heat o'erflows,

Like cryftal clear, and cold as winter- fnows. 200

Each gufhing fount a marble ciftern fills,

Whofe polifli'd bed receives the falling rills;

Where Trojan dames (ere yet alarm'd by Greece)

Wafh'd their fair garments in the days of peace.

By thefe they part, one chafing, one in flight, 205

(The mighty fled, purfu'd by ftronger might)

Swift was the courfe ; no vulgar prize they play,

No vulgar victim muft reward the day,

(Such as in races crown the fpeedy ftrife)

The prize contended was great Hector's life. 210

As when fome hero's fun'rals are decreed
In grateful honour of the mighty dead;
Where high rewards the vig'rous youth inflame,
(Some golden tripod, or fome lovely dame)
The panting courfers fwiftly turn the goal, 215

And with them turns the rais'd fpectator's foul.
Thus three times round the Trojan wall they fly;
The gazing Gods lean forward from the Iky:

i/. 218. The gazing Gods lean forward from the Jky.~\
We have here an inftance of the great judgment of
Homer. The death of Hector being the chief action of
the poem ; he afTembles the gods, and calls a council in
heaven concerning it: it is for the fame reafon that he
reprefents Jupiter with the greateft folemnity weighing
in his fcales the fates of the two heroes: I have before

obferved



Book XXII. H O M E R's ILIAD. 133

To whom, while eager on the chace they look,

The fire of mortals and immortals fpoke. 220

Unworthy fight ! the man, belov'd of heav'n,
Behold, inglorious round yon' city driv'n !
My heart partakes the gen'rous Hector's pain ;
Hector, whofe zeal whole hecatombs has (lain,
Whofe grateful fumes the Gods receiv'd with joy, 225
Trom Ida's fummits, and the tow'rs of Troy :
. Mow fee him flying ! to his fears rcfign'd,
And fate, and fierce Achilles, clofe behind.
Confult, ye pow'rs ! ('tis worthy your debate)
Whether to fnatch him from impending fate, 230

obferved at large upon the laft circumftance in a preced-
ing note, fo that there is no cccafion to repeat it.

I wonder that none of the commentators have taken
notice of this beauty ; in my opinion, it is a very ne-
cefTary obfervation, and fhews the art and judgment of
the poet, that he has made the greateft and finiihing a-
-clion of the poem of fuch importance that it engages
the gods in debates.

f. 226. From Ida's fummits ] It was the cufiom

of the Pagans to facrmce to the gods upon the hills and
mountains, in fcripture language upon the high places,
for they were perfuaded that the gods in a particular
manner inhabited fuch eminences: wherefore God or-
dered his people to defiroy all thofe high places, which
the nations had prophaned by their idolatry. Ton /hall
utterly deflroy all the places wherein the nations which yen
jhall pojfcfs ferved their gods, upon the high maintains, and
upon the hills, and under every green tree. Deut. x. ; i. 2.
It is for this reafon that fo many kings are reproached
in fcripture for not taking away the high places. Dacier.

Vol. IV. M"



134 HOME R's ILIAD. Book XXII.
Or let him bear, by (tern Pelides (lain,
(Good as he is) the lot impos'd on man ?

Then Pallas thus: (hall he whofe vengeance forms
The forky bolt, and blackens heav'n with ftorms,
Shall he prolong one Trojan's forfeit breath ! 23$

A man, a mortal, pre-ordain'd to death !
And will no murmurs fill the courts above ?
Ko Gods indignant blame their partial Jove ?

Go then (return'd the fire) without delay,
Exert thy will : I give the fates their way. 240

Swift at the mandate pleas'd Tritonia flies,
And (loops impetuous from the cleaving fkies.

As thro' the foreft, o'er the vale and lav/n .
The well-breath'd beagle drives the flying fawn;
In vain he tries the covert of the brakes, 245

Or deep beneath the trembling thicket (hakes ;
Sure of the vapour in the tainted dews,
The certain hound his various maze purfues.
Thus ftep by (lep, where'er the Trojan wheel'd,
There fwift Achilles compafs'd round the field. 250

f. 249. Thus flep by ft ep, etc.'] There is fome diffi-
culty in this paflage, and it feems ftrange that Achilles
could not overtake Hector whom he excelled fo much in
fvviftnefs, efpecially when the poet defcribes him as
running in a narrower circle than Hector. Euftathius
gives us many folutions from the ancients ; Homer has
already told us that they run for the life of Hector; and
consequently Hector would exert his utmofr fpeed,
whereas Achilles might only endeavour to keep him
frOm entering the city: befides, Achilles could not di-
rectly purfue him, becaufe he frequently made efforts to



'Book XXII. H O M E R's I L I A D, 135
! Oft' as to reach the Dardan gates he bends,
I And hopes th' afliftance of his pitying friends,
(Whofe fhowYmg arrows, as he cours'd below,
From the high turrets might opprefs the foe)
So oft' Achilles turns him to the plain : 255

He eyes the city, but he eyes in vain.
Is men in (lumbers feem with fpecdy pace
One to purfue, and one to lead the chace,
Their finking limbs the fancy'd courfe forfake,
Kor this can fly, nor that can overtake. 260

fhelter himfelf under the wall, and he being obliged to
turn him from it, he might be forced to take more fteps
than Hedor. But the poet, to take away all grounds
ofan objection, tells us afterwards, that Apollo gave
him a fupernatural fwiftnefs.

f. 257. As men in (lumbers?, This beautiful com-
parifon has been condemned by fome of the ancients,
even fo far as to judge it unworthy of having a place m
the Iliad: they fay the diflion is mean, and the fimi-
Ktude itfelf abfurd, becaufe it compares the fwiftnefs of
the heroes to men adeep, who are in a ftate of reft and
inactivity. But there cannot be a more groundlefs cri-
rcifm: the poet is fo far from drawing his companfon
from the repofe of men afleep, that he alludes only to
their dreams: it is a race in fancy that he defenbes ; and
furely the imagination is nimble enough to illnftrate the
greateft degree of fwiftnefs: befides theverfesthemfelves
run with the utmoft rapidity, and imitate the fwiftnefs
they defcribe. Euftathius.

What fufficiently proves thefe verfes to be genuine,
is, that Virgil has imitated* them, JEn. 12.

Ac vetuti mfomnis



M2



J$6 HOME R's ILIAD. Book XX IT.
No lefs the lab 'ring heroes pant and ftrain;
While that but flies, and this purfues in vain.

What God, O mufe ! aflifted Hector's force,
W T ith fate itfelf fo. long to hold the courfe?
Phoebus it was; who, in his lateft hour, 26 J

Endu'd his knees with ftrength, his nerves with pow'r:
And great Achilles, left fome Greek's advance
Should fnatch the glory from his lifted lance,
Sign'd to the troops, to yield his foe the way,
And leave untouch 'd the honours of the day. 270

f. 269. Sigrt'i to the troops, etc.l The difference
which Homer here makes between Hector and Achilles
deferves to be taken notice of; Hector is running away
towards the walls, to the end that the Trojans who are
upon them may overwhelm Achilles with their darts;
and Achilles in turning Hector towards the plain, makes
a Hgn to his troops not to attack him. This mews the
great courage of Achilles. Yet this a&ion which ap-
pears fo generous has been very much condemned by
<the ancients; Plutarch in the life of Pompey gives us to
underftand, that it was looked upon as the action of a
iool too greedy of glory : indeed this is not a fingle
corabate of Achilles againft Heftor, (for in that cafe
Achilles would have done very ill not to hinder his
troops from aflaujting him) this was a rencounter in a
bated, and fo Achilles might, and ought to take all ad-
vantages to rid himfelf, the readied and the fureft way,
of an enemy whole death would procure an entire vic-
tory to his party. Wherefore does he leave this vic-
tory to chance? Why expofe himfelf to the hazard of
Jofingit? Why does he prefer his private glory to the
public weal, and the fafety of all the Greeks, which he
puts to the venture by delaying to conquer, and en-
dangering -his own perfon ? I grant it is. a fault, but it



Book XXII. H M E R's I L I A D. 137

Jove lifts the golden balances, that mow
The fates of mortal men, and things below :
Here each contending hero's lot he tries,
And weighs, with equal hand, their deftinies.
Low finks the fcale furcharg'd with Hettor's fate; 27$
Heavy with death it finks, and hell receives the weight,

Then Phoebus left him. Fierce Minerva flies
To ftern Pelides, and triumphing, cries :
Oh lov'd of Jove ! this day our labours ceafe,
And conqueft blazes with full beams on Greece. 2S0
Great Hetfor falls ; that Heftor fam'd fo far,
Drunk with renown, infatiable of war,
Falls by thy hand, and mine ! not force, nor flight
Shall more avail him, nor his God of light.

muft be owned to be the fault of a hero. Euftathius.

Dacier. _,_,..

- ^ # 2?7# rben Phoebus left htm ] This is a very

beautiful and poetical manner of defcribing a plain cir-
cumftance: the hour of Hetfor's death was now come,
and the poet exprefles it by faying that Apollo, or
Deftiny, forfakes him : that is, the fates no longer pro-
ted him. Euftathius.

^ 11 Fierce Minerva fies To (hern P elides, etc. J

The poet may feem to diminifh the glory of Achilles, by
afcribing the vitfory over Heeler to the affifiance of
Pallas; whereas in truth he fell by the hand only of
Achilles: but poetry loves to raife every thing into a
wonder; it fteps out of the common road oh narration,
and aims to forprize; and the poet would farther in-
finite that it is a greater glory to Achilles to be be-
loved by the gods, than to be only excellent ,n valour :
for many men have valour, but few the favour of heaven.

Euftathius.

B§2



133 H O M E R's I L I A D. BookXXII.
See, where in vain he fupplicates above, 285

Roll'ci at the feet of unrelenting Jove !
Reft here: my felf will lead the Trojan on,
And urge to meet the fate he cannot (hun.

Her voice divine the chief with joyful mind
Obey'd ; and refted, on his lance reelin'd. 20©

"While like Deiphobus the martial dame
(Her face, her gefture, and her arms the fame)
In fhow an aid, by haplefs Hector's fide
Approach 'd, and greets him thus with voice bely'd.

Too long, O Hector ! have I born the fight 295
Of this diftrefs, and forrow'd in thy flight j
It fits us now a noble ftand to make,
And here, as brothers, equal fates partake.

Then he. O prince ! ally'd in blood and fame,
Dearer than all that own a brother's name ', 300 i

Of all that Hecuba to Priam bore,
Long try^d, long lov'd ; much lov'd, buthonour r d more!

if. 290. Obefd; and refted.~] The whole pafTage
where Pallas deceives Hector is evidently an allegory;
Achilles perceiving that he cannot overtake Hector, pre-
tends to be quite fpent and wearied in the purfuit ; the
firatagem takes effect, and recalls his enemy: this the
poet expreflfes by faying that Pallas, or Wifdom, came
to aflift Achilles. Hector obferving his enemy (lay to
reft, concludes that he is quite fatigued, and immediate-
ly takes courage, and advances upon him; lie thinks he
has him at an advantage, but at laft finds h im felf deceiv-
ed : thus making a wrong judgment, he is betrayed in-
to his death ; fo that his own falfe judgment is the
treacherous Pallas that deceives him. Euftathius.



Book XXII. HOME R's ILIAD. 139

Since you of all our num'rous race, alone
Defend my life, regardlefs of your own.

Again the Goddefs. Much my father's pray'r, 305
And much my mother's, preft me to forbear :
My friends embrac'd my knees, adjur'd my ftay,
But ftrongerloveimpell'd, and I obey.
Come then, the glorious conflict let us try,
Let the fteel fparkle, and the jav'Iin fly; 310

Or let us ftretch Achilles on the field,

Or to his arm our bloody trophies yield.

Fraudful fhe faid ; then fwiftly march'd before ;

The Dardan hero (huns his foe no more.

Sternly they met. The filence Hector broke ; 315

His dreadful plumage nodded as he fpoke.
Enough, O fon of Peleus ! Troy has view'd

Her walls thrice circled, and her chief purfu'd.

^.317. The fpeeches of Heftor and of Achilles?] There
is anoppofition between thefe fpeeches excellently adapt-
.ed to the characters of both the heroes: that of Hector
is full of courage, but mixt with humanity: that of A-
chilles, of refentment and arrogance: we fee the great
Hector difpofmg of his own remains, and that thirft of
glory which has made him live with honour, now bids
him provide, as Euftatbius obferves, that what once
was Hector may not be difhonoured: thus we fee a fe-
date, calm courage, with a contempt of death, in the
fpeeches of Hector. But in that of Achilles there is a
forte, and an infolent air of fuperiority; his magnani-
mity makes him fcorn to fteal a victory, bebidshim pre-
pare to defend himfelf with all his forces : and that va-
lour and refentment which made him defirous that he
might revenge himfelf upon Hector with his own hand,



j 4 o H O M E R's I L I A D. Book XXII.

But now fome God within me bids me try

Thine, or my fate: I kill thee, or I die. 3 20

Yet on the verge of battel let us flay,

And for a moment's fpace fufpend the day ;

Let heav'n's high pow'rs becall'd to arbitrate

The juft conditions of this ftern debate,

(Eternal witnefTes of all below, 325

And faithful guardians of the treafur'd vow !)

To them I fwear; if victor in the ftrife,

Jove by thefe hands (hall died thy nobk life,

No vile difhonour fhall thy corps purfue ;

Stript of its arms alone (the conqu'ror's due) 330

The reft to Greece uninjur'd I'll reftore:

Now plight thy mutual oath, I.afk no more.

Talk not of oaths (the dreadful chief replies,
While anger flam'd from his difdainful eyes)
Detefted as thou art, and ought to be, 335

Nor oath nor pact Achilles plights with thee : . I

and forbade the Greeks to interpole, now directs him
not to take any advantage over a brave enemy. I think
both their characters are admirably fuftained, and though
Achilles be drawn with a great violence of features, yet
the picture is undoubtedly like him , and it had been the
utmoft abfurdity to have foftened one line upon this oc-
cafion, when the foul of Achilles was all on fire to re-
venge the death of his friend Patrdclus. I mnft defire
the reader to carry this obfervation in his memory, and
particularly in that place, where Achilles fays he could
eat the very flefn of Hector; (though 1 have a little
foftened it in the tranflation,) $. 438.



BookXXH. H O M E R's ILIAD. 141

Such pacts, as lambs and rabid wolves combine,

Such leagues, as men and furious lions join,

To fuch I call the Gods ! one conftant date

Of lading rancour and eternal hate: 340

No thought but rage, and never-ceafing ftrife,

'Till death extinguifh rage, and thought, and life.

Rouze then thy forces this important hour,

Collect thy foul, and call forth all thy pow'r.

No farther fubterfuge, no farther chance ; 34$

'Tis Pallas, Pallas gives thee to my lance.

Each Grecian ghoft by thee depriv'd of breath,

Now hovers round, and calls thee to thy death.

He fpoke, and lanc'd his jav'lin at the foe;
But Hector fhun'd the meditated blow : 350

He ftoop'd, while o'er his head the flying fpear
Sung innocent, and fpent its force in air,
Minerva watch'd it falling on the land,
Then drew, and gave to great Achilles' hand,
Unfeen of Hector, who, elate with joy, 355

Now fliakes his lance, and braves the dread of Troy.

The life you boafted to that jav'lin giv'n,
Prince ! you have mid. My fate depends on heav'n.
To thee (prefumptuous as thou art) unknown,
Or what muft prove my fortune, or thy own. 360

Boafting is but an art, our fears to blind,
And with falfe terrors fink another's mind*-
But know, whatever fate I am to try,
By no difhoneft wound fhali Hedor die;



I 4 2 HOME R's ILIA D. Book XXII.
I {hall not fall a fugitive at lead, 36$

My foul (hall bravely iflue from my breaft.
But firft, try thou my arm ; and may this dart
End all my country's woes, deep buried in thy heart !

The weapon flew, its courfe unerring held,
Unerring, but the heav'nly fhield repell'd 370

The mortal dart ; refulting with a bound
From off the ringing orb, it (truck the ground.
Heclor beheld his jav'lin fall in vain,
Nor other lance, nor other hope remain ;
He calls Deiphobus, demands a fpear, 375

In vain, for no Deiphobus was there.
All comfortlefs he (lands : then, with a figh,

»Xis fo heav'n wills it, and my hour is nigh !

I deem'd Deiphobus had heard my call,
But he fecure lies guarded; in the wall. 380

A God deceiv'd me; Pallas, 'twas thy deed,
Death, and black fate approach ! 'Tis I muft bleed.
No refuge now, no fuccour from above,
Great Jove deferts me, and the fbn of Jove,
Propitious once, and kind ! then welcome fate ! 385
'Tis true I periih, yet I perifti great :
Yet in a mighty deed I (hall expire,
- Let future ages, hear it, and admire !

Fierce, at the word, his weighty fword he drew,
And, all collecled, on Achilles flew. 39°



Hook XXII. H O M E R's ILIAD. fVj

So Jove's bold bird, high balanc'd in the air,

Stoops from the clouds to trufs the quiv'ring hare,

Nor lefs Achilles his fierce foul prepares,

Before his bread the flaming (hield he bears,

Refulgent orb ! above his fourfold cone 395

The gilded horfe-hair fparkled in the fun,

Nodding at ev'ry ftep: (Vulcanian frame!)

And as he mov'd, his figure feem'd on flame.

As radiant Hefper mines with keener light,

Far-beaming o'er the filver hoft of night, 400

When all the (tarry train emblaze the fphere :

So fhone the point of great Achilles' fpear.

In his right hand he waves the weapon round,

Eyes the whole man, and meditates the wound;

But the rich mail Patroclus lately wore, 405

Securely cas'd the warrior's body o'er.

One place at length he fpies, to let in fate,

Where 'twixt the neck and throat the jointed plate

Gave entrance: thro' that penetrable part

Furious he drove the well-direcled dart : 410

f. 391. So Jove's bold bird \ etc.] The poet takes
up fome time in defcribing the two great heroes before
they clofe in fight. The verfes are pompous and ma-
gnificent, and he illuftrates his defcription with two beauti-
ful fimiles : he makes a double ufe of this conducT,
which not only raifes our imagination to attend to fo
momentous an action, but by lengthening his narration
keeps the mind in a pleating fufpence, and divides it
between hopes and fears for the fate of Hector or Achilles.

#'.409. Thro 1 that penetrable part Furious he drove ,
etc.] It was neceflary that the poet mould be very par-



144 H O M E R's I L I A D, BookXXIL
Kor piercM the wind-pipe yet, nor took the pow'r
Of fpeech, unhappy! from thy dying hour.
Prone on the field the bleeding warrior lies,
While thus triumphing, ftern Achilles cries.

At laft is Hector ftretch'd upon the plain, 415

Who fear'd no vengeance for Patroclus flain :
Then, prince ! you mould havcfear'd, what now you feel;
Achilles abfent, was Achilles (till.
Yet a fhort fpace the great avenger ftay'd,
Then low in duft thy ftrength and glory lay'd. 420
Peaceful he fleeps, with all our rites adorn 'd,
For ever hononr'd, and for ever mourn'd:
While caft to all the rage of hoftile pow'r,
Thee, birds (hall mangle, and the dogs devour.

Then Hedor fainting at th' approach of death. 425
By thy own foul 1 by thofe who gave thee breath !
By all the facred prevalence of pray'r ;
Ah, leave me not for Grecian dogs to tear !
The common rites of fepulture bellow,
To foothe a father's and a mother's woe; 430

ticular in this point, becaufe the arms that Hector wore,
were the arms of Achilles, taken from Patroclus ; and
confequently as they were the work of Vulcan, they
would preferve Hector from the poflibility of a wound:
the poet therefore to give an air of probability to his
ftory, tells us that they were Patroclus's arms, and as
they were not made for Hector, they might not exactly
fit his body : fo that it is not improbable but there
might be fome place about the neck of Hector fo open,
as to admit the fpear of Achilles. Euftathius.

Let



Book XXII. H O M E R's ILIAD. 145

Let their large gifts procure an urn at leaft,
!And Hector's allies in his country reft.

No, wretch aceurft; relentlefs he replies,
'(Flames, as he fpoke, (hot flaming from his eyes)
;Not thofe who gave me breath (hou'd bid me fpare, 435
iKor all the facred prevalence of pray'r.
ICould I myfelf the bloody banquet join !

:Ko to the dogs that carcafe I refign.

iShould Troy, to bribe me, bring forth all her {lore,
I And giving thoufands, offer thoufands more; 4^0

^'.347. Could 1 myfelf 'the bloody banquet join!"] I have
before hinted that there is fomething very fierce and
violent in this paffage ; but I fancy that what I there
obferved will juftify Homer in his relation, though not
Achilles in his favage fentiments: yet the poet foftens
the expreffion by making Achilles only wifn that his
heart would permit him to devour him; this is much
more tolerable than a paffage in the Thebais of Statins,
where Tydeus in the very pangs of death is reprefented
as gnawing the head of his enemy.

f. 439. Should Troy, to bribe me, etc.] Such refo-
lutions as Achilles here makes, are very natural to men
in anger ; he tells Hector that no motives mail ever pre-
vail with him to fuffer his body to be ranfomed ; yet
when time had cooled his heat, and he had fomewhat
Fatisfied his revenge by infulting his remains, he reftores
them to Priam. This perfectly agrees with his conduct
in the ninth book, where at firft he gives a rough de-
nial, and afterwards foftens into an eafkr temper. And
this is very agreeable to the nature of Achilles; his an-
ger abates very flowly ; it is ftubborn, yet frill it remits:
had the poet drawn him as never to be packed, he had
outraged nature, and not reprefented his hero as a man,
but as a moniter. Euilathius.

Vol. IV. N



146 H O M E R's ILIAD. Book XXII.
Should Dardan Priam, and his weeping dame
Drain their whole realm to buy one fun'ral flame:
Their Hector on the pile they mould not fee,


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