Horace Grant Underwood.

An introduction to the Korean spoken language online

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The chairmen put down a^-^*!"^! Jtal V^
the chair and went into 2&3 ^ ^ ^ S H ^
the saloon. ^^^


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Chap. X. Sec. 1, THE CONJUNCTION. 393

I dreamed the house was ^^^ ^ ^^] \J; 7]^

on fire and woke up with jt^t ^vf '^^ S|^.

a start.

I met Mr. Kim before ^^*^] ^2M^^ i^

breakfast and proposed X^l ^^ ^x}ja. ^

that we study together. SJ^i*
2. (6).

I intended to cross the river 'Jf-g' ^vrf yy/^ -?f^^l

and go to a hotel. "eH^-^ "^S^ii-

The ball went over the fence ^^] ^-^ ^^7}^ ^^

and we cannot find it. ^y\ ^^,

It rained and we could not V|7]- ^>H '^^ M* ^1 ^

start. ^5jii«

I told Mr. Yi what you told ^^<^] f >^1^ ^S^ ^

me some time ago, and >M^'^ ^51'^H ^

he said it was not so. ^ ;^| ^^f JL ^JJi*.

This roof was newly thatch- ^1 ^-|-^ ^1^ "S ^

ed barely a month ago, ^<>^1 Aflg^ H^lH >5£

and it has begun to leak ^\\ 7] ^]^^SL'

Sou Dongi did not put on ^:f.6]7|. /^^-^ ^t]

much coal and the fire )4^1 ^I'H H^i- ^^1

went out. 51^ Jx-

Put them in the sun and ^j ^1 ^ ^ 2c ^ ^

they will dry directly. ^^^4x»

Everybody else gets them, «]-g ^^l* 5 -^ '^l" 5JM

and why can not you. 7]-7^1 fe^l ^ ^^ ^

He has pens, paper, ink, ^si\ :s.J| ^ ^ji|. rj-

etc, 51 4i'

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394 THE CONJUNCTION. Chap. X. Sec. S-S-l'

Sec. 2. — ^Both...and.

1 Usually the verb is repeated with H...H.

2 With adjectives, simple a following the roof of the
first adjective is often used.

There seem to be plenty of ^S\ ^^ ^fe -^^I ^
both roses and camelias S ^2 -^^J^ S ^^
in your garden. S^^lA-

It both rainied and snowed iS'fe "S'S Sl^ ^]S
to-day. JJ'ii'


There are many things that -^ja. xl'£ ^^ ^A-
are both useful and or-
namental. ./

Sec. 3.— Too, Also.
Too, also — H-

Bring a spoon too. ^7}^ S 7]-*fA^^-

They have a custom like S.'^S a^ ^#MSiii-
that in Korea, too.

Does your right eye pain -g^lg. ^ ^3£ ^5.5.?
you also ?

Did you forget to speak OL^S. H^^f^^Jx?
about that too ?

Sec. 4.— But.

1 A disjunctive is much less frequently used by Koreans
than by English, the former preferring a transposition,
and the use of the concessive.

2 It may however be rendered by its Korean equivalent
^Hs> or ^/i|H» which may be joined directly to any one
of the indicative tenses without the elision of its termina-
tion ; or connected by ^j tio any indicative form, when ijj


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Chap. X. Sec. 5. THE CONJUNCTION. 395

replaces its terminatioD : or to any participle, and then the

participle qualifies 2J«


It is good enough but the B.:£vf ^A] ^i*.

price is high.

The screen is old, but it is c>] ^^t>] ^7lfe ^^

well painted. -^l^a^^^a^ii.

That ring is good but it is a a 7|.^:^]7}. .5.91 fe: :SlS.

little small. S| # ^4 4i.


It will probably rain but I * V] ^ ]g ^7i v}^ :^^

must go. ^::»| ^>&.

If you want to go, go, but 7>«f^ 7}-7l^ ^ffe: ^-^

come back early. H^j- i.^^-

I tried to get him to write ^T] ^ i^3£^^6^jt§(;

for me but he would n't. yA^}yZ ^H ^ii-

I tried to sleep, but it ^1^ ^l^fjt ^1^^ ^ffe

thundered so I could n't. ^ ^ <>1 ^ tl ^ ^1^ ^

My brother likes Korean ^^^ 2.^ ^^-i: 5.3^
food, but I cannot eat it. ^^ ^>H£ M-b: -X-

Sec. 5. — Though, although, still.

1 Although may be rendered into Korean by any one
of the concessive conjunctions, — vf, H> Tf H'^f* ^tc, and
a stronger, form {even thoiiyh) may be rendered by
7^ ^fH with a relative participle.

2 Even so, and yet,— a^^ nfjr, a^'§'«>^H, etc.,
may be used.

Although he is still very sick ^1-^ H ^1 -f- ^ ^1 ^'t
he will probably get well. vf vf^ ^ ^SL*


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396 THE CONJUNCTION. Chap. X. Sec. 6.

I suppose we'll have to take ^ %^] ^M :£^H 5J^1

it, although it doesn't suit. "g-f- ^ ^.

Though he's a rice man he ^7:} sf o^H "S^ H tt

will not give a cent. ^^4* .

He wont give up smoking, ^>?l7]- -S-**) "cll-f- TfH'^

though it's injuring him. ^ ^7^] ^IH'^'S'^I

He's getting pretty oia, but # '^t]>^i TfH^ ^H
he is strong yet. H ^^^ ^SL*


Still, you had better apolo- a^^ w|.jr A^^g} •$•»-

gize. 71^1 !*2(l4t.

Still, it will cost a thousand a^ ^«>^£ ^^-^r ^^

nyang. 6]: t^^Ji*.

Still, it would be better not a.M ^o^ H 4]:^] ^3.

to stop. ^fe 7^A] S.^it.

Still, he can't possibly be a^ "^H H A^f^ 4-5)

here for some time yet. S ^ $lii.

Sec. 6. — Eithee, or, whethee.

1 One or the other.

(a.) In simple sentences — vf .

(6.) In direct questions connected by or, Koreans ask

two questions without or,
• (c.) In indirect questions containing whether^ followed

by or — the verb is repeated with 7^] or 7]-,

sometimes by vf.

2 Either one or the other, no matter which — "^^^l..,

3 Either with a negative, and equivalent to any more,
or any hether,~'S^.


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Chap. X. Sec. 6. THE CONJUNCTION. 897

1. (a).

To-day must be abowfc the A § c>] ^ ^ Af^ 6] vf

third or fourth of the M"^ ^-i- ^A-

Let me know by letter or ^7^] svf Afg ^^

by messenger. ;:tj^ ^7lS V ^FA-

1. (J).

Is this black or red ? ^1 7^ >^] S 4i ^ 4i ?

Is to-day the fifth or the AS ^] 51' ^| i SJ^] JL?

sixth ?

Will you need a jinrikisba tl^7ll ^^}Sl ^M

or not? ^ef^?

Were you speaking to him, aAff ^^^^^^fc

or about him? a Afg-^ ^'t'Sl^t?

1. (c).

I don't know whether that a 7^A] «^^ ^^1 -r^*^

is silk or cotton. ^r] J2.H ^^

Please ask whether the bath ^^#«>] '^^I'^SJvf-f-^

is ready. j^ft]- ^A]j^.

I don't know whether it VJ7}- ^feT^l «»]-H #fe:?^l

will rain or not. ^-^ ^4i-

Do you know whether the Sf'-f-^^ i.^ '^M-u:>^l

steamer goes to-day or ^I^ '^^M-fe^l ^.S.

to-morrow? A]^?


Either take a chair or walk. jiL'J - ^' "^ "?! ^1 ^"^ ^1

Tell him to come either to- ^|^ A"^^! Sm i"^^!
day or to-morrow. ^^h-5i ^A-


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398 THE CONJUNCTION. Chap. X. Sec. 7.

I told the carpenter he^-fr^^a7^^ ^
might make it round or "^Tfl ^"^^1 S^l^fl
square. ^"€^1 ^^^ t^SJix-

I don't care whether it rains U]7f i^T^l «»>H Sl"^^]
or riot. ^^1^1 ^^'

It is no matter to me whe- ^'^ "^t;] ^}^ ^^^1
ther he stays or not. ^^ ^ J» .

It does n't make any dif- tflvfS ^7;] «»H ^^1
ference whether it's bam- ^^I^] ^ii-
boo or not.


That wont do either. JL IjjH ^ dli^^-

There now, see that! You 7i\ jl7A JLA "^-^H f ?^l

can't do it either. ^ ^^]^] ^h

You mustn't leave your :^\\ H ^<^1 ^^ ^^1

light burning at night ^7^]*

You can t go either. ^ S 7^1 ^^^h

He did n't say a word about a ?jH ^•I'S. l&H ^>M

that either. t'S^I .^I'^h

They don't say that either. a ^ ^fja. H «>> H f S

Sec. 7 Neithbr-Nob.

Neither... nor — H...S with the negative.

It is neither a flea nor a ^^ H ^>Hi. 3L^ H

mosquito. ^^HA-

There is neither a table nor SL^ H ^ jI -^ H ^ >^

a chair. %^ ^]^\.

It neither rained nor snow- ^^-^^-^^^IS^M

ed for a month. ^JL -^ H ^^H SLSL*

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Chap. X. Seo. 8. THE CONJUNCTION. 399

Hereafter I will neither c>] :^ Ji^fe %7^] 3E.

borrow nor lend. ^3 ^H:^] 3£ ^^^^

He can neither read nor ^ jt?;] H ^ ^jI -g-js^

write. ^^]S. * t"ii..

Sec. 8. — If, unless.

1 If— ^.

(a.) In simple supposition — "o^ with one or other

of the simple tenses.
(5.) Supposition contrary to fact — ^ with one or

other of the compound tenses.

2 When " if " introduces a future effect or consequence
(sometimes expressed in English by ' a7id ') it is frequently
rendered by the verbal stem and oLfe.

3 Mere supposition, equivalent to " in case," *' supposing
that " if that was the case," etc., it may be rendered by

4 Even if. — ^relative participle with 7;] efH or verbal
participle with 3£.

Unless, is rendered the same as, if not.

1. (a).

If it is on the main road we ^ ^ *^] 31^^ ^ ^f ^

can find it directly. -^ Slii-
Do not gooutif itisraining. 'tt]7]- JL^ H-"7|->^] ^j-i..
He will probably go if he is -c]-! ^ o] ^ ^^ ^ a

not otherwise engaged. ^i.-

Unless he is in a hurry he ^-^7^1 ^}^ '^'^i i.^I#

will probably stop at >H ^1^1"? ^ ^A-


If it does n*t suit you, you ^ g<^] U^T^l ^H ^"S

need n't pay for it. yj[^ a^ -f ii-


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Chap. X. Sec. 8.

You'd better not buy them

unless they are cbeap

and good.
You must keep quiet if you

come in here.
If you will lend me your

penknife I will make you

a kite.
If he hasn't got up yet

shall I call him?
If you haven't put it in the

room, where have you

put it?
If the bridges haven't been

carried away they pro-
bably got along without

If he is out what shall I

If it is past twelve, we

must start immediately.
What shall I do if the

passport has not come ?

^^ S^l A^ ^^^

^6\] ^7^1 ^H ^<i^]^i
^^1 ^5lit?

^5] 7]. ^9}V^T]

'^H 1

1^^>^1^ ^4^



%9i t^Am



^0] ^] 7^]"^ >^H *

' ^^'>)r-^^^-



1. (6).

What should we have done
if the bridges had all
been carried away?

If I had not had a horse,
how could I have come ?

How could I have studied
unless I had a teacher?


^^ ^^n

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If I had studi6d at <moe, it ^Jf-f ^^ ^^ -^rH

would have been well. i^^A.

If he had come yesterday H^i^^ ^'^^ Jt^^'^lA-

I would have seen him.

If I had gone yesterday I ^^^ ^^"^ H^^f

would have oome back. 2!4i*

If you let him have it, he'll 7!-^^^ '^^ ^^^

spoil it. -c]-.


If you are going to-morrow, ^^ yy^y jl\t 3tt'2 - S'

you must get coolies. 51 H ^l' SlA*

If you go to Chemulpo to- ^|^ ^-fal 7|-Jt{r

morrow you can't come ^^fe -55- A5l4t-


If you don't take care, you Si^ ^H 't^^^ ^^

will break it, S. ^ ^ ^1 '«=^•

You'll get wet if you don't -^^^1 ^^fe ^"^

take an umbrella. ^X\ ^ o] x:\.

You can't stay here if you #jLu:^^S1§ -t•^^

cry. ^t=h

Yotill be late if you don't t]^ ^7!] ^H ^:sL\s:

hurry. ^^A-


If he won't sell it for a ^^<^| Jg:^| ^}^ ^7^^

thousand cash, give him ^-^ ^-g- ^SL-

two thousand.
If you've rested sufficiently, ^ 4^|} 7|^ ^-¥- ^]^

begin to study. "^-^IJL.
Well, if your head aches, ^lf] ^jl 7]^ 7\ >A.

go and lie down.


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402 THE CONJUNCTION. Chap. X. Sac. 9.

If you don't want to never -^9^^ :x^ ^Sl-

If it suits you, take it. ^ S *^ 5f7!^ y\^]SL*

lake this letter, and in case 6\ ^r] 7|-:^lja. 7^ ^^

the man has gone, bring :x^}^ ^\f ^]:^ o]Tg

it back. 2S y}'>^]:sL SLSL-

If he is busy never mind. ^-^>9^ :x^ -^'.SL-

Even if he had known how ^^-^ %% ^§t^ ^1

to swim, ^ he prdbably «f-3E ^7i\ ^ ^^^^

would not have been ^Sl-


Even if I explain it he pro- 'g^ip.d^ 2 S^l-JS-

bably will not under- 'g*^ '^JL-

stand it,

He probably wont come, -fc'c]-jot. -^c^ /j^^ j^X]

even if he said he would. ^|"M If ^ ^SL^

Sec. 9. — Because.

Because, may be rendered by any one of the Korean
conjunctions having a causal effect. It is quite often,
however, expressed, by the use of the verbal noun in 7}
with the postposition *<| ; or by the use of a noun such as
AtW^ or JO., expressing reason or cause, with a postposition
<^ or S.

I perfer Kumipo because it's

=f-^]s.7\. M^ -r/i*?


5.^ -TA.

I waited because I tboagbt

^61 Tl^^ ^ A?S*1

it would clear.


He went because be had

*7l.* ^ ^^ 3.S.




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•CflAP. X. Sec 10-11. THE CONJimoTlON. ^ 403

It's cbldeir to-day because it A ^ «^ ^^] JL^mM,
has snowed. ""H ^ &.

Sec, 10.— Then. '

In that case— a^^, a«!^, ^^9]^.

Then I don't think you will aBf^^ M^M fH-S *

will find one in Seoul. 5J-|^ ^ "^^A*

Then he may get well. ' «3»^ -^ li" -S ^JL-

Then you must give up a3| ^^:g. ^^]f €*I^^

smoking. ^^&..

Then don't go. a«f ^4:g. i}7!] nJJL-

Sec. 11.— That.

1 Introducing a statement — JL^Sl-
See Part I. 228. flf.

2 So that, in order that, — future verbal participle.


I told Mr. Kim that it ^^f^ ^^ Jt*^?H ^^

would be all right for him '^^I'JO. ^SJJ».

to read it.

Did not the doctor say that ^^6] -^i^^ "^^^^^ 5.

he would have to try the -e|-Jt^]-v| •^^ t2| v)

hot springs, to get well ? 51 7]- ?

T heard from Mr. Pak that a ^:'^lfe: 5jTJi ^-af

some foreigner wrote that 'HS ^| ^^} jOL ^Af^

letter. ^^ s.^^,


Open the door so that I can 51 ^ ^ M|«^ iL7l| ^^
see out. ^ A. '

:Please open the door, so that ^}^^] s.^ JLT^ S: •#
the air can come in, ^ ^ ^ A-


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«qII up your sleeves 80 that ^?;] ^9^ ^^] 1 1^£.Sl^

they wont get wet.
Please arrange the net well JgL^ J£«fA7^1 * t"^

so that the mosquitoes JgL^ ^-& ^ ^lA-

wont get m.
Take care that you don't 51 a ^7^1 -^?fl 3S.^ t^

slip. ^^'

Sec. 12.— Than.

1 With the (Comparative Degree, — jt^:}-, t\]/^, See^
also Part 1. 1 250 fif. & Part II. Chap. VI § II.

2 Rather than,— ^"^^ or the verb ^4t niay be used.

3 More than, (of quantity or nunnery—

(a.) In affirmative sentences— »^ 6^.
(6.) In negative sentences— ^::«f.


A mule is stronger than a a-^H^l- 1 JL^} ^.fi.-


Korea is more healthy than S.^^] ^-& i^l- *:£7V

Japan. S^i-

It rains more frequently in S.^ JL^\ ^^4r ^UV

Japan than in Korea. y^}S. AA-


I had rather walk than ^fe^ i^:]- ^t\^ ^^

ride. ^•

I had rather write to him jtji ^f fe ^ A^

than tell him to his face. ^*fe] ^7;]S t"3JIit-

I had rather smoke cigars 7^]"^^ A^> ^'^I^l *3

than cigarettes. "Q^ "^JJlJx-

I had rather die than go to ^^-|: Jt«l 7|.fe :^ Jt^h

see the doct<»r. ^ *f ^ * fe :^ '^l


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<3»ArX.Sbc.12. thb contonction. 406

Tl»t fellow had rather a -fe-^ ^ -^7) :±^

starve than work. ^^ y^/,^ vf;j^ ^Xg,

I had rather live in Korea ^^ j[^t:]- :$%)'e] ;2'tt

than Japan. 'StJJIii.

3. (a.)

It will cosfc more than fifty jj^^ ^ ^>5^a| Ai^jF^.

• nyang.

I have waited more than an ^^]^ y 6^ 7) ^ ijj^.

hour for you.

We have more than an ^}^ 3t S^l ^ ^6^ ^

hour yet. §|;^.

You must put in more than "g >§- ^t] ^t\i^y ^

a handful. ^£l*

There were more than a y]^ ^^ ^^ ^j^

hundred there. & '^ ^) "^1".

That book has more than jz ^^] ?J^ ^H5l4i-

a hundred pages.

It is more than eighty ri to :^'g"iL >^?^] ^-^ ^1 y H

Chemulpo. ^SL-

I want more than ten ^ ^ 'dH 4!i^A-


3. (b).

I shall not want more than ^-^ ^^ jr ^]'H ^

ten pounds. 31 4v-

It will probably not cost ^]^ "^ ^^ \£ ^]'HS

more than two or three ^ifSL*


You must not put in more 'J; -g- ^^ -e) ^^|

than a handful. ^fA*

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406 THE OON JtJNOTION. Chap. X* Sec. 12.

There are not more than ten T] ^ ^^f' ^1 i\ 7}- ^ ^

- ships in the harbor at ^1^4^-
present. .1

1 can'ti stop more than t\^ro ^| ^ ^ ^:=«f ^^^ ^

or three days. ^ ^.

There are not more than ^ ^^ ^&-

JHere are no more sentences 6^;3f $|fe ^ v}^] 7l-i^

than are necessary to a ^ z^j/fl •*] iH;^ 7l«'i|

thorough knowledgjB of ^ tt^^^ ^A-

Korean. • •



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Introduction. Definitions and Notes.

1. Phonetics. Phonetics is the science of position, move-
ment, tension and action in speech sounds, and the art of
making these sounds.

2. The ground tone. The ground tone is made by the
vocal cords — the overtone by the cavities above, viz.
pharynx, mouth, and nasal passages.

3. A consonant is a speech sound made by a complete or
partial closure of the oral passage at one or more points.

4. A vowel is a voiced sound made through a fixed oral

5. Syllables. A syllable is the least measure of speech,
and is produced by a single impulse. A close syllable is
one that ends in a consonant, and an open syllable is one
ending in a vowel. It is a matter of some difficulty to
know where one syllable begins and another ends, espe-
cially in English. English often makes a syllable with
consonants 1, m, and n, and these are consequently called
** syllabic*' consonants, but there do not seem to be any
syllables in Korean words without vowels. It is worthy of
note that the syllabification of the Korean spelling does
not always seem to coincide with that of pronunciation.

6. Eecoil. This, the recoil of the organs from close
contact, as in English, pop, tip, (use your mirror) is a very

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important element in the pronunciation of English final
stop consonants, but is not heard in Korean single words
as ^, ^, etc. However when these words occur in
sentences they usually end in a vowel, so that the recoil
must of necessity take place. The glottal catch, which is
the very opposite of a recoil is frequently heard in the
midst of Korean sentences.

The glottis is the " mouth " between the vocal cords ;
we close it in straining, and in coughing. If one will lay
the fingers of one hand on the side of the throat about the
larynx and snap against the finger nails with those of the
other hand as he breathes, it will be noted that the ^oani
is rather dead. Now inhale and " catch " the breath,
and then snap. At once there is a change in the sound.
The pent-up air, held by the shut glottis, has made the
difference* One must learn to control this at will, and in
combinati<Hi with the stops p, t, and k. It occurs also
with I, n, ng and between vowels, as M^ ij"^ ^^Ji
(I rose and sat down) .

7. Glide. If you pronounce^he English vowels o, oo, as
you look in the mirror, you will see the lips move slightly
to a closer position at the end. This is called the w glide.
At tte end of the English " long " a and e, there is the y
glide* Perhaps this is why we spell day and they and
bow, and wrongly explain the y and w as •* silent." It is
difficult for English speaking people to pronounce a vowel
without a glide.

8. Personal and National DiflBculties. — Occasionally a
person conws to the foreign field who is tongue-tied. Such
an impediment must seriously interfere witii ease and
excellenoe of articulation. Inability to run one's tongue
wdl down on to the lower lip may lead one to suspect this


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d^ieoL If so, a surgeon can easily remedy it. There are
some who are accustomed to slur over their ** r ' 8 ", and
consequently inclined to import this same j^onunciation
into Korean but perlMips the greatest difficulty comes from
assuming that the Korean letters are the same as the
corresponding sounds in English. Almost no Korean
letter has the identical sound of the corresponding
English letter. Special attention should be given to the
point of contact for forming 1, and to the shape of the rest
of the tongue, during its formation. This will remove
the difficulty that many Koreans have in understflnding
foreigna-s when they use words ending in 1. Our
American 1 has a glide in it that is very confusmg to

9. Analysis of Sounds. — It is very important that these
suggestions as to the manner in which sounds are formed
be reviewed again and again, and the sounds thoroughly
analysed. To go from the analysis of the known English
sounds to the unknown Korean sounds is the only practi-
cal way to accomplish this. Whispering Korean sounds
will often lay bare the secret of their formation. Or it
may be better to sing them vnth a (ah) before and after
the consonant. A halfJnch stick between the jaw teeth
of the teacher will often facilitate the uivestigation.
Sometimes the best way to discover the difiference between
the Korean sounds and our own is to make up a sentence
in which the sound under investigation is prominent, and
then get a Korean who knows no English to repeat these
words. His departure from the normal English pronun-
ciation vTill reveal to you the degree in which you ought
to conftnrm'your pronunciation to his that you may speak
Korean acceptably.

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10. Intonation — Intonation is the peculiar melody
which forms an integral part of a language, and may
differ in different localities, even where the language is the
same. Korean intonation in some sentences seems very
much like English, and again it is absolutely different. It
might be called the language " tune," and the mastery of
it is more important than the correct pronunciation of an
individual sound. It is never learned by those who follow
the book, or the word method. It exists only in sentences
in nature, and should be watched for at such times as you
have opportunity to listen to the Koreans as they talk
among themselves. Failure to give the proper intonation
makes the foreigner always remain a foreigner in speech,
and his best efforts may cause the soul-saddening remark,.
"We do not understand English." It is because our
fellow countrymen retain our own melody that we are able
to understand their Korean so much easier than that of
•the native ; and for the like reason when the native speaks
English to us, we often mistake, and think he is speaking
his own tongue.

11. Articulation. — Articulation is the uniting of con-
sonants and vowels, so as to give to each its proper value.
Many students of Korean will need to cultivate a better
articulation in Korean than they have in their mother
tongue. A valuable exercise to this end is the reading in
a whisper, in either language, to some one at a distance of
twenty-five or thirty feet, with such distinctness that they
can understand what is read. To do this well and easily,
one must know the exact position to be taken for each
sound and then assume such positions clearly and as soon
as the sound is made, release the position just as clearly
and decidedly.


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The various positions of the lips, tongue-
and other parts of the vocal organs, may ,be^
"7 — ■^' represented by the above diagram. No. 1,
represents the lip in contact, No. 2, the teeth ; Nos. 3, 4^
and 5, the roof of the mouth; No. 6, represents the^
posterior portion, of the mouth closed ; and No. 7, the floor
of the mouth. If the sound is a surd, i, e, unaccompanied
by a vibration of the vocal cords, this line (No. 7) is a
light line, if a sonant, i. e. accompanied with a vibration,
of the vocal cords, the line is heavy, thus . .

The position of the tongue is indicated by a line to any^
point where the tongue may be in contact. If the tongue-
lies in the floor of the mouth it is not indicated in the-
diagram. A mirror should be used for determining the-
various positions.

Let us first indicate

The English Consonants.

Which must always precede an intelligent study of the-
corresponding Korean sounds.

The labial position is a cardinal position in English and
is represented in the following ways,
r-^ i The letter p being a stop sound, the lips are (1>
in contact, the posterior portion of the mouth (2) is-
closed and there is no vibration of the vocal cords,
r^ B differs from p only in that it is a sonant or
in other words there is a vibration of the vocal
cords and is therefore represented by the heavy line,
r— y P * aspirated is represented the same as the-

unaspirated with the addition of the dotted line to-
show the explosive factor in producing the sound.

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by Google


<*-. M*^ voiceless is uncommon but is found in tbe

■ — final ra of word rheumatism.
(su^ M is a nasal sound being a combination of
•"■^ a stop and continuant. The lips kre closed but

the posterior part of the mouth is open enough to allow

the current of aii- to go through the nasal passages.

With this there is a vibration of the vocal cords

which is represented by a heavy base line.
The common expression that a person talks through his
nose when he has a cold is not the true statement of fact,
for it is just the opposite. The air in such a case does not

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Online LibraryHorace Grant UnderwoodAn introduction to the Korean spoken language → online text (page 21 of 24)