Horace Greeley.

The American conflict: a history of the great rebellion in the United States of America, 1860-'64 online

. (page 106 of 113)
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vastation of property, you are willing to
make a temporary suspension of active op-
erations, and to communicate to Lt.-Gen.
Grant, commanding the armies of the United
States, the request that be will take like
action in regard to other armies, the object
being to permit the civil authorities to enter
into the needful arrangements to terminate
the existing war.

** I have the honor to be, very respect-
•fully, your obedient servant,

"J. E. JoHVBTOir, General"

The prompt responae was as fol-

•* Hbadq^rs Mn. Drv. or the Miss.,
In the FiB^;^, Ralbiob,
April 14, 1865
'* Gen. J. E. Johnston, Oommanding Con-
federate Army:

** GENinAi^— I have Ms moment received
your commanication of this date. I am
fully empowered to 'arrange with you any
terms for the suspension of farther hostili-
ties as between the armies commanded by
you and those commanded by myself, and
will be willing to confer with you to that
end. I will limit the advance of my main
column to-morrow to Morrisville, and the
cavalry to the University, and expect that
you will also maintdn the present position
of your forces until each has notice of a
failure to agree.

*' That a basis of action may be had, I
tindertake to abide by the same terms and
conditions as were made by Gens. Grant
and Lee at Appomattox Court House, on
the 9th instant, relative to our two armies;
and, furthermore, to obtain from Gen. Grant
an order to suspend the movements of any
troops from the direction of Virginia. Gen.
Stoneman is under my comm^id, and my
order will suspend any devastation or de-
struction contemplated by hiOL I will add
that I really desire to save the people of

[iss., )

N. C, ^

Kordi CaroBna the damages they would
sustain by the march of this army Uirough
central or western parts of the State.

"I am, with respect, your obedient
servant, W. T. Sherman, M^.-Gen.''

Our forces were now halted; butno

response from Jdmstosi was received

next day; though Maj, McCoy, of

Sherman's staff, remained with Eil«

palriek in the advance to receive one.

Gten. Sherman had already written

to the War Department, on the re*

ceipt of Johnston's ovortore :

" I send copies of a cormspondenoe begun
with Gen. Johnston, which 1 think will be
followed by terms of capitulation. I will
accept the same terms as Gen. Grant gave
Gen. Lee, and be careful not to compKeate
aay points of civil policy."

Late on the 16th, Gen. Shaman
received, throi^h Kilpatrick, a mes-
sage from Wade Hampton, stating
that Johnston desired a meeting at
10 JL. It next day at Ihirham's sta-
tion ; which was prcmiptly accorded ;
Sherman only changing the time to

The meeting took place according-
ly ; and was adjonmed over to next
day — Johnston reqniring and urging
conditions of general pacification
which Shennan felt that he had no
power to guamntee. Finally, how-
ever, at the second meeting, his scru-
ples were overcome ; and he was pe^
suaded to sign the following

Memorandum or Bans of Agreement
" Ist. The contending armies now in the
field to maintmn the status quo until no-
tice is given by the commanding General of
any one to his opponent, and reasonable
time, say forty-eight hours, allowed.

" 2d. The Oonfederate armies now in exr
istence to be disbanded and conducted to
their several State capitals, there to deposit
their arms and public property in the State
arsend ; and each officer and man to exe-
cute and file an agreement to cease from
acts of war, and to abide the action of both
State and Federal authorities. The nnmber
of arms and munitions of war to be reported
to the chief of ordnance at Washingtun 6igr,

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sabjeot to the fhtnre action of the Oongress
of the United States, and in the mean time
to be osed solely to maintain peace and or-
der within the borders of the States respec-

** 3d. The recognition, by the Execntive
of the United States, of the several State
Governments, on their officers and Legisla-
tures taking the oath prescribed by the Con-
stitution of the United States ; and, when
conflicting State Governments have resulted
from the war, the legitimacy of all shall be
submitted to the Supreme Court of the Uni-
ted States.

*^ 4th. The rSestablishment of all Federal
courts in the several States, with powers as
defined by the Constitution and the laws of

*^5th. The people and inhabitants of all
States to be guaranteed, so far as the Execu-
tive can, their political rights and franchises,
as well as their rights of person and prop-
erty, as defined by the Constitution of the
United States and of the States respectively.

**6th. The executive authority or Gov-
ernment of the United States not to disturb
any of the people, by reason of the late war,
80 long as they live in peace and quiet, and
abstain from acts of armed hostility, and
obey the laws in existence at the place of
their residence.

" 7th. In general terms, it is announced
that the war is to cease ; a general amnesty,
80 far as the Executive of the United States
can command, on condition of the disband-
ment of the Confederate armies, the distri-
bution of arms and the resumption of peace-
ftd pursuits by officers and men hitherto
oomposing said armies. Not being fuUy
empowered by our respective principals to
fulfill these terms, we mdividually and offi-
cially pledge ourselves to promptly obtain
authority, and will endeavor to carry out
the above programme.

**W. T. Sherman, M^.-General,

** CommandiiigArmy of the U. 8. In North CaroUna.

"J. E. Johnston, General.
** Ck>mmAndJng Confederate States Army in North

Oen. V Sherman had already re-
ceived'* with horror the tidings of
President Lincoln's assassination ;
but he had not adequately realized
the effect of that atfocions deed on
the temper and spirit of the loyal
millions and their rulers. This state-
ment is made in explanation simply.
He had seen Gen. WeitzeFs permis-
sion to the Bebel L^islatnre of Vir-

ginia to reassemble at Richmond ; he
was not aware that President Lin-
coln's authorization of it had been
recalled and the permission annulled.
And he — ^neither cherishing nor af-
fecting decided anti-Slavery convic-
tions — unquestionably believed and
felt that his arrangement with John-
ston was one that ought to be, and
probably would be, accepted at Wash-
ington ; whither he immediately dis-
patched it by Maj. Hitchcock, of his

He had very gravely miscalcula-
ted. There were many in the North
who had deemed Grant quite too
generous in fixing the terms of Lee's
capitulation ; but their hesitating ut-
terances had been drowned in the
general burst of gladness and thanks-
giving over the virtual collapse of the
Eebellion. That other Eebel chiefe
— now that their ablest commander
and most formidable army had sur-
rendered — should exact and secure
better terms than were accorded to
Lee, was not imagined, even prior
to Lincoln's assassination : after that
hideous crime, the bare suggestion of
such concession seemed intolerable.
Hence, when his agreement reached**
Washington, it was — in strict accord-
ance with the views and feelings of
the great body of those who had
heartily sustained the Gbvemment
through the War — ^rejected by the
new President and his Cabinet, with
the hearty concurrence of Q^n. Grant,
for reasons uno£Scially, but by au-
thority, set forth as follows :

^ 1st. It was an exercise of anthoritj not
vested in Gen. Sherman, and, on its face,
s^ws that both he and Johnston knew that
Gen. Sherman had no anthoritj to enter into
anj snch arrangements.

" 2d. It was a practical acknowledgment
of the Bebel Government.

•• April 11
VOL. n. — 48.

* April 21.

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'^dd. It nndertook to r^stablish Rebel
State governments that bad been over-
thrown at the sacrifice of many thousand
lojal lives and immense treasure, and placed
arms and munitions of war in the hands of
Rebels at their respective capitals, which
might be used, so soon as the armies of the
United States were disbanded, and used to
oonqner and subdue loyal States.

"4th. By the restoration of Rebel au-
thority . in their respective States, thej
would be enabled to reestablish Slavery.

"6th. It might furnish a ground of re-
qx)n8ibi]ity on the part of the Federal Gov-
ernment to pay the Rebel debt, and cer-
tainly subjects loyal citizens of Rebel States
to debts contracted by Rebels in the name
of the State.

" 6th. It puts in dispute the existence of
loyal State governments, and the new State
of West Virginia, which had been recog-
nized by every department of the United
States Government.

"7th. It practically abolished confisca-
tion laws, and relieved Rebels of every de-
gree, who had slaughtered our people, from
all pains and penalties for their crimes.

"8th. It gave terms that had been delib-
erately, repeatedly, and solemnly, r^ected
by President Lincoln, and better terms than
the Rebels had ever asked in their most
prosperous condition.

" 9th. It formed no basis of true and last-
ing peace, but relieved Rebels from the pres-
ence of our victorious armies, and left them
in a condition to renew their efforts to over-
throw the United States Government and
subdue the loyal States whenever their
strength was recruited and any opportu-
nity should offer.*'

Gen. Grant was sent poBt-haete to
Raleigh to announce the rejection of
the Sherman-Johnston programme,
and to direct an inmiediate and gene-
ral resumption of hostilities. On
reaching Morehead City/* he dis-
patched the decision of the Govcth-
ment to Sherman at Raleigh, who
instantly transmitted its purport to
Johnston, adding a notification that
the truce would close 48 hours after
the receipt hereof at the Rebel lines,
with a demand that Johnston's army
be forthwith surrendered on the iden-
tical terms accorded by Grant to Lee.
He at once directed his subordinate

commanders to be ready to resmne
the offensive at noon on the 26th.

Grant reached Raleigh on the 25th ;
when another invitation to a confer-
ence was received from Johnston by
Sherman, who referred it to his su-
perior. Grant declined to relieve
Sheitean from command, as he was
authorized to do, and urged him to
meet Johnston as requested ; so the
26th was appointed for their third
and final interview ; at which J<^-
ston's army was surrendered on the
terms already accorded to Lee's. The
agreement was signed by Sherman
and Johnston, but indorsed,
"Approved: U. S. Grant, Lient.-General :"
and thus passed out of existence the
second army of the Confederacy.

The surrender to Gen. Canby of
Q^n. Taylor's Rebel forces in Ala-
bama was effected at Citronelle, May
4, as the result of n^otiations com-
menced April 19. More words were
used ; but the terms were essentially
the same as had been accorded to
Lee and Johnston, with this addi-

*' Transporta<aon and subsistence to be
furnished at public cost for the officers and
men, after surrender, to the nearest practi-
cable point to their homes. ^'

Com. Farrand, at the same time

and on the same terms, surrendered

to Rear-Admiral Thatcher the twelve

Rebel gunboats blockaded in the

Tombigbee river, with 20 ofBoers

and 110 others.

Mr. Jeffersoif Davis, with his staff
and civilian associates, having jour-
neyed by rail from Richmond to Dan-
ville," he there halted, and set up his
Government; issuing '* thence a stii^
ring prodamation, designed to in-

* April 23.



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spirit the Confederates to a deter-
mined proeecution of the contest;

" We have now entered npon a new phase
of the strngffle. Believed nrom the neces-
glty of guarding particular points, our army
will be free to move from point to point to
strike the enemy in detail fat from his base.
Let us but will it, and we are free.

"Animated by that confidence in your
spirit and fortitude which never yet failed
me, I announce to you, fellow-countrymen,
that it is my purpose to maintain your cause
with my whole heart and soul ; that I will
never consent to abandon to the enemy one
foot of the soil of any one of the States of
the Confederacy. That Virginia— noble
State — whose ancient renown has been
eclipsed by her still more glorious recent
history — whose bosom has been bared to
receive the main shock of this war — whose
sons and daughters have exhibited heroism
•o sublime as to render her illustrious in all
time to come— that Virginia, with the help
of the people and by the blessing of Provi-
dence, shall be held and defended, and no
peace ever be made with the infamous in-
vaders of her territory.

"I^ by the stress of numbers, we should
ever be compelled to a temporary with-
drawal from her limits, or those of any
other Border Btate, again and again will we
return, until the bafi9ed and exhausted
enemy shall abandon in despair his endless
and impossible task of makmg slaves of a
people resolved to be free.

** Let us, then, not despond, my country-
men; but, relying on God, meet the foe
with fresh defiance and with unconquered
and unconquerable h^rts.

"Jbffbrbok D1.VI8."

He waited there several days, in
anxious expectation of the approach
of Lee, or at least of tidings that he
was still confronting and baffling the
Union forces; nntil astounded** by
advices of his surrender at Appo-
mattox. The Confederacy thereupon
took to wheels again — there being no
acceptable altemative*— and retreated
by rail to Greensboro', N.. C, where
another considerable halt was made
— ^the days and nights spent mainly
in the cars by President, Cabinet,
and followers; since very few of the

citizens saw fit to throw open their
houses — when the imminence of
Johnston's surrender compelled an-
other flitting** — ^this time in wagons
and on horseback: the railroad. hav-
ing been disabled by Stoneman — via
Salisbury to Charlotte, N. C, where
its foundering ark again rested for a
few days; and where, unlike their
fare at Greensboro', the falling Pre-
sident and his Cabinet were received
with consideration and hospitality-*
until, alarmed by the reported ap-
proach of Stoneman's cavalry, it re-
sumed its flittings southward, via
Yorkville and Abbeville, S. C; being
now compdled to take entirely to
horse, and escorted by 2,000 cavalry,
who, as well as the Presidential cor-
tege, gradually dwindled by the way :
thus reaching" Washington, Ga.,
where the rapidly dissolving view of
a Government was dispensed with —
most of the Cabinet itself having by
this time abandoned the sinking craft,
leaving Davis attended by Beagan
(late Postmaster-General, now acting
Secretary of the Treasury) and his
military staff; and the remaining
ftigitives, with a small but select es-
cort of mounted men, took their way
southward : perhaps intent on joining
Dick Taylor or K3rby Smith, should
either or both be still belligerent, or,
at the worst, hoping to make their
way to some petty port on the coast,
and thence out of the country. Mr.
Davis had even separated, for greater
safety, from his family; but, on an
alarm of peril to which they werrf
said to be exposed from a conspiracy
to rob them of the gold they were
supposed to be carrying off, had re-
joined them over night; when his
sylvan encampment nearlrwinsvillC)

•April 10.

» April 16.


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(ihL, was struck " by Lt.-C!oL Pritch-
ard, 4th Michigan cavalry, who, upon
advices that what remained of the
Bebellion was making its way fur-
tively southward through G^rgia,
had been dispatched** by Gen. Wil-
son from Macon in quest of him ; as
had also the 1st Wisconsin cavalry,
Lt-CoL Harden. These two com-
mands, moving by different roads
down the Ocmulgee, Pritchard at
length struck the trail he was seeking,
and followed it to the encampment
aforesaid ; which he surprised at early
dawn; easily taking captive** Mr.
Davis, his wife, her sister, and his
children; but being, directly there-
after, involved in a fight with the 1st
Wisconsin, which was closing in on
the quarry from another quarter, and
—each taking the other for enemies
— ^the two commands opened a re-
ciprocal fire, whereby two men were
killed and several wounded before
the mutud. mistake was discovered.
The dead were borne sadly to Abbe-
ville, and there buried; the wounded,
with the prisoners, were conveyed to

Macon,** whence Davis was taken,
via Savannah and the ocean, to Fort-
ress Monroe; where he was long
closely and rigorously imprisoned,
while his family were returned by
water to Savannah and there set at
liberty. Secretary Beagan — ^the only
person of consequence captured wili
Davis — ^was taken to Boston, and
confined, with Yice-President Ste-
phens (captured about this time also
in Georgia), in Fort Warren ; but
each was liberated on parole a few
months thereafter.

The following general order seem-
ed for a time to menace a protracted,
though not doubtful, struggle in

^^Hbadq^rs TBAT<re-Mi88i8flipPi Dbp't., )

Shrbybpobt, La., April 21, '66. f

^' Soldiers of the trans- Mmiseippi Army :

^' The crisis of onr revolntioa is at histd.
Great disasters have overtaken ns. The
Army of Northern Yir^ia and our Com-
mander-in-Ohief are prisoners of war. WiUi
yon rest the hopes of onr nation, and npoa
yonr action dej^nds the fate of our people.
I appeal to yon in the name of the cause you
have so heroicaUy maintained — in the name

"May 11. "May 1

•*With regard to Davis's alleged attempt to
elude his ci^tors in female guise, the following
statement by Lt 0. E. L. Stuart, of his staff;
probably embodies the literal truth :

" When the musketry-firing was heard in the
morning, at 'dim, gray dawn,' it was supposed
tobe between the apprehended [Rebel] marauders
and Mrs. Davis's few camp-defenders. Under
this impression, Mr. Davis hurriedly put on his
boots, and prepared to go out for the purpose
of interposing, saying:

" * They will at least as yet respect me.'

*^Ab he got to the tent door thus hastily
equipped, and with this good intention of pre-
venting an effusion of blood by an appeal in the
name of a fkding but not wholly faded authority,
he saw a few cavalry ride up the road and de-
ploy in front

** ' Ha, Federals V was his ezdamation.

" ' Then you are captured I* cried Mrs. Davis,

'* In a moment, she caught an idea— a woman's
idea — and, as quickly as women in an emergency
execute their designs, it was done. He slept in

a wrapper — a loose one. It was yet around
him. This she fastened, ere he was aware of
it, and then, bidding him adieu, urged him to go
to the spring, a short distance off; where ^
horses and arms were. Strange as it may seem,
there was not even a pistol in the tent Davia
felt that his only course was to reach his horse
and arms, and complied. As he was leaving
the door, followed by a servant with a water-
bucket, Miss MowqU flwiQi a shawl over his head.
There was no time to remove it without exposure
and embarrassment; and, as he had not far to
go, he ran the chance exactly as it was devised
for him. In these two articles, consisted the
woman's attire of which so mudi nonsense has
been spoken and written; and, under these dr^
cumstanoes and in this way was Jefferson Davis
going forth to perfect his escape. No bonnet,
no gown, no petticoats, no crinoline— nothinff
of all these. And ^i^iat there was, happened
to be excusablo under ordinary droumstaooefl,
and perfectly natural as things were.

"But it was too late for any effort to readi
his horses ; and the (confederate Presidsnt was
at last a prisoner in the hands of the United
States." * May 13.

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of your firesidefl and families, so dear to jon
— ^in the name of yonr bleeding country,
whose ftitnre is in your hands. Show that
yon are worthy of yonr position in history.
Prove to the world that yonr hearts have
not failed in the hour of disaster, and that,
to the last moment, you will sustain the
holy cause which has been so gloriously
battled for by your brethren east of the

^* You possess the means of long resisting
invasion ; you have hopes of succor from
abroad. Protract the struggle, and you
will surely receive the aid of nations who
already deeply sympathize with you.

"Stand by your colors — maintain your
discipline I The great resources of this de-

Sartment, its vast extent ; the numbers, the
iscipline, and the eflficiency of the army,
will secure to onr country terms that a
proud people can with honor accept, and
may, under the providence of God, be the
means of checking the triumph of onr ene-
my and securing the final success of our
cause. £. Kibbt Smith, General.*'

At a public meetlDg held at
Shreveport on the receipt of news
of President Lincoln's assassination,

there were military men found base
or mad enough to emit over that
atrocity. Their countrymen of all
parties will gladly forget their names.

The last actual collision *• of forces
in our struggle occurred" on theKio
Grande. Col. Barrett had set forth "
from Brazos Santiago to surprise a
Rebel camp at Palmetto Banche,
some 15 miles above, and had suc-
ceeded in taking and burning the
camp ; but, lingering to secure
horses, he was overtaken on his re-
turn by Oten. J. E. Slaughter, with 8
guns and a considerable force, and
hunted back to Brazos with a loss of
80, mainly captured. Slaughter's loss
was trifling.

Gen. Sheridan had been sent to
Kew Orleans, and was there fitting
out a formidable expedition for the re-

* Though the war on land ceased, and the
Confederate flag utterly disappeared fh>m this
continent with the ooUapee and dispersion of
Kirhy Smith's command ; it was yet displayed at
sea by two of the British-built, British-armed,
and (mainly) British manned cruisers engaged
in the spoliation of our commerce ; whereof the
powerful iron-dad Stonewall, after having been
for some time watched by the Niagara and the
Sacramento in the Spanish port of FerroL finally
tan across to Havana, where she arrived after
the fall of the Confederacy, and was taken in
diarge by the Spanish authorities, who prompUy
banded her over, May 28, 1866, to Rear- Admi-
ral Godon, who, with a formidable fleet, had
been sent, May 16, to cruise among the West
Indies in quest of her. Admiral Gkxlon brought
her into Hampton Roads June 12, and turned
her over to the Navy Department

There still remaned afloat the swift steamer
Shenandoah, Capt Waddell, built at Glasgow in
1863, and which, as Uhe Sea King,* put to sea
fVom London, Oct 8, 1864, in spite of the pro-
tests of our functionaries; having cleared for
Bombay : but whidi was met at a barren islet off
Madeira, Oct 17, by the British steamer Laurel,
from Liverpool, with officers aud men, neariy all
British, who, with guns and munitiona, were
promptly transferred to the henceforth Rebel
corsair Shenandoah, which at once engaged in

the capture, plunder, and destruction of our mer*
chantmen ; in due time, turning up at Melbourne,
Australia, where she received a hearty and mu-
nificent welcome. Having left that port, Feb. 8,
1866, she was next heard of in the North Pa-/
cific, the Sea of Ochotsk, and northward nearly
to Behring*s straits, where she raided at wiU
among our defenseless whalers, of which she
burned 25 and bonded 4 — ^many of ^hem after
she had received the news of Lee's and John-
ston's surrender and Davis's capture. FinaUy,
having been assured by a British sea-captain
that the Confederacy was no more, she desisted,
four months after the collapse, fh>m her work
of destruction, and made her way directly to
her native country; anchoring Nov. 6, 1866,
in the Mersey ; whence Waddell addressed a let-
ter to the British Minister, surrendering her
in due form to the British Government; by
which she was in turn tendered to ours, and
most unwisely accepted. As she had never at-
tempted to enter a Confederate port, nor (so far
as is known) any other than British, and as she
had never been manned by any other than a
(substantiaUy) British crew, and as she still
stood, up to a very late day, on the official

Online LibraryHorace GreeleyThe American conflict: a history of the great rebellion in the United States of America, 1860-'64 → online text (page 106 of 113)