Horace Greeley.

The American conflict: a history of the great rebellion in the United States of America, 1860-'64 online

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Gap— Dlx% Advance en RIehmoad— Pleaiaatoa



tmu to Centarvllla- Warren wonts A. P. HIU
— Lse rstfaas across the Rappahaaaoek- Imbodea
aarprisss Charlestowa— Oea. D. A. Rassell stoma
Raapahaaaock StatioB, eaptarlag 1^ prtaoaera
— Meade crosses the Rapldaa— A&lr of Mlae
Raa— Tolaadib raid to WythevUla-AvaciU'b «a
Lewlabnig-Flght al Droop Mooatala.

XVm. The Chattanooga Campaign 404



' Into Indiaaa
i^d e^tored
—His ImprisonnMBt and Escape— Roeeerans ad-
vances from Mnrfreesboro' by ShelbyviUe and
TnUahoma. to the Tennessee at Bridgeport—
B»n flaaVed c-' '' '^ »• »T! __



Morasn's Raid through Kcnta
aad Ohio— He Is surrounded, rm



Bngg flanked oat of Chattaaooga-
eagwly parsocs— Bragg concaatratea at Lafhyett^
and tarns npon his pursocra— Rosecrans eonoen-
trateson the Chlckamanga— DaneraU battle theia
— Rosccnuw, worsted, retreata to Chattanooga ■
Lossss R oaec r ane snpersedsd- Pagnua*s raid la-
to Kentacky— Saonders^ into East Tennesses
Buraslde crosses the Comberland Mountaine—
Knoxvllle liberated— Bamaide rMakea Cumber*
land Gap, with t,000 prbonera— Loogstreet Impel-
led bv Bragg agdnst him— Wolford stniek at ndl-
adelphla, lenn.— Fight at Ckmpbellli Statioa—
Bnmside withdraws lato Knoxvllle— Longstreei
bedegaa and aaaaolta- b repulsed with loes—
Raises the Slags and retrsata— GrantrcKeves Roee-
craaa— Hooker and Sloeom harried to the Tennes-
aee— Wheeler^ and Roddy"* raid*— Grant rsaehea
Qia t tanooga — Hooker c r osess the Tennessee^
Fight at Wauhatchie- Sherman arrivea from
VicksboTg— Grant Impels attacks on Bragg by
Granger, Hooker, and Sherman— Hooker 7^~



Lookfot MountaAi- Bragg, on Mission Rldg% at-
tacked from all sUas androoted— HU Bulletin—
Hooker paraoea to Rlni
in a aap in White Oak
nr dispatched



;nld— Clebumeehecks him

' 'e»— Sierman and Oian-

nis Lossss at MMea



XIX. The War in Missouri and Arkansas,

m 1863 446

Marmadoke attacks Springfleld, Ma— Is remilsed
—Again at Hartaville— Waring route him at Bates-
Tllle, Ark.— The Sam Gaty c«»tarsd— Fayettsvllle
attacked by Cabell — BCarmadoke assails Cape
GIrardeaa — McNeil repels him — Cofley assails
Fort Blnnt— Standwatie repulsed at Cabin Creek
— Coflhgr repulaed by Gatherwood. at PfneTlllsi
Ma — QnantreU'k Arson and Butcherv at Uw-
renea, Kansss Gen. Steele movea on uttle Rock
—Fight al Bayou Metea— Davldaoa defeate Mar^
madnke at Bayou Foordie— Price abandons Little



Rock to Steele— Blnnfii Esoort destroyed by Quaa-
trail— CoL Ckvton deftata Marmadnke at Ftae
Blaff-Gea. EL & Brown defeate Cabell aad Cofby
at Arrow Rock— McNeil chases them to Clarka-
vllle— Staadwatis and Qnantrell repulsed by CoL
PhllUpe at Fort GIbaon-Skmx Butcheries In Mln-
neeota— Gea. Sibley route Little Crow at Wood
Lake— MO Indians captured and tried for murder
— Gan. Pope in command— Sibley and Ekilly pur-
aue and drive the Sava g es Ge n. Conner in Utah
^ . . «. . _ ^^ Rlrer- "



XX. The Carolinas, (Georgia, and Florida

in 1862-3— Siege of Charleston. .465



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IKDBX BY OHAPTBB&



18



XXT lb



VAaa
484



XXTT. K(



511



XZm. The War along the CkMst in 1864. .628



iilY. The War bojond the MSasiBaippi in

1864 ;r...636



XXVX Wert Tirglnia and North of the

Ri^dan in 1864 698



XXVn. Between Virginia and the Ifiaait-

Bippi, 1863-4 616



JJCV. Gen. Grant's AdvanoeonBicfamond. 662

iK 'MMMe rtognaiMd— KUaaMok^ BaA ta
Ifca B ip M— » , m rgtt>WIMtniJlSS



xxvm. ff



B26



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14



INDBX BY GHAPTEBS.



TYiy. The War on the Ooean— Mobile

Bay 641

n« OmUianU Matj— Th«lr TotpadoM—
■riliih-lMUt PriTAtMrt— Th« SomUr— Th«
AIiibui»-^Tk« Florida Btl aa w of th* CImm-
mbIm— Tk« TUIahaMM—Tbs (MiHtM— Th«
^^;^-:«j. fw OoUiM MisM Um riorkU
Ib Biihk &rb«wO<Nr. 8»wsnl m lUtel UU
UmrMCT^Ibs G a o ri to Wglrtoftif KMrnrf*
•Si AkbMH— CriUelMiii ikmoa— Fanwvt
Wfcc* MtMH Bwnhirda and pMMS Ibri l&r-
gM— Tk« B«)m1 imm T«



TTT. Pditical Mutations and Besulta^

Presidential Canvass of 1864. .654



kadad t9 llM Fl«»>1h« IttOoiiP



9*mk



—DMMrato flghtiar— Th« F«rt Muriad— Lohw
— KsploilM of AUfHiM— Om. SehofaU v.
rivw— A4TueM ra WUmiBgloa — FIfkt •»
TvwB CnMk->Fort Aadtneo araflaatod— Hoka
yatnata— Bora* VaaMla aad Btofaa— Wilmlaf-
loB (iTaa ap— Advaaaa to Kiaatao— Uphaa
aarprUad at Soatkwait Ciaak— Uoka •trlkao
oat-la rapolaad, aad wteaato Sobeflaldatm
OeldibenP.

xxxiiL The Bepoasession of Alabama... 7 16

WUaoa at Kaatporf^ lOaa.— Oranaa fka Taaaaa-
aaa, and atorat ■oolhward— Rooto Koddv at
Montarallo— Harriaa Ftorraat ftom Bogrla^ Omk
— CbanaaorartbadabMaaof? '
t,YOO PrtMaara— Mootfomary i

. -. ^Taaga chart ,

Fort fNlai^WUao? la Ifaoan-Costn •



— Cbanaa orar tba dafcMaa of Soliaa, aad tak«
t,YOO PrtMaara— Mootfomary aarraadtta U.
graBM roau Boibrd— Wllaoa takaa Ooiaaaboi^
Qa., Dv AaMolt^-Lafraaga chargaa andcaptaraa



lataii CuMU m «»-
\ to Maeoih-CaM7
a mm MoNIa fltaalt
— Ro«U ClaBMn
I Fart baaUffad-l
fanlsoo drivaa oat— Daaparala aMaalt <
Blakal^-Tha Worka aarrtaiirwitk t,000 pd
aaai»-MobUa araeaatad— Fata of tha Ma \l



la Now Orlaaaa— Advaaoaa •

BMvaa «p from Paaaaeola— RoaU OaaMn at
MMekaUia Oraok-Spaalah Fart baaUffad-Xti



aWakh.

XXUV. Fall of Ridimond— End of the

War 724



TTTT. Hood's Tennessee Campaign.



.6n



TTTTT Shennan^s Great March.



.689



XXXV. BeathofPreaidentLincohi— Peace. 746



Afpmmimd Hom 769

Ajtalthoal Imimex 766



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ILLUSTRj^TIOlSrS OW V03L. II.



UNION GENEIIAL&



1. Lieut-Gen. TTltbsbs S. Grant.
8. Miyor^n. Wiluam T. Shxbmah.

3. Major-Gen. Pmup H. Shbridak.

4. Mi^or-Gea. Gsonan G. Mbadb.

5. MajorGea. WnmsLD S. Hanoock.

6. Major-Gen. Oliybb O. Howabd.



Ho&ACB Grbblbt



TioimipncB.

7. Major-Gen. Alfrbd H. Tbbbt.

8. MiyorGen. Fbank P. Blair.

9. Major-Gen. Nathairbl P. Basks.

10. Major-Gen. Samubl R. Cubtib.

11. Major-Gen. Quifct A. Gillmobb.

12. MiyorGen. Gbobob H. Thomas.



17



PATEIOnO GOVERNOR&



18. Sdwib D. Moboak, of N. York. 128

14. William Spbaoub, of R. I. . "

15. RiOHABD Tatbb, of Illinois . . '*
16 Tbos. G. Flbtohbb, of Missonri. **

17. Chablbs S. Oldbit, of N. Jersey "

18. Albz. W. Rakdall, of Wise . **



19. Ausmr Blaib, of Ifidugan

20. Jomr Bbouoh, of Ohio . • .

21. Wm. a. BuoKDroHAM, of Conn.

22. OuYBR P. MoBTOK, of Indiana.
28. JoHB A. Ajvdbsw, of Mass.
24. Samubl Covt, of Maine • .

25. Ahdrbw G. CuBTur, of Penn. . 128



128



EMINENT UPHOLDEES IN CONGRESS OF THE WAR FOB

THE UNION.



2«. Bbvjamut F. Wadb, of Ohio . 256

27. Zaohabiah Ghavdlbr, of Mich. **

28. Hbhbt S. Labtb, of Indiana . . ^

29. Ltmab Tbumbull, of Illinois . ^

80. Rlihv B. Washbubvb, of lUmois. ^

81. William D. Ebllbt, of Penna. <<



82. Hbitbt Wiftbb Davis, of Md. 256
88. Rbubbb S. Fbmtok, of N. Toik. "^

84. Gbobob W. Juliah, of Indiana. ^^

85. JoHH A Eassob, of Iowa • . ^

86. JoHK P. Halb, of N. Hampshire. ^

87. RosooB CoHKLuro, of New York **



UNION DEFENDERS.



88. Mi^oc^Gen. Wm. S. Rosbobahs
!•. Major^Gen. Fbahx Sigbl . •

40. Mi^or^kn. Godfbbt Wbtczbl

41. Mi^or^n. Jambs B. SmcnMAv,

42. Mijor^n. Gobbob Gravobb
48. M^oi'Gsn. B. R. & Cavbt .



272



44. Major-Gen. Judsok Eilpatriok. 272

45. Major^n. P. J. Ostbrhaus . **

46. Major-Gen. Alfrbd Plbasahtok. **

47. Major-Gen. Carl Sohurz. . . ^

48. Brig.-Gen. Thos. F. Mbaohbb . *<

49. Com. JoHB A WiirsLOW . . . '^



OUR HEROIC DEAD.



n. Ma$o^GeQ• JoGor SanowxeK
n. Ma|orG«n. Isaac L Stbvbbs •
52. Brig.-GeB. Ebwabo D. Bakbb .
a. Brig.-Gen. Gbobob D, Batabd.
M. M^sfOen. FtaQiF Kbabvt
as. 1by»4km. Jmv F. BBnoLos .



852



56. Majoi>Gen.0RM8BTM.MiT0HBL.

57. Mqor^n. Jas. S. Wadswobth.

58. Mi^or^Qen. Jas. B. MoPhbrsoh.

59. MajorGen. Edwbi Y. Suhhbb.
60» Brig.-Gen. Fbbd. W. Lahpbh .
61. BEig.-Gen. Nathanibl Ltob



852



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16



ILLUSTBAriONS OF YOL. II.— Oohtdtubx



63, AifDBMW JoHKBON, President
68, LafatIttb S. FosTSBy . •



64« Hugh MoCullooh, . . .

Bt w UryrfUw Tim mrf.

65. Jambs Hablan, Sec Interior

66. William Dbbnison, . . .

67. Jambs Spbbd, Attorney-General

68. SCHUTLBB COLTAX, . • • .



FAOB

752

(t



PRESIDENT, NEW CABINET, &c.

TAQM

69. Thaddbus Stbybnb, .... 752

CbaliBMS Oral. «B W«jt aad Mmum, HooM of Bapib

70. JoHir Shbrman, ^

CotninlitM OB flanM^ Ssaitai

71. Hbnbt Wilson, «

ChAfmui ComndttM m MUitery AAdn, Baaalc

72. Gbn. Robbrt C. Scubnck, . . *^

ChalnnMi Oob. m MtUtvy Aflkin, Hodm of Bapib

78. WnjJAM Pitt Fbssbndbit, . , "

oftUI



FlOHT OF THB MbRBIMAO AND MoNITOR IN HaMPTON RoADS 112

YiBW ov Fbbdbbicksbubo 844

Ynw or Cumbbrland Gap 482

FOBT SUMTBR RbPOSSBSSBD BT THB UnION 786



ILLUSTRATIONS- CoNTDnxED.



Battlb-tibld 0¥ Pba Ridob • • 29

Battlb-vibld or Mill Spring • . 44

Forts Hbnrt and Dovblson . . 46

Nbw Madrid and Island No. 10 . 55

Pittsburg Landing — Shiloh . . 62

RoANOKB Island — Groatan Sound. 75

Nbwbbrn and Nbusb Rivbr . • 77

Nbw Orlbans and its Dbfbnsbs . 86

Forts Jackson and St. Philip \ . 88

Richmond and its Appro achbs . Ill
McClbllan bbtorb Tobxtown .121

Sbvbn Pinbs, or Fair Oaks . . . 148

Mbchanicsvillb 158

Gainbs's Mill 156

Malybrn Hill 165

POPB*S YlBGINIA AND Lbb's MARY-
LAND Campaigns 174

Cbdar Mountain 176

Gainbsyillb, or Sbcond Bull Run 184
South Mountain — ^Turnbr's and

Crampton's Gaps 197

Harpbb's Fbbrt 200

Antibtam, OB Sharpsburg . . . 205
Pbbbtvillb, or Chaplin's Crbbk . 219

luKA 228

CoBiNTH— Dbfbat OF Van Dorn . 226
Stonb Rivbr, or Murfrbbsbobo' . 275

Thb Yazoo Rbgion 297

Yioksbubg, Jackson, Yaioo Crrr. 805



882
848
856
871
878
884
899
416
429
457



PoBT Hudson bbsibgbd bt Banks.
Frbdbricksburg — ^Burnsidb, Lbb .
Chancbllorsvillb — HooKBR, Lbb.
WnrcHBSTBB, Ya., and Yicinitt .
Gbtttsburg — First Day's Fight .

GbTTTSBURG ^FlNAL AsSAULT . .

MiNB Run and thb Rapidan . . .
Chattanooga, Chickamauga, &c. .
East Tbnnbssbb — ^Enoxyillb, d^c.
Fort Pulaski — Gillmorb's Sibob .

Sbcbssionyillb, S. C 461

Charlbston, S. C, and its Dbfbnsbs 467
Rbd Riy BR Rbgion, Albzandbi a, d^c. 588
Thb Wildernbss — Grant, Lbb . 567
Spottsylvania C. H. and Yicinity. 572
Lbb at bay on thb North Anna .
Cold Harbor and its Yicinity .
Richmond and Pbtbrsbubg . . .
Dbfbnsbs of Washington City
Shbridan in thb Yallby of Ya.
Shbrman's Adyancb to Atlanta .
Mobilb Bay and its Dbfbnsbs .
Franklin, Tbnn. — ^Hood's Fight .
Nashvillb, Tbnn. — ^Thomas, Hood
Shbbman's March to thb Sba . •
Shbrman's March thbough South

Carolina

Wilmington, N. C. — ^Fobt Fishbb.



578
580
594
604
609
627
650
681
685
690

698
710



Lbb's Rbtrbat — ^Appomattox C, H. 729



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• Mnrnaiy 6, 186L ] eren aocording to the logic dT'SeoesaToiL

a



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THE AMERICAN CONFLICT.



VOLUME II.



TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO.



The frontiers of Texas, Mexican
and savage, were guarded, prior to
the outbreak of Secession, by a line of
forts or military posts stretching from
Brownsville, opposite Matamoras, to
the Ked Eiver. These forts were
located at average distances of one
hundred miles, and were severally
held by detachments of from 50 to
150 of the regular army. San Anto-
nio, 150 miles inland from Indianola,
on Matagorda Bay, was the head-
quarters of the department, whence
the most remote post — ^Fort Bliss, on
the usual route Aence to New Mex-
ico — was distant 675 miles. The
whole number of regulars distributed
throughout Texas was 2,612, compri-
sing nearly half the effective force of
our little army.

When, soon after Mr. Lincoln's
election, but months prior to his in-
auguration, Gten. David E. Twiggs
was dispatched by Secretary Floyd



from New Orleans to San Antonio,
and assigned to the command of the
department, it was doubtless under-
stood between them tliat his business
in Texas was to betray this entire
force, or so much of it as possible,
into the hands of the yet undevel-
oped traitors with whom Floyd was
secretly in league, Twiggs's age
and infirmities had for some time
excused him from active service, un-
til this ungracious duty — ^if duty it
can be called — ^was imposed upon
and readily accepted by him. With-
in 90 days after his arrival * af Indi-
anola, he had surrendered' the entire
force at and near San Antonio, with
all their arms, munitions, and sup-
plies, to tliree persons acting as
"Commissioners on behalf of the
Committee of Public Safety," se-
cretly appointed' by the Convention
which had just before assumed to
take Texas out of the Union.* The



' December 5, 1860.

'Eebniarj 18, 1861. He immediatelj and
openlj declared that the Union could not last
60 dajB, and warned officers, if thej had paj
doe them, to draw it at once, as this would be
thelait

' Mnnaiy 6, 186L

a



* Feb. 1. The Convention met this day at
Austin, and at once passed an ordinance of
Secession, subject to a vote of the people at an
election to be held on the 23d inst. ; the ordi-
nance, if approved, to take effect on the 2d of
liarch. Texas was therefore still in the Union,
even according to the logic of Secession.



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18



THB AMEBIGAK OOKFLICT.



betrayal was colored, not fairly
doaked, by a slim display of mili-
tary force in behalf of the sovereign
State of Texas, CoL Ben. McCulloch,
an original and ardent Secessionist,
having undertaken and fulfilled the
duty of raising that force and post-
ing it in and around San Antonio,
so as to give countenance to the de-
mand for capitulation. It was fairly
stipulated in writing between the
contracting parties, that our troops
should simply evacuate Texas, march-
ing to and embarking at the coast,
where their artillery and means of
transportation were to be given up,
while they, with their small arms,
should proceed by water to any point
outside of Texas; but these condi-
tions, though made by a traitor in
Fed^td uniform with fellow-traitors
wbo had cast off all disguise, were
shameflilly violated. Col. C. A.
Waite, who, after the withdrawal of
Floyd irom the Cabinet, had been
sent down to supersede Twiggs in
his command, reached San Antonio
tiie morning aft;er the capitulation,
when all the material of war had been
turned over to the Eebel Commis-
sioners, and 1,500 armed Texans sur-
rounded our little band, in the first
flush of exultation over their easy
triumph. Unable to resist this rap-
idly augmenting force, Waite had no
ahemative but to ratify the surren-
der, dispatching, by permission, mes-
sengers to the frontier posts, to ap-
prise the other commanders that they
were included in its terms. Collect-
ing and dispatching his men as rap-
idly as he might, he had some 1,200
encamped at Indianola ready for em-
barkation, when they were visited by
Col. E. Van Dom, of the Confeder-



ate service, recently a captain in our
army, who had been sent from Mont-
gomery with authority to offer in-
creased rank and pay to all who
would take service with the Eebels.
His mission was a confessed failure.
A few of the higher officers had par-
ticipated in Twiggs's treason ; but no
more of these, and no private sol-
diers, could be cajoled or bribed into
deserting the flag of their country.

Col. Waite was still at San Anto-
nio, when news reached Indianola*
6f the reduction* of Fort Sumter;
and Col. Van Dom, with three armed
steamers from Galveston, arrived with
instructions from Montgomery to cap-
ture and hold as prisoners of war all
Federal soldiers and officers remain-
ing in Texas. Maj. Sibley, in com-
mand at that port, had chartered two
small schooners and embarked there-
on a part of his force, when he was
compdiled to surrender again uncon-
ditionally. Col. Waite was in like
manner captured at San Antonio, by
order of M^j. Macklin, late an officer
in our service, imder Twiggs ; Capt.
Wilcox, who made the arrest, an-
swering Waite's protest with the
simple words, "I have the force.''
Waite, and a few officers with him,
were compelled to accept paroles not
to serve against the Confederacy un-
less regularly exchanged.

Of course, the forces at the several
posts protecting the frontiers of Texas, .
being isolated and cut off from all
communication with each other, or
with a common head-quarters, fell an
easy prey to the Rebels. A part of
them were commanded by officers in
full sympathy and perfect under-
standing with the Texas conspirators
for Secession, who, by means of the se-



• April 17, 1861.



• April 13.



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MILITABT TBBA80K OH THB BIO QBANDB.



1$



orat OTganisation known as ^Knights
ef the Golden Circle," Ixaving ito
TazaB head-quarters at San Antcmio,
and its ^ castles' or afSliated lodges in
erery part of the State, had prose-
cuted its undertaking at imm^ise
advantage over the unorganized and
Q&eaa, unsuspecting as well as unin-
formed Unionists. The c<mq>iratorB
had long before made th^nselves ac-
quainted with the loyal or disloyal
prodivities of the Federal officers;
and, wherever an important position
was held by an inflexible Unionist,
they were able, by secret representa-
tions at the War Department, to pro-
oore sudi a substitution as they de-
sired ; and thus Col. Loring, a North
Carolinian, deep in their coxmsels, had
been sent out by Floyd, in the Spring
of 1860, to take command c^ the de-
partment of New Mexico, while Col.
G. B. Crittenden, a Kentuckian, of
like spirit and purposes, was aj^inted
by Loring to command an expedition
against the Apaches, to start from
Fort Staunton in the Spring of 1861.
lieut. Col. B. S. Roberts, however,
who here joined the expedition with
two companies of cavalry, soon dis-
covered that Crittenden was devoting
all his sober moments — which were
few — ^to the systematic corruption of
hii subordinates, with intent to lead
his regiment to Texas, and there turn
it over to the service and support of
the BebeUion. Bob^rts repelled his
solicitations,' and refused to obey any
of his orders which should be prompt-
ed by the qpirit of treason. He finally
accepted a furlough, su^ested by
Loring, and quickly repaired under
it to Santa F^, the head-quarters of
the department, making a revelation
of Crittenden^s treachery to its com-



mander, CoL Loring, and his adjv*
taut, but only to find them both at
thoroughly disloyal as Crittenden.
He was rudely rebuked by them as a
meddler with other men's business,
and ordered directly back to Fort
Staunton, but feund opportunity to
give notice to Capt Hatch, com-
manding at Albuquerque, to Capt.
M(»Tis, who held Fort Craig, and
other loyal officers, of the treachery
of their superiors, and the duty in-
cumbent on them of resisting it.

Meantime, desperate efforts were
made by the prominent traitors to
bring their men over to their views,
by assurances that the Union had
ceased to exist — ^tbat it had no longer
a Government able to pay them or
feed them — ^while, if they would but
consent to go to Texas and take ser>
vice with the Confederacy, they should
be paid in full, and more than paid,
beside having great chances of pro-
motion. To their honor be it reocadr
ed, not one man listened to the voice
of the charmer, though Capt Clai*
bom, at Fort Staunton, made several
harangues to his company, intended?,
to entice them into the Confederate
service. Of the 1,200 regulars in
New Mexico, one only deserted during
this time of trial, and he, it is be>
lieved, did not join the enemy. Fi-
nally, the disloyal officers, headed
by Loring and Crittenden, were glad
to escape unattended, making theit
rendezvous at Fort Fillmore, twenty
miles from the Texas line, not fiur
firom £1 Paso, where Maj. Lynde
commuided. Here they renewed
their intrigues and importunities,
finding a large portion of the officers
equally traitorous with themselves.
But Maj. Lynde appeared to hold out



' See hia teetimonj before the Oommittee on the Conduct of the War.^Beport| PM 3, pp. 364-72.



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90



THB AlCERIOiCK CONFLICT.



against their solicitations. His forces,
however, were so demoralized that,
soon afterward,* when he led 480
of them, out of 700, to the village of
Mesilla, some twenty miles distant, he
fell into an ambuscade of 200 badly
armed Texans, and, after a skirmish,
wherein his conduct can only be vin-
dicated from the imputation of cow-
ardice by the presumption of treason,
he ordered a retreat to the fort, which
- his men were next day engaged in
fortifying, when surprised, at lOJ a. m.,
by an order to evacuate that night.
The commissary was ordered to roll
out the whisky, from which the men
were allowed to fill their canteens,
and drink at discretion. No water
was furnished for the weary march
before them, over a hot and thirsty
desert. They started as ordered ; but,
before they had advanced ten miles,
men were dropping out of the ranks,
and falling to the earth exhausted or
dead drunk.

At 2 A. M., a Texan force was seen
advancing on their flank, whereupon
Lynde's Adjutant remarked, " They
have nothing to fear from us." Our
men were halted, so many of them,
at least, as had not already halted of
their own accord; and the officers
held a long council of war. Many
privates of the command likewise
took coimsel, and decided to fight.
Just then, Oapt. Gibbs appeared from
the officers' council, and ordered a
retreat upon the camp, saying, " We
will fight them there." Arrived at
the camp, our soldiers were ordered
to lay down their arms, and inform-
ed, " You are turned over as prison-
ers of war." The subordinate offi-
cers disclaimed any responsibility for
this disgracefrd surrender, laying the



blame wholly upon Lynde. Our
men were paroled, and permitted, as
prisoners, to pursue their course
northward, aft;er listening to a speech
from CoL Baylor, of their captors^
intended to win their good-wiU.

Their sufferings, on that forlorn
march to Albuquerque and Fort
Wise, were protracted and terrible ;
some becoming deranged from the
agony of their thirst ; some seeking
to quench it by opening their veins,
and drinking their own blood. Maj.
Lynde, instead of being court-mar-
tialed and shot, was simply dropped
from the rolls of the army, his dis-
missal to date from his surrender ;•
and Capt. A. H. Pluramer, his com-
missary, who held $17,000 in drafts,
which he might at any moment have
destroyed, but which were handed
over to and used by the Kebels, was
sentenced by court-martial to be rep-
rimanded in general orders, and sus-
pended from duty for six months I

New Mexico, thus shamefriUy be*
reft, at a blow, of half her defend-
ers, was now reckoned an easy prey
to the gathering forces of the Rebel-
lion. Her Mexican population, ig-
norant, timid, and superstitious, had
been attached to the Union by con-
quest, scarcely fifteen years before,
and had, meantime, been mainly un-
der the training of Democratic offi-
cialsof strongpro-Slavery sympathies,*
who had induced her Territorial
Legislature, some two years before,
to pass an act recognizing Slavery as
legally existing among them, and
providing stringent safeguards for its
protection and security — an act
which was still unrepealed. Her
Democratic officials had not yet been



*Jtil7 24|1861.



• Julj 27, 1861.



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CANBT PBEPABBS TO HOLD KEW ICBXIOO.



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replaced by appointees of President
Lincoln. Her Delegate in Congress,
lOgnel A. Otero, had issoed*'' and
eircdlated an address to her people,
intended to disaffect them toward the
Union, and incite them to favor the
BebeUion ; but her Democratic Gov-
ernor, Abraham Eencher, though a
North Carolinian, upon receiving
news of Lynde's surrender, issued a
prodamation calling out the entire
militia force of the Territory, to act
as a home guard ; which call, though
it added inconsiderably to the effec-
tive force of her defenders, was cal-
culated to exert a wholesome influ-
ence upon public opinion, and keep
restless spirits out of mischief. Col.
£. B. 8. Canby, who had succeeded
to the command of the Department,
was a loyal and capable soldier, and



Online LibraryHorace GreeleyThe American conflict: a history of the great rebellion in the United States of America, 1860-'64 → online text (page 2 of 113)