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Honolulu Press Congress of the World. 1st.

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THE PRESS CONGRESS

OF THE WORLD

IN HAWAH



IVith Foreword By
WARREN G. HARDING

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
HONORARY PRESIDENT OF THE CONGRESS



Edited Bv

WALTER WILLIAMS

DEAN OF THE SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI.
COLUMBIA. MISSOURI, U. S. A . PRESIDENT OF THE CONGRESS



Columbia, Missouri, U. S. A.
W. Stephens Publishing Company.

1922



/ 1 -^ ^



WHAT THE BOOK CONTAINS.



I. FOREWORD, BY WARREN G. HARDING. PRESIDENT OF
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, HONORARY PRESI-
DENT OF THE PRESS CONGRESS OF THE WORLD. . I

II. INTRODUCTION, P>Y WALTER WILLIAMS, PRESIDENT

OF THE PRESS CONGRESS OF THE WORLD. . . 3

111. HAWAII AND ITS HOSPITALITY 7

IV. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS 65

V. MESSAGES TO THE CONGRESS 403

VI. PAN-PACIFIC PRESS CONFERENCE 419

VII. APPENDIX 507

VIII. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 599

IX. INDEX . .. .601



M281621



I.

FOREWORD.

The White House
Washington

December 12, 1921

I believe that the Press Congress of the World, recently held
in Honolulu, marked a real advance toward a proper mutuality
of understanding and unification of eiTorts among the representa-
tives of the world's press. It is perhaps more than merely a co-
incidence that within a few weeks following that Congress, which
was held at the cross roads of the Pacific, that a great Inter-
national Conference in Washington should have devised a pro-
gressive and promising program for the settlement of those prob-
lems in a way which seems to give new assurance of the main-
tenance of peace in that region.

The excellent results accomplished at Honolulu have been
followed by equally fortunate ones, in the attitude of the rep-
resentatives of the Press during the Conference in Washington.
There will hardly be a serious dissent from the proposition that
the Washington Conference owes much of its achievement to the
fact that there was so excellent a disposition and attitude toward
it on the part of the press.

These things justify us in the hope that a larger and more ef-
fective part of leadership is likely to be taken by the press in
the development of public opinion regarding the problems that
concern the world and the world's governments. In this view,
one can hardly doubt that Dr. Williams is doing a commendable
service in presenting his book on the "Press Congress of the
World in Hawaii," and I hope it may have the consideration
which its merits will doubtless deserve.

Warren G. Harding.



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II.

INTRODUCTION.

The Press Congress of the World, which held its first ses-
sions in Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, United States of America,
in October-November, 1921, had its preliminary organization at
the Pan-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco in
July, 1915. Representatives of the world's press had been asked
by the Exposition to meet in an International Press Congress,
July 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, of that year. At this meeting it was unani-
mously decided, upon resolution offered by Robert Bell, of New
Zealand, to effect a permanent organization. The following con-
stitution was adopted :

Article I — Name.

This organization shall be known as the Press Congress of the World.

Article II — Object.

Its object shall be to advance by conference, discussion and united effort
the cause of journalism in every honorable way. The sessions of the
Congress are to be open to the consideration of all questions directly af-
fecting the press, but discussions of religion, politics and governmental
policies will not be permitted.

Article III — Membership.

Workers in every department of journalism, in every country, who are
engaged in promoting the highest standards and largest welfare of the
press, are eligible to membership.

Article IV — Officers.

The officers, who, with the exception of the honorary president to be
chosen by the Executive Committee, shall be elected at each session of the
Congress, shall be

An honorary president,

A president,

Two vice-presidents from each country holding membership,

A secretary-treasurer,

An Executive Committee consisting of the president and secretary-
treasurer and five additional members chosen from the vice-presidents.

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4 The Press Congress of the World

Vacancies shall be filled by the Executive Committee upon recommenda-
tion of the countries affected.

Article V — Meetings. '

The times and places of meetings shall be determined by the Executive
Committee.

Article VI — Anicnduicjits.

This constitution may be amended at any meeting under provisions to
be established by the Executive Committee.

The following officers were chosen and, in addition, vice pres-
idents from all the countries represented :

President : Walter Williams, Dean of the School of Journal-
ism of the University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. U. S. A.

Secretary-Treasurer: A. R. Ford, Secretary of the Dominion
Press Gallery, Ottawa, Canada.

Among those who addressed the organization sessions at San
Francisco were :

James A. Barr, Director of Congresses at the Exposition, at
whose suggestion the International Press Congress was held ;
Charles C. Moore, President, Pan-Pacific International Exposi-
tion; John Clyde Oswald, editor of the American Printer, New
York; Mark Cohen of the Evening Star, Dunedin,. New Zea-
land ; K. Sugimura, foreign editor, Asahi Shimbun, Tokyo, Japan ;
Aaron Watson, of the London Times; Enrique Lievano, of the
United States of Colombia ; V. R. Beteta, Diario de Centro
America, Guatemala City, Guatemala, who served as president
of the International Press Congress ; William Jennings Bryan,
editor of the Commoner, Lincoln, Nebraska, former Secretary of
State; Harvey Ingham, of the Register and Leader, Des Moines,
Iowa; M. H. de Young, of the San Francisco Chronicle; Robert
Bell of the Guardian, Ashburton, New Zealand ; Edgar B. Piper,
of the Portland Oregonian ; Captain J. W. Niesigh, of Sydney,
Australia; S. D. Scott, of the News Advertiser, Vancouver, Brit-
ish Columbia ; G. E. Uyehara, of the State, Tokyo ; Norman E.
Mack, of the Times, Buffalo, New York ; Kee Owyang, of
China ; James A. Buchanan, El Mundo^ Havana ; Mirza Ali
Khuli Khan, of Teheran, Persia; Alfred G. Andersen, of the
Danish Press Council, Copenhagen ; K. D. Shastri, of the Nawa-
jiwan, Benares, India; Dr. H. Schoop, of the Association de la



Introduction 5

Presse Suisse, Berne, Switzerland ; C. Vassardakis, of Greece ;
Ernesto Nelson, La Nacion, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Geo. E.
Hosnier, President, National Editorial Association of the United
States ; H. C. Hotaling, the Enterprise, Mapleton, Minnesota ;
Peter C. Macfarlane, of New York City ; Percy Andrae, of
Chicago ; Friend W. Richardson, of California ; Chester H. Row-
ell, of California; Lee J. Rountree, Vice President of the National
Editorial Association of the United States ; A. B. McPherson,
of Santa Cruz, California; J. C. Morrison, of Morris, Minnesota;
John H. Perry, of Seattle, Washington ; James Schermerhorn,
the Times, Detroit, Michigan; Fred J. Wilson, of San Francisco;
Henry F. Urban, American Correspondent of the Hamburger
Fremdenblatt ; Merle Thorpe, of Seattle, Washington ; Colvin
B. Brown, of San Francisco ; Dr. Talcott Williams, Director of
the Pulitzer School of Journalism, Columbia University, New
York ; Dr. Fred Newton Scott, of the University of Michigan ;
Hugh Mercer Blain, Louisiana State University; M. M. Fogg,
University of Nebraska; Homer Mooney, State Journal, Reno,
Nevada ; Charles W. Price, of the Electrical Review, New York ;
Ralph E. Fox, of the Indicator, Chicago ; B. B. Herbert, founder
of the National Editorial Association, of Chicago ; Lee Sum Ling,
of Peking, China ; Wm. McCuUough, of New Zealand ; Geo. D.
Pappageorge, of Greece; H. C. Khakeebi, of Java; A..R. Gard-
ner, of Kennewick, Washington; Joseph Mesru, of India, and
A. R. Ford, of Canada.

A number of papers were read by title.

This volume contains the stenographic report of the pro-
ceedings of the sessions of the Press Congress of the World held
in Honolulu, October 11 to November 1, 1921; a report of the
Pan-Pacific Press Conference organized at Honolulu ; an ac-
count of the history and resources of the Territory of Hawaii
and of the hospitality of its government and people ; messages to
the Congress from journalists throughout the world ; and, in the
appendix, the revised constitution adopted by the Congress, the
list of delegates and guests present at Honolulu, together with
a number of papers upon journalism in various countries written
for but not read during the Congress sessions. Much of the
matter contained in the chapter upon "Hawaii and Its Hospital-
ity," is taken from the columns of two of the daily newspapers



6 The Press Congress of the World

of Honolulu, the Star-Bulletin and the Advertiser. The photo-
graph of the opening session of the Congress in the Moana Hotel
is used through the courtesy of the Nippu Jiji of Honolulu.

The Foreword is by the Honorable Warren G. Harding, Presi-
dent of the United States of America, who is Honorary Presi-
dent of the Press Congress. President Harding's address to the
Congress was read by the Governor of the Territory of Hawaii,
the Honorable Wallace R. Farrington, who laid aside his duties
as vice president and general business manager of the Honolulu
Star-Bulletin, to serve the Territory of Hawaii, under President
Harding's appointment, as Chief Executive.

Except as noted in the stenographic report of the proceedings,
all addresses delivered, papers read and discussions taking place,
are reported in full, save that announcements local and tempo-
rary in character are omitted.




W.\i;iKI! W IIJJA.MS,



J)i:a,\ ()!■ TiiK Sciioni, oi. Joi knamsm ok iiik IMmoksitv ok Missoiki,
Columbia, Mrssorui, I'. S. A.,
The I'rejidcnt uf tlic Conarfss.



III.

HAWAII AND ITS HOSPITALITY.

The unsurpassed hospitality of the people of the Territory
of Hawaii was shown to the delegates of the Press Congress
of the World in many ways. Entertainments of all kinds, miU-
tary and naval reviews, automobile rides, visits to industries,
luncheons, dinners, teas and receptions, excursions around the
islands, gave to the visitors opportunity for acquaintanceship
with the marvelous beauty and resources of the islands and with
the charm of its hospitable people.

From comments written by delegates and visitors this chapter,
outlining the attractiveness of the days in Hawaii and some of
the features of the entertainment, has been prepared. To it is
added a description of Hawaii taken from the beautiful souvenir
volume presented to the delegates. The chapter is from many
pens, all of which combined cannot do justice to the gracious
hospitality of the beautiful Islands of the Pacific and the never
failing cordiality of their people.



The delegation to the Press Congress from the mainland of
the United States of America reached Honolulu at daybreak
on the morning of October 10, 1921, on the Matson Navigation
Company's liner Matsonia, after six delightful days on a tran-
quil ocean. It was accompanied by the delegates from Great
Britain, Cuba, Central America, Canada, Greece and Norway.
Other delegates arrived at Honolulu at different times from
Japan, China, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, and else-
where, to the total number of two hundred. There were one
hundred and eight newspaper men and women in the party ar-
riving from the American mainland on October 10 and Honolulu
extended to them a typical Hawaiian welcome.

It was a day such as those who live in distant lands often
conjure up when thoughts turn to long winter months with their
snow and icy winds. For several hours before daybreak the

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8 The Press Congress of the World

delegates were up and about, eager to catch the first ghmpse of
the Mokapu Hght which guides the big steamers and saihng ships
along the southern coast of Oahu, around famous Diamond
Head, and thence into Honolulu harbor. Dawn broke over the
city revealing a veritable jungle of vivid green foliage, over
which towered great palm trees, and with low-lying mountains,
tinged with browns and purples in the faint half-light, as a back-
ground. But with the sun there came to view the Honolulu
waterfront with its modern steel and concrete wharves, and
then the city proper with its great business blocks, its clanging
street cars, and men and women hurrying to their work in
offices, shops and factories.

To some it may have been a disappointment — a disappoint-
ment in that a modern American city had come into view when,
perhaps, something a little more tropical had been looked for-
ward to. Story books to the contrary, there were no grass-
skirted girls dancing the hula-hula on the beach ; there were no
grass houses along the shore ; there were no hordes of native
men and women, clothed in little else than what nature gave
them at birth, singing weird chants as they paddled about the
liner in outrigger canoes.

Just off Diamond Head the Matsonia was met by two Eagle
boats which convoyed her to a point outside the harbor, where
four submarines did "stunts" for the newcomers. Two sea-
planes, shooting here and there in the morning sunlight like
silver darts, circled and recircled over the big steamer as it
neared the harbor. A launch bearing members of the reception
committee, pretty girls with armfuls of "leis" or flower wreaths,
musicians and newspaper men met the Matsonia as it came to
an anchorage within the harbor. As the launch came within
hailing distance official and unofficial greetings were shouted
back and forth.

"Aloha ! Aloha Oe !"

"Same to you !"

"How was the trip down?"

"Just bully !"

Acquaintanceships were formed even before the reception com-
mittee went aboard the liner.

Accompanying the reception committee's launch were three



Hawaii and its Hospitality 9

big outrigger canoes, which later "towed" the Matsonia into her
dock, the towHnes being long streamers of ribbon. Duke P.
Kahanamoku, champion sprint swimmer of the world who repre-
sented America at the Olympic Games at Stockholm and Ant-
werp, went out in one of the canoes, boarded the launch and
dived overboard. Coming up alongside the Matsonia, he shook
the water from his long black hair and shouted to the delegates :

"Right over here, now."

Every time a big ship comes into Honolulu the "kids" along
the waterfront swim out and accompany her in, diving for the
pennies and dimes which travelers throw overboard. And here,
then, was the "Duke" getting a world of fun out of a sport he
had indulged in when, as a youngster, he had used Honolulu
harbor to train for the championships which were to be his in
later years.

Coin after coin was flung into the water by the laughing dele-
gates, and less than a minute later Duke had a mouthful of dimes,
quarters and nickels.

"Who is he?" came a woman's voice from the starboard rail.

"That's the Duke."

"Duke of what?"

"Duke Kahanamoku."

Whereupon the delegates applauded the introduction and a
battery of cameras opened fire. Then George ("Dad") Center,
famous trainer of famous Hawaiian swimmers, dived in, and
soon he, too, had a mouthful of coins. This gave the other pad-
dlers an idea, and they quickly got into the water to show that
they were just as good at the money-making business as the
champion.

Then an orchestra from the Hawaiian Band — a band that
has become famous the world over — played "Aloha Oe," swing-
ing a little later into a jazzy hula-hula melody that set every
foot on the Matsonia's deck tapping. Singing boys and girls,
representing the Hawaiian Civic Club, gave a number of Hawaiian
songs which were greatly enjoyed by the visitors. There were
also songs by a double quartet of Hawaiian Band boys.

After the port doctor had finished his work and the yellow
flag had been hauled down, the reception committee and others
went aboard, and there followed a welcome and exchange of



10 The Press Congress of the World

greetings and handshakings that will long be remembered by
those who took part. Miss Josephine Hopkins, Miss Gerd
Hiorth, Miss Ethel Marston and Miss Margaret Neely, pretty
Honolulu girls, placed about the shoulders of each delegate a
Hawaiian wreath, symbolic of the city's welcome to the visitors.
Thousands of persons thronged Pier fifteen as the Matsonia
pulled into the dock. Lining the edge of the shed was a typical
racial group composed of children from the Honolulu public
schools wearing the native costumes of the lands of their for-
bears, and carrying the flags of those nations. It was a strikingly
impressive sight, and furnished a bit of local color of the kind
that newspaper men and women especially appreciate. The little
group was applauded time and again. A Korean group in national
costume was the center of much attention. The Matsonia docked
amidst a roar of whistles, applause and music. The Hawaiian
Band played old-time Hawaiian melodies. Among the members
of the reception committee who met the delegates at the harbor
entrance were Col. Riley H. Allen, editor of The Honolulu Star-
Bulletin, who, while with the Red Cross during and after the
World War, steered the famous Child Ship around the world,
giving back little, lonely children into mother arms that had
ached through long, hopeless months to hold them ; Lorrin A.
Thurston; Worth O. Aiken, representing the island of Maui;
Gerrit P. Wilder, Alexander Hume Ford, George T. Armitage,
secretary of the Hawaii Tourist Bureau, and Raymond C. Brown,
now secretary of Hawaii, and at that time secretary of the Cham-
ber of Commerce of Honolulu.



Hawaii's official "Aloha" to the delegates was extended by
Governor Wallace R. Farrington in the following statement:

"In the light of developing world events, the assembling of
the Press Congress of the World at this time and place seems like
the fulfilment of an inspiration.

"As a preliminary to the international conference in Washing-
ton, it is appropriate that the journalists and publishers, the
interpreters and distributors of the world's news, should gather
at the crossroads of the Pacific where many of the problems to
be studied at the Congress of Nations concentrate and pass in
review.



Hawaii and its Hospitality 11

"The 'White Light' of accurate and honestly-balanced pub-
licity will go far toward paving the way to clearer understand-
ing and intelligent conclusions.

"In Hawaii the delegates can study the results of the union of
races bordering on the Pacific. They can determine what measure
of success has attended the adjustment of ideals and ambitions of
the Occident and of the Orient. They can tell the world what
Hawaii has demonstrated as possible through toleration and an
earnest desire to find a common meeting-ground and working
basis.

"The territory of Hawaii is gratified and greatly honored to
be the host of the delegates who, through making new acquaint-
ances, securing new points of view and reaching a friendly
understanding among themselves, will speed the day when all
that is best in international friendships thus established can be
made use of in enlisting support of practical standards for a
permanent peace throughout the world.

"Hawaii extends to the delegates the cordial Aloha that is all
our own. This Aloha is peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands, hav-
ing its source in the friendly character of the native races and
spreading its beneficent contagion among all who touch these
shores."



The Hon. John H. Wilson, Mayor of Honolulu, issued the
following statement of welcome:

"To the Men and Women Who Represent the Press Congress
of the World:

"Honolulu extends the right hand of fellowship. It is pe-
culiarly appropriate that you have gathered this year at the Hub
of the Pacific. It is particularly important that you have chosen
to deliberate on your records of the past, your activities of the
present, and your hopes for the future at this point, around
which will revolve within the next few years the wheel of inter-
national events, destined to mark the transitory period between
a world of divided peoples and a solidified family of the na-
tions of the earth.

"Honolulu claims her place as the cynosure of the eyes of
creation for the coming decade. We stand on the dividing line
between the peoples of the East and those of the West; be-



12 The Press Congress of the World

tvveen the Occident and the Orient. We are the frontier on which
is met at last the advancing vanguard of the white races and the
marching forces of the yellow. With patience and fortitude and
strength we are endeavoring to meet the issue before us. In
sincerity and truth we are judging man by his head and heart and
not by his skin and blood. We are to be the center of the great
conflict — peaceful, we pray; sane and final, we trust, and certain,
we insist.

"To you who are to give to the waiting eyes and minds of
the world the details of the contest, the victories and defeats, the
trials and triumphs, Honolulu extends a warmth of welcome such
as only Hawaii knows. From the glory of our sunshine, the
beauty of our sea, the grandeur of our hills and the brilliance of
our flowers, may you find added strength in your holy mission
to show men the truth that the truth shall make them free."



Press Congress headquarters were established at the Moana
Hotel at Waikiki Beach, Honolulu. Here a majority of the
delegates were quartered, although some preferred to live at
hotels nearer the business district. An information bureau was
established at the hotel by the Honolulu Press Club, of which
Mrs. John Trenholm Warren is president, which also furnished
typewriters, stenographers, pencils, pens, paper, telephones and
other things so essential to working newspaper men and women.
Here there could be obtained all sorts of literature descriptive
of the islands, and files of local and mainland newspapers. Mr.
L. W. de Vis-Norton, executive secretary of the Hawaiian Is-
lands committee, also had an office at the hotel, and attended to
the registration of the delegates, and the assignment of quarters
to them. The Naval Radio office installed telegraphic instru-
ments at the hotel, and an operator was on duty daily to receive
press and other messages which the delegates desired to send.

During the morning of their arrival, and during the fore part
of the afternoon the delegates were left pretty much to themselves
so that they might get "settled" in their new quarters and become
acquainted with their new surroundings. But that afternoon,
from three-thirty until five-thirty o'clock delegates and resi-
dents of Honolulu were guests at a reception given in the throne
room at lolani Palace (the executive building), the only throne



Hawaii and its Hospitality 13

room, by the way, in the United States, by Governor and Mrs.
Wallace R. Farrington. In the receiving line with the governor,
Mrs. Farrington, and their daughter, Miss Frances Farrington,
were Dr. Walter Williams and his daughter, Mrs. John F.
Rhodes. Refreshments were served, and the occasion formed a
splendid opportunity for hundreds of Honolulans to get "on
speaking terms" with the visitors.

Just before the reception began. Doctor Williams, at the re-
quest of Governor Farrington, stopped for a moment to speak
to Louis Madeiras, the Portuguese elevator "boy" at the cap-
itol. Louis had expressed a desire to meet and speak briefly with
Doctor Williams. After greetings were exchanged, Louis pro-
duced a package tied up carefully in white tissue paper. This
he presented to Doctor Williams. It proved to be a handsome
gavel, manufactured from the native "koa" wood and highly
polished as only Hawaiians can polish it. Into the top had been
sunk a golden plate bearing the Hawaiian coat-of-arms with the
motto of the old monarchy "Ua Mau Ke la o Ka Aina I Ka
Pono," which means "The life of the land is established in
righteousness." Doctor Williams thanked Louis warmly for the
gift, and a few days later used the gavel in calling the business
sessions of the Press Congress to order.



The first official function in honor of the visiting delegates was
a banquet given at the Moana Hotel on the evening of October
10 by the members of the Hawaiian Islands executive committee.
Here, again, many prominent Honolulans and residents of the
outlying islands were given an opportunity to become acquainted
with the visitors, and the affair proved to be a joyous demonstra-



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